标签(空格分隔): kubernetes系列

一: 系统环境初始化

1.1 系统环境

系统:
    Rockylinux 8.6x64

cat /etc/hosts
----
172.16.10.21    rockysrvs01
172.16.10.22    rockysrvs02
172.16.10.23    rockysrvs03
172.16.10.24    rockysrvs04
172.16.10.25    rockysrvs05
172.16.10.26    rockysrvs06
172.16.10.27    rockysrvs07
-----
本次部署为前三台Rockylinux 8.6x64

rockysrvs01 做 为 master 部署
rockysrvs02 、rocksrvs03 作为worker 节点 

1.2 下载工具准备

1.下载kubernetes1.24.+的二进制包
github二进制包下载地址:https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes/blob/master/CHANGELOG/CHANGELOG-1.24.md

wget https://dl.k8s.io/v1.24.2/kubernetes-server-linux-amd64.tar.gz

2.下载etcdctl二进制包
github二进制包下载地址:https://github.com/etcd-io/etcd/releases

wget https://github.com/etcd-io/etcd/releases/download/v3.5.4/etcd-v3.5.4-linux-amd64.tar.gz

3.docker-ce二进制包下载地址
二进制包下载地址:https://download.docker.com/linux/static/stable/x86_64/

这里需要下载20.10.+版本

wget https://download.docker.com/linux/static/stable/x86_64/docker-20.10.14.tgz

4.containerd二进制包下载
github下载地址:https://github.com/containerd/containerd/releases

containerd下载时下载带cni插件的二进制包。

wget https://github.com/containerd/containerd/releases/download/v1.6.6/cri-containerd-cni-1.6.6-linux-amd64.tar.gz

5.下载cfssl二进制包
github二进制包下载地址:https://github.com/cloudflare/cfssl/releases

wget https://github.com/cloudflare/cfssl/releases/download/v1.6.1/cfssl_1.6.1_linux_amd64
wget https://github.com/cloudflare/cfssl/releases/download/v1.6.1/cfssljson_1.6.1_linux_amd64
wget https://github.com/cloudflare/cfssl/releases/download/v1.6.1/cfssl-certinfo_1.6.1_linux_amd64

6.cni插件下载
github下载地址:https://github.com/containernetworking/plugins/releases

wget https://github.com/containernetworking/plugins/releases/download/v1.1.1/cni-plugins-linux-amd64-v1.1.1.tgz

7.crictl客户端二进制下载
github下载:https://github.com/kubernetes-sigs/cri-tools/releases

wget https://github.com/kubernetes-sigs/cri-tools/releases/download/v1.24.2/crictl-v1.24.2-linux-amd64.tar.gz

image.png

1.4 系统环境初始化

# 安装依赖包
yum -y install wget jq psmisc vim net-tools nfs-utils telnet yum-utils device-mapper-persistent-data lvm2 git network-scripts tar curl -y
# 关闭防火墙 与selinux 
systemctl disable --now firewalld 
setenforce 0
sed -i 's#SELINUX=enforcing#SELINUX=disabled#g' /etc/selinux/config
# 关闭交换分区
sed -ri 's/.*swap.*/#&/' /etc/fstab
swapoff -a && sysctl -w vm.swappiness=0

cat /etc/fstab
# /dev/mapper/centos-swap swap                    swap    defaults        0 0

# 

# 配置系统句柄数
ulimit -SHn 65535
cat >> /etc/security/limits.conf <<EOF
* soft nofile 655360
* hard nofile 131072
* soft nproc 655350
* hard nproc 655350
* seft memlock unlimited
* hard memlock unlimitedd
EOF

# 做系统无密码互信登陆
yum install -y sshpass
ssh-keygen -f /root/.ssh/id_rsa -P ''
export IP="172.16.10.21 172.16.10.22 172.16.10.23 172.16.10.24 172.16.10.25 172.16.10.126 172.16.10.27"
export SSHPASS=flyfish225
for HOST in $IP;do
     sshpass -e ssh-copy-id -o StrictHostKeyChecking=no $HOST
done

# 升级系统内核
rpm --import https://www.elrepo.org/RPM-GPG-KEY-elrepo.org
yum install https://www.elrepo.org/elrepo-release-8.el8.elrepo.noarch.rpm
修改阿里云 镜像源
mv /etc/yum.repos.d/elrepo.repo /etc/yum.repos.d/elrepo.repo.bak 
vim /etc/yum.repos.d/elrepo.repo 
----
[elrepo-kernel]
name=elrepoyum
baseurl=https://mirrors.aliyun.com/elrepo/kernel/el8/x86_64/
enable=1
gpgcheck=0
----
yum  --enablerepo=elrepo-kernel  install  kernel-ml

#使用序号为0的内核,序号0是前面查出来的可用内核编号
grub2-set-default 0

#生成 grub 配置文件并重启
grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/grub2/grub.cfg
reboot

image.png


启用ipvs

yum install ipvsadm ipset sysstat conntrack libseccomp -y
mkdir -p /etc/modules-load.d/
cat >> /etc/modules-load.d/ipvs.conf <<EOF 
ip_vs
ip_vs_rr
ip_vs_wrr
ip_vs_sh
nf_conntrack
ip_tables
ip_set
xt_set
ipt_set
ipt_rpfilter
ipt_REJECT
ipip
EOF

systemctl restart systemd-modules-load.service

lsmod | grep -e ip_vs -e nf_conntrack
ip_vs_sh               16384  0
ip_vs_wrr              16384  0
ip_vs_rr               16384  0
ip_vs                 180224  6 ip_vs_rr,ip_vs_sh,ip_vs_wrr
nf_conntrack          176128  1 ip_vs
nf_defrag_ipv6         24576  2 nf_conntrack,ip_vs
nf_defrag_ipv4         16384  1 nf_conntrack
libcrc32c              16384  3 nf_conntrack,xfs,ip_vs

image.png

1.5 修改内核参数

cat <<EOF > /etc/sysctl.d/k8s.conf
net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 1
vm.overcommit_memory = 1
vm.panic_on_oom = 0
fs.inotify.max_user_watches = 89100
fs.file-max = 52706963
fs.nr_open = 52706963
net.netfilter.nf_conntrack_max = 2310720
net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 600
net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_probes = 3
net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_intvl = 15
net.ipv4.tcp_max_tw_buckets = 36000
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_max_orphans = 327680
net.ipv4.tcp_orphan_retries = 3
net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_max_syn_backlog = 16384
net.ipv4.tcp_max_syn_backlog = 16384
net.ipv4.tcp_timestamps = 0
net.core.somaxconn = 16384
net.ipv6.conf.all.disable_ipv6 = 0
net.ipv6.conf.default.disable_ipv6 = 0
net.ipv6.conf.lo.disable_ipv6 = 0
net.ipv6.conf.all.forwarding = 1

EOF

modprobe br_netfilter
lsmod |grep conntrack
modprobe ip_conntrack

sysctl -p /etc/sysctl.d/k8s.conf

image.png

二:k8s 节点安装containerd [所有节点]

2.1安装 containerd

### 加载 containerd模块

cat <<EOF | sudo tee /etc/modules-load.d/containerd.conf
overlay
br_netfilter
EOF

systemctl restart systemd-modules-load.service

cat <<EOF | sudo tee /etc/sysctl.d/99-kubernetes-cri.conf
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables  = 1
net.ipv4.ip_forward                 = 1
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 1
EOF

# 加载内核

sysctl --system

获取阿里云YUM源
wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/docker-ce.repo https://mirrors.aliyun.com/docker-ce/linux/centos/docker-ce.repo

查看YUM源中Containerd软件
# yum list | grep containerd
containerd.io.x86_64                        1.4.12-3.1.el7             docker-ce-stable

下载安装:

yum install -y containerd.io

image.png

2.2 创建Containerd的配置文件


生成containerd的配置文件
mkdir /etc/containerd -p 
生成配置文件
containerd config default > /etc/containerd/config.toml
编辑配置文件
vim /etc/containerd/config.toml
-----
SystemdCgroup = false 改为 SystemdCgroup = true

# sandbox_image = "k8s.gcr.io/pause:3.6"
改为:
sandbox_image = "registry.aliyuncs.com/google_containers/pause:3.6"

------

# systemctl enable containerd
Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/containerd.service to /usr/lib/systemd/system/containerd.service.
# systemctl start containerd

ctr version
runc -version

image.png
image.png

三:安装ETCD 服务

2.1 关于签名证书

wget https://github.com/cloudflare/cfssl/releases/download/v1.6.1/cfssl_1.6.1_linux_amd64
wget https://github.com/cloudflare/cfssl/releases/download/v1.6.1/cfssljson_1.6.1_linux_amd64
wget https://github.com/cloudflare/cfssl/releases/download/v1.6.1/cfssl-certinfo_1.6.1_linux_amd64 
chmod +x cfssl_1.6.1_linux_amd64 cfssljson_1.6.1_linux_amd64 cfssl-certinfo_1.6.1_linux_amd64 
mv cfssl_1.6.1_linux_amd64 /usr/bin/cfssl
mv cfssljson_1.6.1_linux_amd64 /usr/bin/cfssljson
mv cfssl-certinfo_1.6.1_linux_amd64  /usr/bin/cfssl-certinfo
mkdir -p ~/TLS/{etcd,k8s}

cd ~/TLS/etcd
自签CA:
cat > ca-config.json << EOF
{
  "signing": {
    "default": {
      "expiry": "87600h"
    },
    "profiles": {
      "www": {
         "expiry": "87600h",
         "usages": [
            "signing",
            "key encipherment",
            "server auth",
            "client auth"
        ]
      }
    }
  }
}
EOF

cat > ca-csr.json << EOF
{
    "CN": "etcd CA",
    "key": {
        "algo": "rsa",
        "size": 2048
    },
    "names": [
        {
            "C": "CN",
            "L": "Beijing",
            "ST": "Beijing"
        }
    ]
}
EOF

生成证书:
cfssl gencert -initca ca-csr.json | cfssljson -bare ca -

会生成ca.pem和ca-key.pem文件

image.png

2. 使用自签CA签发Etcd HTTPS证书
创建证书申请文件:
cat > server-csr.json << EOF
{
    "CN": "etcd",
    "hosts": [
    "172.16.10.21",
    "172.16.10.22",
    "172.16.10.23",
    "172.16.10.24",
    "172.16.10.25",
    "172.16.10.26",
    "172.16.10.27",
    "172.16.10.28",
    "172.16.10.29",
    "172.16.10.200"
    ],
    "key": {
        "algo": "rsa",
        "size": 2048
    },
    "names": [
        {
            "C": "CN",
            "L": "BeiJing",
            "ST": "BeiJing"
        }
    ]
}
EOF

注:上述文件hosts字段中IP为所有etcd节点的集群内部通信IP,一个都不能少!为了方便后期扩容可以多写几个预留的IP。
生成证书:
  cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=www server-csr.json | cfssljson -bare server

会生成server.pem和server-key.pem文件。

image.png

2.2 部署etcd

1. Etcd 的概念:
Etcd 是一个分布式键值存储系统,Kubernetes使用Etcd进行数据存储,所以先准备一个Etcd数据库,为解决Etcd单点故障,应采用集群方式部署,这里使用3台组建集群,可容忍1台机器故障,当然,你也可以使用5台组建集群,可容忍2台机器故障。

下载地址: https://github.com/etcd-io/etcd/releases

以下在节点1上操作,为简化操作,待会将节点1生成的所有文件拷贝到节点2和节点3.

2. 安装配置etcd

mkdir /opt/etcd/{bin,cfg,ssl} -p
tar zxvf etcd-v3.5.4-linux-amd64.tar.gz
mv etcd-v3.5.4-linux-amd64/{etcd,etcdctl} /opt/etcd/bin/

image.png

rockysrvs01 etcd 配置文件

cat > /opt/etcd/cfg/etcd.conf << EOF
#[Member]
ETCD_NAME="etcd-1"
ETCD_DATA_DIR="/var/lib/etcd/default.etcd"
ETCD_LISTEN_PEER_URLS="https://172.16.10.21:2380"
ETCD_LISTEN_CLIENT_URLS="https://172.16.10.21:2379"
#[Clustering]
ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS="https://172.16.10.21:2380"
ETCD_ADVERTISE_CLIENT_URLS="https://172.16.10.21:2379"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER="etcd-1=https://172.16.10.21:2380,etcd-2=https://172.16.10.22:2380,etcd-3=https://172.16.10.23:2380"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_TOKEN="etcd-cluster"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_STATE="new"
EOF
---
ETCD_NAME:节点名称,集群中唯一
ETCD_DATA_DIR:数据目录
ETCD_LISTEN_PEER_URLS:集群通信监听地址
ETCD_LISTEN_CLIENT_URLS:客户端访问监听地址
ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS:集群通告地址
ETCD_ADVERTISE_CLIENT_URLS:客户端通告地址
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER:集群节点地址
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_TOKEN:集群Token
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_STATE:加入集群的当前状态,new是新集群,existing表示加入已有集群

3. systemd管理etcd

cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/etcd.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Etcd Server
After=network.target
After=network-online.target
Wants=network-online.target

[Service]
Type=notify
EnvironmentFile=/opt/etcd/cfg/etcd.conf
ExecStart=/opt/etcd/bin/etcd \
--cert-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/server.pem \
--key-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/server-key.pem \
--peer-cert-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/server.pem \
--peer-key-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/server-key.pem \
--trusted-ca-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/ca.pem \
--peer-trusted-ca-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/ca.pem \
--logger=zap
Restart=on-failure
LimitNOFILE=65536

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

image.png

4. 拷贝刚才生成的证书
把刚才生成的证书拷贝到配置文件中的路径:
cp ~/TLS/etcd/ca*pem ~/TLS/etcd/server*pem /opt/etcd/ssl/

image.png

5. 同步所有主机
scp -r /opt/etcd/ root@172.16.10.22:/opt/
scp -r /opt/etcd/ root@172.16.10.23:/opt/
scp /usr/lib/systemd/system/etcd.service root@172.16.10.22:/usr/lib/systemd/system/
scp /usr/lib/systemd/system/etcd.service root@172.16.10.23:/usr/lib/systemd/system/

image.png


rockysrvs02 etcd 

vim /opt/etcd/cfg/etcd.conf 
-----
#[Member]
ETCD_NAME="etcd-2"
ETCD_DATA_DIR="/var/lib/etcd/default.etcd"
ETCD_LISTEN_PEER_URLS="https://172.16.10.22:2380"
ETCD_LISTEN_CLIENT_URLS="https://172.16.10.22:2379"
#[Clustering]
ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS="https://172.16.10.22:2380"
ETCD_ADVERTISE_CLIENT_URLS="https://172.16.10.22:2379"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER="etcd-1=https://172.16.10.21:2380,etcd-2=https://172.16.10.22:2380,etcd-3=https://172.16.10.23:2380"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_TOKEN="etcd-cluster"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_STATE="new"
----

rockysrvs03 etcd 

vim /opt/etcd/cfg/etcd.conf 
----
#[Member]
ETCD_NAME="etcd-3"
ETCD_DATA_DIR="/var/lib/etcd/default.etcd"
ETCD_LISTEN_PEER_URLS="https://172.16.10.23:2380"
ETCD_LISTEN_CLIENT_URLS="https://172.16.10.23:2379"
#[Clustering]
ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS="https://172.16.10.23:2380"
ETCD_ADVERTISE_CLIENT_URLS="https://172.16.10.23:2379"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER="etcd-1=https://172.16.10.21:2380,etcd-2=https://172.16.10.22:2380,etcd-3=https://172.16.10.23:2380"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_TOKEN="etcd-cluster"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_STATE="new"
-----

6. 启动etcd:
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start etcd
systemctl enable etcd

image.png

验证:
     ETCDCTL_API=3 /opt/etcd/bin/etcdctl --cacert=/opt/etcd/ssl/ca.pem --cert=/opt/etcd/ssl/server.pem --key=/opt/etcd/ssl/server-key.pem --endpoints="https://172.16.10.21:2379,https://172.16.10.22:2379,https://172.16.10.23:2379" endpoint health --write-out=table

image.png

四:部署 kubernetes

4.1 关于k8s 最新版本的下载

1. 从Github下载二进制文件
下载地址: 
https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes/blob/master/CHANGELOG/CHANGELOG-1.24.md
注:打开链接你会发现里面有很多包,下载一个server包就够了,包含了Master和Worker Node二进制文件。

image.png

image.png

4.2 创建k8s 的kube-apiserver证书

 创建k8s 的kube-apiserver证书
cd ~/TLS/k8s

cat > ca-config.json << EOF
{
  "signing": {
    "default": {
      "expiry": "87600h"
    },
    "profiles": {
      "kubernetes": {
         "expiry": "87600h",
         "usages": [
            "signing",
            "key encipherment",
            "server auth",
            "client auth"
        ]
      }
    }
  }
}
EOF
cat > ca-csr.json << EOF
{
    "CN": "kubernetes",
    "key": {
        "algo": "rsa",
        "size": 2048
    },
    "names": [
        {
            "C": "CN",
            "L": "Beijing",
            "ST": "Beijing",
            "O": "k8s",
            "OU": "System"
        }
    ]
}
EOF

生成证书:
cfssl gencert -initca ca-csr.json | cfssljson -bare ca -

会生成ca.pem和ca-key.pem文件。

image.png

2. 使用自签CA签发kube-apiserver HTTPS证书
创建证书申请文件:
cat > server-csr.json << EOF
{
    "CN": "kubernetes",
    "hosts": [
      "10.0.0.1",
      "127.0.0.1",
      "172.16.10.21",
      "172.16.10.22",
      "172.16.10.23",
      "172.16.10.24",
      "172.16.10.25",
      "172.16.10.26",
      "172.16.10.27",
      "172.16.10.28",
      "172.16.10.29",
      "172.16.10.200",
      "kubernetes",
      "kubernetes.default",
      "kubernetes.default.svc",
      "kubernetes.default.svc.cluster",
      "kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local"
    ],
    "key": {
        "algo": "rsa",
        "size": 2048
    },
    "names": [
        {
            "C": "CN",
            "L": "BeiJing",
            "ST": "BeiJing",
            "O": "k8s",
            "OU": "System"
        }
    ]
}
EOF

注:上述文件hosts字段中IP为所有Master/LB/VIP IP,一个都不能少!为了方便后期扩容可以多写几个预留的IP。

cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes server-csr.json | cfssljson -bare server

会生成server.pem和server-key.pem文件。

image.png
image.png

4.3 部署k8s1.24.2

4. 部署k8s1.24.2 

4.1 解压二进制包
mkdir -p /opt/kubernetes/{bin,cfg,ssl,logs} 
tar -zxvf kubernetes-server-linux-amd64.tar
cd kubernetes/server/bin
cp kube-apiserver kube-scheduler kube-controller-manager /opt/kubernetes/bin
cp kubectl /usr/bin/
cp kubectl /usr/local/bin/

image.png
image.png

4.3.1 部署kube-apiserver

#1. 部署kube-apiserver
#  创建配置文件

cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-apiserver.conf << EOF
KUBE_APISERVER_OPTS="--logtostderr=false \\
--v=2 \\
--log-dir=/opt/kubernetes/logs \\
--etcd-servers=https://172.16.10.21:2379,https://172.16.10.22:2379,https://172.16.10.23:2379 \\
--bind-address=172.16.10.21 \\
--secure-port=6443 \\
--advertise-address=172.16.10.21 \\
--allow-privileged=true \\
--service-cluster-ip-range=10.0.0.0/24 \\
--enable-admission-plugins=NodeRestriction \\
--authorization-mode=RBAC,Node \\
--enable-bootstrap-token-auth=true \\
--token-auth-file=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/token.csv \\
--service-node-port-range=30000-32767 \\
--kubelet-client-certificate=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/server.pem \\
--kubelet-client-key=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/server-key.pem \\
--tls-cert-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/server.pem  \\
--tls-private-key-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/server-key.pem \\
--client-ca-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \\
--service-account-key-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem \\
--service-account-issuer=api \\
--service-account-signing-key-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem \\
--etcd-cafile=/opt/etcd/ssl/ca.pem \\
--etcd-certfile=/opt/etcd/ssl/server.pem \\
--etcd-keyfile=/opt/etcd/ssl/server-key.pem \\
--requestheader-client-ca-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \\
--proxy-client-cert-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/server.pem \\
--proxy-client-key-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/server-key.pem \\
--requestheader-allowed-names=kubernetes \\
--requestheader-extra-headers-prefix=X-Remote-Extra- \\
--requestheader-group-headers=X-Remote-Group \\
--requestheader-username-headers=X-Remote-User \\
--enable-aggregator-routing=true \\
--audit-log-maxage=30 \\
--audit-log-maxbackup=3 \\
--audit-log-maxsize=100 \\
--audit-log-path=/opt/kubernetes/logs/k8s-audit.log"
EOF

image.png

注:上面两个\ \ 第一个是转义符,第二个是换行符,使用转义符是为了使用EOF保留换行符。
• --logtostderr:启用日志
• ---v:日志等级
• --log-dir:日志目录
• --etcd-servers:etcd集群地址
• --bind-address:监听地址
• --secure-port:https安全端口
• --advertise-address:集群通告地址
• --allow-privileged:启用授权
• --service-cluster-ip-range:Service虚拟IP地址段
• --enable-admission-plugins:准入控制模块
• --authorization-mode:认证授权,启用RBAC授权和节点自管理
• --enable-bootstrap-token-auth:启用TLS bootstrap机制
• --token-auth-file:bootstrap token文件
• --service-node-port-range:Service nodeport类型默认分配端口范围
• --kubelet-client-xxx:apiserver访问kubelet客户端证书
• --tls-xxx-file:apiserver https证书
• 1.20版本必须加的参数:--service-account-issuer,--service-account-signing-key-file
• --etcd-xxxfile:连接Etcd集群证书
• --audit-log-xxx:审计日志
• 启动聚合层相关配置:--requestheader-client-ca-file,--proxy-client-cert-file,--proxy-client-key-file,--requestheader-allowed-names,--requestheader-extra-headers-prefix,--requestheader-group-headers,--requestheader-username-headers,--enable-aggregator-routing
2. 拷贝刚才生成的证书
把刚才生成的证书拷贝到配置文件中的路径:
cp ~/TLS/k8s/ca*pem ~/TLS/k8s/server*pem /opt/kubernetes/ssl/

image.png

3. 启用 TLS Bootstrapping 机制
TLS Bootstraping:Master apiserver启用TLS认证后,Node节点kubelet和kube-proxy要与kube-apiserver进行通信,必须使用CA签发的有效证书才可以,当Node节点很多时,这种客户端证书颁发需要大量工作,同样也会增加集群扩展复杂度。为了简化流程,Kubernetes引入了TLS bootstraping机制来自动颁发客户端证书,kubelet会以一个低权限用户自动向apiserver申请证书,kubelet的证书由apiserver动态签署。所以强烈建议在Node上使用这种方式,目前主要用于kubelet,kube-proxy还是由我们统一颁发一个证书。

TLS bootstraping 工作流程:
image.png

创建上述配置文件中token文件:
cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/token.csv << EOF
c47ffb939f5ca36231d9e3121a252940,kubelet-bootstrap,10001,"system:node-bootstrapper"
EOF
格式:token,用户名,UID,用户组
token也可自行生成替换:
head -c 16 /dev/urandom | od -An -t x | tr -d ' '

image.png

4. systemd管理apiserver
cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-apiserver.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes API Server
Documentation=https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes

[Service]
EnvironmentFile=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-apiserver.conf
ExecStart=/opt/kubernetes/bin/kube-apiserver \$KUBE_APISERVER_OPTS
Restart=on-failure

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

image.png

5. 启动并设置开机启动
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kube-apiserver 
systemctl enable kube-apiserver

image.png

4.3.2 部署kube-controller-manager

1. 创建配置文件
cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-controller-manager.conf << EOF
KUBE_CONTROLLER_MANAGER_OPTS="--logtostderr=false \\
--v=2 \\
--log-dir=/opt/kubernetes/logs \\
--leader-elect=true \\
--kubeconfig=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-controller-manager.kubeconfig \\
--bind-address=127.0.0.1 \\
--allocate-node-cidrs=true \\
--cluster-cidr=10.244.0.0/16 \\
--service-cluster-ip-range=10.0.0.0/24 \\
--cluster-signing-cert-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \\
--cluster-signing-key-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem  \\
--root-ca-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \\
--service-account-private-key-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem \\
--cluster-signing-duration=87600h0m0s"
EOF
•--kubeconfig:连接apiserver配置文件
•--leader-elect:当该组件启动多个时,自动选举(HA)
•--cluster-signing-cert-file/--cluster-signing-key-file:自动为kubelet颁发证书的CA,与apiserver保持一致

image.png

2. 生成kubeconfig文件
生成kube-controller-manager证书:
# 切换工作目录
cd ~/TLS/k8s

# 创建证书请求文件
cat > kube-controller-manager-csr.json << EOF
{
  "CN": "system:kube-controller-manager",
  "hosts": [],
  "key": {
    "algo": "rsa",
    "size": 2048
  },
  "names": [
    {
      "C": "CN",
      "L": "BeiJing", 
      "ST": "BeiJing",
      "O": "system:masters",
      "OU": "System"
    }
  ]
}
EOF

# 生成证书
cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes kube-controller-manager-csr.json | cfssljson -bare kube-controller-manager

image.png

生成kubeconfig文件(以下是shell命令,直接在终端执行):
KUBE_CONFIG="/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-controller-manager.kubeconfig"
KUBE_APISERVER="https://172.16.10.21:6443"

kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes \
  --certificate-authority=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --server=${KUBE_APISERVER} \
  --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
kubectl config set-credentials kube-controller-manager \
  --client-certificate=./kube-controller-manager.pem \
  --client-key=./kube-controller-manager-key.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
kubectl config set-context default \
  --cluster=kubernetes \
  --user=kube-controller-manager \
  --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
kubectl config use-context default --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}

image.png

3. systemd管理controller-manager
cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-controller-manager.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Controller Manager
Documentation=https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes

[Service]
EnvironmentFile=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-controller-manager.conf
ExecStart=/opt/kubernetes/bin/kube-controller-manager \$KUBE_CONTROLLER_MANAGER_OPTS
Restart=on-failure

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF
4. 启动并设置开机启动
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kube-controller-manager
systemctl enable kube-controller-manager

image.png

4.3.3 部署kube-scheduler

部署kube-scheduler
1. 创建配置文件
cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-scheduler.conf << EOF
KUBE_SCHEDULER_OPTS="--logtostderr=false \\
--v=2 \\
--log-dir=/opt/kubernetes/logs \\
--leader-elect \\
--kubeconfig=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-scheduler.kubeconfig \\
--bind-address=127.0.0.1"
EOF
•--kubeconfig:连接apiserver配置文件
•--leader-elect:当该组件启动多个时,自动选举(HA)

image.png

2. 生成kubeconfig文件
生成kube-scheduler证书:
# 切换工作目录
cd ~/TLS/k8s

# 创建证书请求文件
cat > kube-scheduler-csr.json << EOF
{
  "CN": "system:kube-scheduler",
  "hosts": [],
  "key": {
    "algo": "rsa",
    "size": 2048
  },
  "names": [
    {
      "C": "CN",
      "L": "BeiJing",
      "ST": "BeiJing",
      "O": "system:masters",
      "OU": "System"
    }
  ]
}
EOF

# 生成证书
cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes kube-scheduler-csr.json | cfssljson -bare kube-scheduler

image.png

生成kubeconfig文件:
KUBE_CONFIG="/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-scheduler.kubeconfig"
KUBE_APISERVER="https://172.16.10.21:6443"

kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes \
  --certificate-authority=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --server=${KUBE_APISERVER} \
  --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
kubectl config set-credentials kube-scheduler \
  --client-certificate=./kube-scheduler.pem \
  --client-key=./kube-scheduler-key.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
kubectl config set-context default \
  --cluster=kubernetes \
  --user=kube-scheduler \
  --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
kubectl config use-context default --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}

image.png

3. systemd管理scheduler
cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-scheduler.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Scheduler
Documentation=https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes

[Service]
EnvironmentFile=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-scheduler.conf
ExecStart=/opt/kubernetes/bin/kube-scheduler \$KUBE_SCHEDULER_OPTS
Restart=on-failure

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

image.png

4. 启动并设置开机启动
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kube-scheduler
systemctl enable kube-scheduler

image.png

4.3.4 查看集群状态

 查看集群状态
生成kubectl连接集群的证书:
cat > admin-csr.json <<EOF
{
  "CN": "admin",
  "hosts": [],
  "key": {
    "algo": "rsa",
    "size": 2048
  },
  "names": [
    {
      "C": "CN",
      "L": "BeiJing",
      "ST": "BeiJing",
      "O": "system:masters",
      "OU": "System"
    }
  ]
}
EOF

cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes admin-csr.json | cfssljson -bare admin

image.png

生成kubeconfig文件:
mkdir /root/.kube

KUBE_CONFIG="/root/.kube/config"
KUBE_APISERVER="https://172.16.10.21:6443"

kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes \
  --certificate-authority=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --server=${KUBE_APISERVER} \
  --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
kubectl config set-credentials cluster-admin \
  --client-certificate=./admin.pem \
  --client-key=./admin-key.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
kubectl config set-context default \
  --cluster=kubernetes \
  --user=cluster-admin \
  --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
kubectl config use-context default --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}

image.png

通过kubectl工具查看当前集群组件状态:
kubectl get cs
NAME                STATUS    MESSAGE             ERROR
scheduler             Healthy   ok                  
controller-manager       Healthy   ok                  
etcd-2               Healthy   {"health":"true"}   
etcd-1               Healthy   {"health":"true"}   
etcd-0               Healthy   {"health":"true"} 

如上输出说明Master节点组件运行正常。

image.png

授权kubelet-bootstrap用户允许请求证书
kubectl create clusterrolebinding kubelet-bootstrap \
--clusterrole=system:node-bootstrapper \
--user=kubelet-bootstrap

image.png

五:部署worker节点

5.1 创建工作目录并拷贝二进制文件

在所有worker node创建工作目录:
mkdir -p /opt/kubernetes/{bin,cfg,ssl,logs} 
从master节点拷贝:
cd /root/k8s-install-software
cd kubernetes/server/bin
cp kubelet kube-proxy /opt/kubernetes/bin   # 本地拷贝

image.png

5.2 部署kubelet

5.2.1 创建配置文件

1. 创建配置文件
cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet.conf << EOF
KUBELET_OPTS="--logtostderr=false \\
--v=2 \\
--log-dir=/opt/kubernetes/logs \\
--hostname-override=rockysrvs01 \\
--kubeconfig=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet.kubeconfig \\
--bootstrap-kubeconfig=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/bootstrap.kubeconfig \\
--config=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet-config.yml \\
--cert-dir=/opt/kubernetes/ssl \\
--container-runtime=remote  \\
--runtime-request-timeout=15m  \\
--container-runtime-endpoint=unix:///run/containerd/containerd.sock  \\
--cgroup-driver=systemd \\
--node-labels=node.kubernetes.io/node='' \\
--feature-gates=IPv6DualStack=true
EOF

image.png

5.2.2 配置参数文件

2. 配置参数文件
cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet-config.yml << EOF
kind: KubeletConfiguration
apiVersion: kubelet.config.k8s.io/v1beta1
address: 0.0.0.0
port: 10250
readOnlyPort: 10255
cgroupDriver: cgroupfs
clusterDNS:
- 10.0.0.2
clusterDomain: cluster.local 
failSwapOn: false
authentication:
  anonymous:
    enabled: false
  webhook:
    cacheTTL: 2m0s
    enabled: true
  x509:
    clientCAFile: /opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem 
authorization:
  mode: Webhook
  webhook:
    cacheAuthorizedTTL: 5m0s
    cacheUnauthorizedTTL: 30s
evictionHard:
  imagefs.available: 15%
  memory.available: 100Mi
  nodefs.available: 10%
  nodefs.inodesFree: 5%
maxOpenFiles: 1000000
maxPods: 110
EOF

image.png

5.2.3 生成kubelet初次加入集群引导kubeconfig文件

生成kubelet初次加入集群引导kubeconfig文件
KUBE_CONFIG="/opt/kubernetes/cfg/bootstrap.kubeconfig"
KUBE_APISERVER="https://172.16.10.21:6443" # apiserver IP:PORT
TOKEN="c47ffb939f5ca36231d9e3121a252940" # 与token.csv里保持一致

# 生成 kubelet bootstrap kubeconfig 配置文件
kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes \
  --certificate-authority=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --server=${KUBE_APISERVER} \
  --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
kubectl config set-credentials "kubelet-bootstrap" \
  --token=${TOKEN} \
  --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
kubectl config set-context default \
  --cluster=kubernetes \
  --user="kubelet-bootstrap" \
  --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
kubectl config use-context default --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}

image.png

5.2.4 systemd管理kubelet

4. systemd管理kubelet
cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/kubelet.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Kubelet
After=docker.service

[Service]
EnvironmentFile=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet.conf
ExecStart=/opt/kubernetes/bin/kubelet \$KUBELET_OPTS
Restart=on-failure
LimitNOFILE=65536

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

image.png

5.2.5 启动kubelet

启动并设置开机启动
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kubelet
systemctl enable kubelet

image.png

5.2.6 批准kubelet证书申请并加入集群

 批准kubelet证书申请并加入集群
# 查看kubelet证书请求
[root@rocksrvs01 bin]# kubectl get csr
NAME                                                   AGE   SIGNERNAME                                    REQUESTOR           REQUESTEDDURATION   CONDITION
node-csr-25lWqzBCO_K-97mQaHJ7GIArqwcAgBCTEMWJWsBK5R0   73s   kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet   kubelet-bootstrap   <none>              Pending

# 批准申请
kubectl certificate approve node-csr-25lWqzBCO_K-97mQaHJ7GIArqwcAgBCTEMWJWsBK5R0

# 查看节点
[root@rocksrvs01 bin]# kubectl get node
NAME          STATUS     ROLES    AGE   VERSION
rockysrvs01   NotReady   <none>   9s    v1.24.2

注:由于网络插件还没有部署,节点会没有准备就绪 NotReady

image.png

六:部署kube-proxy

6.1 1. 创建配置文件

1. 创建配置文件
cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy.conf << EOF
KUBE_PROXY_OPTS="--logtostderr=false \\
--v=2 \\
--log-dir=/opt/kubernetes/logs \\
--config=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy-config.yml"
EOF

image.png

6.1.2 配置文件参数

2. 配置参数文件
cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy-config.yml << EOF
kind: KubeProxyConfiguration
apiVersion: kubeproxy.config.k8s.io/v1alpha1
bindAddress: 0.0.0.0
metricsBindAddress: 0.0.0.0:10249
clientConnection:
  kubeconfig: /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy.kubeconfig
hostnameOverride: rockysrvs01
clusterCIDR: 10.244.0.0/16
mode: ipvs
ipvs:
  scheduler: "rr"
iptables:
  masqueradeAll: true
EOF

image.png

6.1.3 生成kube-proxy.kubeconfig文件

3. 生成kube-proxy.kubeconfig文件
# 切换工作目录
cd ~/TLS/k8s

# 创建证书请求文件
cat > kube-proxy-csr.json << EOF
{
  "CN": "system:kube-proxy",
  "hosts": [],
  "key": {
    "algo": "rsa",
    "size": 2048
  },
  "names": [
    {
      "C": "CN",
      "L": "BeiJing",
      "ST": "BeiJing",
      "O": "k8s",
      "OU": "System"
    }
  ]
}
EOF

# 生成证书
cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes kube-proxy-csr.json | cfssljson -bare kube-proxy
生成kubeconfig文件:
KUBE_CONFIG="/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy.kubeconfig"
KUBE_APISERVER="https://172.16.10.21:6443"

kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes \
  --certificate-authority=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --server=${KUBE_APISERVER} \
  --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
kubectl config set-credentials kube-proxy \
  --client-certificate=./kube-proxy.pem \
  --client-key=./kube-proxy-key.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
kubectl config set-context default \
  --cluster=kubernetes \
  --user=kube-proxy \
  --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
kubectl config use-context default --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}

image.png
image.png

6.1.4 systemd管理kube-proxy

4. systemd管理kube-proxy
cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-proxy.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Proxy
After=network.target

[Service]
EnvironmentFile=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy.conf
ExecStart=/opt/kubernetes/bin/kube-proxy \$KUBE_PROXY_OPTS
Restart=on-failure
LimitNOFILE=65536

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

image.png

6.1.5 启动kube-proxy

5. 启动并设置开机启动
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kube-proxy
systemctl enable kube-proxy

image.png

七: 部署calico网络

7.1 部署calico

网络组件有很多种,只需要部署其中一个即可,推荐Calico。

Calico是一个纯三层的数据中心网络方案,Calico支持广泛的平台,包括Kubernetes、OpenStack等。

Calico 在每一个计算节点利用 Linux Kernel 实现了一个高效的虚拟路由器( vRouter) 来负责数据转发,而每个 vRouter 通过 BGP 协议负责把自己上运行的 workload 的路由信息向整个 Calico 网络内传播。

此外,Calico 项目还实现了 Kubernetes 网络策略,提供ACL功能。

1.下载Calico

wget https://docs.projectcalico.org/manifests/calico.yaml --no-check-certificate

vim +4434 calico.yaml
...
- name: CALICO_IPV4POOL_CIDR
  value: "10.244.0.0/16"
...

image.png

image.png

kubectl apply -f calico.yaml

image.png

kubectl get pod -n kube-system 

image.png

kubectl get node

image.png

7.2 授权apiserver访问kubelet

应用场景:例如kubectl logs
cat > apiserver-to-kubelet-rbac.yaml << EOF
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRole
metadata:
  annotations:
    rbac.authorization.kubernetes.io/autoupdate: "true"
  labels:
    kubernetes.io/bootstrapping: rbac-defaults
  name: system:kube-apiserver-to-kubelet
rules:
  - apiGroups:
      - ""
    resources:
      - nodes/proxy
      - nodes/stats
      - nodes/log
      - nodes/spec
      - nodes/metrics
      - pods/log
    verbs:
      - "*"
---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
metadata:
  name: system:kube-apiserver
  namespace: ""
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: ClusterRole
  name: system:kube-apiserver-to-kubelet
subjects:
  - apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
    kind: User
    name: kubernetes
EOF

kubectl apply -f apiserver-to-kubelet-rbac.yaml

image.png

八:新增加一个worker node

8.1 同步配置文件

1. 拷贝已部署好的Node相关文件到新节点
在Master节点将Worker Node涉及文件拷贝到新节点172.16.10.22/23

scp -r /opt/kubernetes root@172.16.10.22:/opt/

scp /opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem root@172.16.10.22:/opt/kubernetes/ssl

scp -r /usr/lib/systemd/system/{kubelet,kube-proxy}.service root@172.16.10.22:/usr/lib/systemd/system

scp -r /opt/kubernetes root@172.16.10.23:/opt/

scp /opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem root@172.16.10.23:/opt/kubernetes/ssl

scp -r /usr/lib/systemd/system/{kubelet,kube-proxy}.service root@172.16.10.23:/usr/lib/systemd/system

image.png

8.2 删除kubelet证书和kubeconfig文件

2. 删除kubelet证书和kubeconfig文件
rm -f /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet.kubeconfig 
rm -f /opt/kubernetes/ssl/kubelet*
rm -rf /opt/kubernetes/logs/*

注:这几个文件是证书申请审批后自动生成的,每个Node不同,必须删除

image.png
image.png

7.3 修改主机名 [改节点的主机名]

3. 修改主机名 [改节点的主机名]
vi /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet.conf
--hostname-override=rockyhsrvs02

vi /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy-config.yml
hostnameOverride: rockysrvs02

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8.4 启动并设置开机启动

4. 启动并设置开机启动
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kubelet kube-proxy
systemctl enable kubelet kube-proxy

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7.5 在Master上批准新Node kubelet证书申请

# 查看证书请求
kubectl get csr
NAME                                                   AGE   SIGNERNAME                                    REQUESTOR           REQUESTEDDURATION   CONDITION
node-csr-25lWqzBCO_K-97mQaHJ7GIArqwcAgBCTEMWJWsBK5R0   24m   kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet   kubelet-bootstrap   <none>              Approved,Issued
node-csr-IrimTixAKWkzkxRoW16AGysidwphRdQ_3gtFMqCHk2I   72s   kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet   kubelet-bootstrap   <none>              Pending
node-csr-sGMTxy2cYJAQd7FTISafSg42_1x8AEftun8nFZsaoU0   76s   kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet   kubelet-bootstrap   <none>              Pending

# 授权请求
kubectl certificate approve node-csr-IrimTixAKWkzkxRoW16AGysidwphRdQ_3gtFMqCHk2I
kubectl certificate approve node-csr-sGMTxy2cYJAQd7FTISafSg42_1x8AEftun8nFZsaoU0

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7.6 查看集群节点

kubectl get pod -n kube-system 
kubectl get node 

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九:部署Dashboard和CoreDNS

9.1 部署dashborad

wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/cby-chen/Kubernetes/main/yaml/dashboard.yaml
目前最新版本v2.6.0 

vim dashboard.yaml

----
spec:
  ports:
    - port: 443
      targetPort: 8443
      nodePort: 30001
  type: NodePort
  selector:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
----

kubectl apply -f dashborad.yaml

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kubectl get pods -n kubernetes-dashboard
kubectl get pods,svc -n kubernetes-dashboard

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创建用户:
wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/cby-chen/Kubernetes/main/yaml/dashboard-user.yaml

kubectl apply -f dashboard-user.yaml

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创建token 
kubectl -n kubernetes-dashboard create token admin-user

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3.7 登录浏览器访问

https://172.16.10.21:30001
输入token:
----
eyJhbGciOiJSUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6IloweWt5a3B0M1V1b1VmY05fSmp4a2tDaGlkVVdKdVZiclpFbEpXNFVJZ0UifQ.eyJhdWQiOlsiYXBpIl0sImV4cCI6MTY1NTY5ODQwOCwiaWF0IjoxNjU1Njk0ODA4LCJpc3MiOiJhcGkiLCJrdWJlcm5ldGVzLmlvIjp7Im5hbWVzcGFjZSI6Imt1YmVybmV0ZXMtZGFzaGJvYXJkIiwic2VydmljZWFjY291bnQiOnsibmFtZSI6ImFkbWluLXVzZXIiLCJ1aWQiOiJiNGM5ZGM3Yy1hZGMzLTQ1MDYtODdkOC0yY2ZjYjY5YmIwNWMifX0sIm5iZiI6MTY1NTY5NDgwOCwic3ViIjoic3lzdGVtOnNlcnZpY2VhY2NvdW50Omt1YmVybmV0ZXMtZGFzaGJvYXJkOmFkbWluLXVzZXIifQ.duaQMO8KZ0Pu57FQFw_Njd5MAqZccw3Bx9XFPR5WRbGsKiiGUPcC3zwoaFKVGKB5wvJ_jLkJqaTyGDPQNCsvmrcRPdweFPzmElrKjFH4vVRc3F0SqBztRY5nL28P0ZEnoQ5NT2msU8_U7GmZJvZ398_54HVcFDGqmo9QbGROj57-uEduwS9bhtSZRPHbY-kVeoFrpC6MMhTv_Lbgcdoq2JxIENJlrIJSgorX7MKTY0fkky1D72c1ko-lfMeDiM4YJJPCh4FlnikjOdh1WZ0FozpGwjzEYNPngdxNk2YIfFepCgn5Z3kKKOQf4Cc-up3DP7nhHpBrQ56aNTWF-YA5zQ
---

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9.2 部署CoreDNS

CoreDNS用于集群内部Service名称解析。

kubectl apply -f coredns.yaml

kubectl run -it --rm dns-test --image=busybox:1.28.4 sh

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9.3 创建一个nginx 测试

kubectl create deployment nginx --image=nginx

kubectl expose deployment nginx --port=80 --type=NodePort

kubectl get deploy,svc,pod 

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