kubernetes 1.18.3 版本 二进制部署

标签(空格分隔): kubernetes系列


一: 系统环境介绍
二: 部署Etcd集群
三: 安装docker
四: 部署k8s Master Node
五: 部署k8s Worker Node
六: 部署Dashboard和CoreDNS

一: 系统环境介绍

1.1 环境准备

在开始之前,部署Kubernetes集群机器需要满足以下几个条件:

操作系统: CentOS7.8-86_x64
硬件配置:2GB或更多RAM,2个CPU或更多CPU,硬盘30GB或更多集群中所有机器之间网络互通

可以访问外网,需要拉取镜像,如果服务器不能上网,需要提前下载镜像并导入节点

禁止swap分区

1.2 软件环境:

操作系统:   CentOS7.8_x64 (mini)

Docker: 19-ce

Kubernetes: 1.18.3

1.3 环境规划

服务器整体规划:

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1.4 单Master架构图:

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1.5 单Master服务器规划:

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1.6 操作系统初始化配置

# 关闭防火墙
systemctl stop firewalld
systemctl disable firewalld

# 关闭selinux
sed -i 's/enforcing/disabled/' /etc/selinux/config  # 永久
setenforce 0  # 临时

# 关闭swap
swapoff -a  # 临时
sed -ri 's/.*swap.*/#&/' /etc/fstab    # 永久

# 根据规划设置主机名
hostnamectl set-hostname <hostname>

# 在master添加hosts
cat >> /etc/hosts << EOF
192.168.100.11 node01.flyfish
192.168.100.12 node02.flyfish
192.168.100.13 node03.flyfish
EOF

# 将桥接的IPv4流量传递到iptables的链
cat > /etc/sysctl.d/k8s.conf << EOF
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 1
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 1
EOF
sysctl --system  # 生效

# 时间同步
yum install chronyd
server ntp1.aliyun.com

二、部署Etcd集群

2.1 ETCD 集群的概念

Etcd 是一个分布式键值存储系统,Kubernetes使用Etcd进行数据存储,所以先准备一个Etcd数据库,为解决Etcd单点故障,应采用集群方式部署,这里使用3台组建集群,可容忍1台机器故障,当然,你也可以使用5台组建集群,可容忍2台机器故障

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注:为了节省机器,这里与K8s节点机器复用。也可以独立于k8s集群之外部署,只要apiserver能连接到就行。

2.2准备cfssl证书生成工具

cfssl是一个开源的证书管理工具,使用json文件生成证书,相比openssl更方便使用。
找任意一台服务器操作,这里用Master节点。
---
wget https://pkg.cfssl.org/R1.2/cfssl_linux-amd64
wget https://pkg.cfssl.org/R1.2/cfssljson_linux-amd64
wget https://pkg.cfssl.org/R1.2/cfssl-certinfo_linux-amd64
chmod +x cfssl_linux-amd64 cfssljson_linux-amd64 cfssl-certinfo_linux-amd64
mv cfssl_linux-amd64 /usr/local/bin/cfssl
mv cfssljson_linux-amd64 /usr/local/bin/cfssljson
mv cfssl-certinfo_linux-amd64 /usr/bin/cfssl-certinfo
---

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2.3 生成Etcd证书

1. 自签证书颁发机构(CA)

创建工作目录:

mkdir -p ~/TLS/{etcd,k8s}

cd TLS/etcd

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自签CA:

cat > ca-config.json << EOF
{
  "signing": {
    "default": {
      "expiry": "87600h"
    },
    "profiles": {
      "www": {
         "expiry": "87600h",
         "usages": [
            "signing",
            "key encipherment",
            "server auth",
            "client auth"
        ]
      }
    }
  }
}
EOF

cat > ca-csr.json << EOF
{
    "CN": "etcd CA",
    "key": {
        "algo": "rsa",
        "size": 2048
    },
    "names": [
        {
            "C": "CN",
            "L": "Beijing",
            "ST": "Beijing"
        }
    ]
}
EOF

生成证书

cfssl gencert -initca ca-csr.json | cfssljson -bare ca -
ls *pem
ca-key.pem  ca.pem

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2. 使用自签CA签发Etcd HTTPS证书

创建证书申请文件:

cat > server-csr.json << EOF
{
    "CN": "etcd",
    "hosts": [
    "192.168.100.11",
    "192.168.100.12",
    "192.168.100.13",
    "192.168.100.14",
    "192.168.100.15",
    "192.168.100.16",
    "192.168.100.17",
    "192.168.100.100"
    ],
    "key": {
        "algo": "rsa",
        "size": 2048
    },
    "names": [
        {
            "C": "CN",
            "L": "BeiJing",
            "ST": "BeiJing"
        }
    ]
}
EOF

生成证书:
cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=www server-csr.json | cfssljson -bare server

ls server*pem
server-key.pem  server.pem

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2.4 从Github下载二进制文件

下载地址:https://github.com/etcd-io/etcd/releases/download/v3.4.9/etcd-v3.4.9-linux-amd64.tar.gz

以下在节点1上操作,为简化操作,待会将节点1生成的所有文件拷贝到节点2和节点3.

1. 创建工作目录并解压二进制包

mkdir /opt/etcd/{bin,cfg,ssl} -p
tar zxvf etcd-v3.4.9-linux-amd64.tar.gz
mv etcd-v3.4.9-linux-amd64/{etcd,etcdctl} /opt/etcd/bin/

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2.5 创建etcd配置文件

cat > /opt/etcd/cfg/etcd.conf << EOF
#[Member]
ETCD_NAME="etcd-1"
ETCD_DATA_DIR="/var/lib/etcd/default.etcd"
ETCD_LISTEN_PEER_URLS="https://192.168.100.11:2380"
ETCD_LISTEN_CLIENT_URLS="https://192.168.100.11:2379"
#[Clustering]
ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS="https://192.168.100.11:2380"
ETCD_ADVERTISE_CLIENT_URLS="https://192.168.100.11:2379"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER="etcd-1=https://192.168.100.11:2380,etcd-2=https://192.168.100.12:2380,etcd-3=https://192.168.100.13:2380"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_TOKEN="etcd-cluster"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_STATE="new"
EOF

---
ETCD_NAME:节点名称,集群中唯一
ETCD_DATA_DIR:数据目录
ETCD_LISTEN_PEER_URLS:集群通信监听地址
ETCD_LISTEN_CLIENT_URLS:客户端访问监听地址
ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS:集群通告地址
ETCD_ADVERTISE_CLIENT_URLS:客户端通告地址
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER:集群节点地址
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_TOKEN:集群Token
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_STATE:加入集群的当前状态,new是新集群,existing表示加入已有集群

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2.6. systemd管理etcd

cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/etcd.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Etcd Server
After=network.target
After=network-online.target
Wants=network-online.target
[Service]
Type=notify
EnvironmentFile=/opt/etcd/cfg/etcd.conf
ExecStart=/opt/etcd/bin/etcd \
--cert-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/server.pem \
--key-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/server-key.pem \
--peer-cert-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/server.pem \
--peer-key-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/server-key.pem \
--trusted-ca-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/ca.pem \
--peer-trusted-ca-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/ca.pem \
--logger=zap
Restart=on-failure
LimitNOFILE=65536
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

image_1e9t9r2rhlur4hf1giufb41rjg6f.png-127.5kB

4. 拷贝刚才生成的证书

把刚才生成的证书拷贝到配置文件中的路径:
cp ~/TLS/etcd/ca*pem ~/TLS/etcd/server*pem /opt/etcd/ssl/

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5. 启动并设置开机启动
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start etcd
systemctl enable etcd

scp -r /opt/etcd/ root@192.168.100.12:/opt/
scp /usr/lib/systemd/system/etcd.service root@192.168.100.12:/usr/lib/systemd/system/
scp -r /opt/etcd/ root@192.168.100.13:/opt/
scp /usr/lib/systemd/system/etcd.service root@192.168.100.13:/usr/lib/systemd/system/

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然后在节点2和节点3分别修改etcd.conf配置文件中的节点名称和当前服务器IP:
vi /opt/etcd/cfg/etcd.conf
#[Member]
ETCD_NAME="etcd-1"   # 修改此处,节点2改为etcd-2,节点3改为etcd-3
ETCD_DATA_DIR="/var/lib/etcd/default.etcd"
ETCD_LISTEN_PEER_URLS="https://192.168.100.11:2380"   # 修改此处为当前服务器IP
ETCD_LISTEN_CLIENT_URLS="https://192.168.100.11:2379" # 修改此处为当前服务器IP

#[Clustering]
ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS="https://192.168.100.11:2380" # 修改此处为当前服务器IP
ETCD_ADVERTISE_CLIENT_URLS="https://192.168.100.11:2379" # 修改此处为当前服务器IP
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER="etcd-1=https://192.168.100.11:2380,etcd-2=https://192.168.100.12:2380,etcd-3=https://192.168.100.13:2380"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_TOKEN="etcd-cluster"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_STATE="new"

最后启动etcd并设置开机启动,同上。

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ETCDCTL_API=3 /opt/etcd/bin/etcdctl --cacert=/opt/etcd/ssl/ca.pem --cert=/opt/etcd/ssl/server.pem --key=/opt/etcd/ssl/server-key.pem --endpoints="https://192.168.100.11:2379,https://192.168.100.12:2379,https://192.168.100.13:2379" endpoint health

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如果输出上面信息,就说明集群部署成功。如果有问题第一步先看日志:/var/log/message 或 journalctl -u etcd

三、安装Docker

下载地址:https://download.docker.com/linux/static/stable/x86_64/docker-19.03.9.tgz

以下在所有节点操作。这里采用二进制安装,用yum安装也一样。
在 node01.flyfish,node02.flyfish 与 node03.flyfish 节点上面安装

3.1 解压二进制包

tar zxvf docker-19.03.9.tgz
mv docker/* /usr/bin

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3.2 systemd管理docker

cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/docker.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Docker Application Container Engine
Documentation=https://docs.docker.com
After=network-online.target firewalld.service
Wants=network-online.target
[Service]
Type=notify
ExecStart=/usr/bin/dockerd
ExecReload=/bin/kill -s HUP $MAINPID
LimitNOFILE=infinity
LimitNPROC=infinity
LimitCORE=infinity
TimeoutStartSec=0
Delegate=yes
KillMode=process
Restart=on-failure
StartLimitBurst=3
StartLimitInterval=60s
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

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3.3 创建配置文件

mkdir /etc/docker
cat > /etc/docker/daemon.json << EOF
{
  "registry-mirrors": ["https://b9pmyelo.mirror.aliyuncs.com"]
}
EOF

registry-mirrors 阿里云镜像加速器

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3.4 启动并设置开机启动

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start docker
systemctl enable docker

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四、部署Master Node

4.1 生成kube-apiserver证书

1. 自签证书颁发机构(CA)

cd /root/TLS/k8s/

---
cat > ca-config.json << EOF
{
  "signing": {
    "default": {
      "expiry": "87600h"
    },
    "profiles": {
      "kubernetes": {
         "expiry": "87600h",
         "usages": [
            "signing",
            "key encipherment",
            "server auth",
            "client auth"
        ]
      }
    }
  }
}
EOF
cat > ca-csr.json << EOF
{
    "CN": "kubernetes",
    "key": {
        "algo": "rsa",
        "size": 2048
    },
    "names": [
        {
            "C": "CN",
            "L": "Beijing",
            "ST": "Beijing",
            "O": "k8s",
            "OU": "System"
        }
    ]
}
EOF

生成证书:

cfssl gencert -initca ca-csr.json | cfssljson -bare ca -

ls *pem
ca-key.pem  ca.pem

---

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2. 使用自签CA签发kube-apiserver HTTPS证书
创建证书申请文件:

cat > server-csr.json << EOF
{
    "CN": "kubernetes",
    "hosts": [
      "10.0.0.1",
      "127.0.0.1",
      "192.168.100.11",
      "192.168.100.12",
      "192.168.100.13",
      "192.168.100.14",
      "192.168.100.15",
      "192.168.100.16",
      "192.168.100.17",
      "192.168.100.100",
      "kubernetes",
      "kubernetes.default",
      "kubernetes.default.svc",
      "kubernetes.default.svc.cluster",
      "kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local"
    ],
    "key": {
        "algo": "rsa",
        "size": 2048
    },
    "names": [
        {
            "C": "CN",
            "L": "BeiJing",
            "ST": "BeiJing",
            "O": "k8s",
            "OU": "System"
        }
    ]
}
EOF

注:上述文件hosts字段中IP为所有Master/LB/VIP IP,一个都不能少!为了方便后期扩容可以多写几个预留的IP。

生成证书:

cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes server-csr.json | cfssljson -bare server

ls server*pem
server-key.pem  server.pem

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image_1e9tbgropcbc9r33131kuvjcmem.png-163kB

4.2 从Github下载二进制文件

下载地址: https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes/blob/master/CHANGELOG/CHANGELOG-1.18.md#v1183

注:打开链接你会发现里面有很多包,下载一个server包就够了,包含了Master和Worker Node二进制文件。

4.3 解压二进制包

mkdir -p /opt/kubernetes/{bin,cfg,ssl,logs} 
tar zxvf kubernetes-server-linux-amd64.tar.gz
cd kubernetes/server/bin
cp kube-apiserver kube-scheduler kube-controller-manager /opt/kubernetes/bin
cp kubectl /usr/bin/

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4.4 部署kube-apiserver

1. 创建配置文件

cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-apiserver.conf << EOF
KUBE_APISERVER_OPTS="--logtostderr=false \\
--v=2 \\
--log-dir=/opt/kubernetes/logs \\
--etcd-servers=https://192.168.100.11:2379,https://192.168.100.12:2379,https://192.168.100.13:2379 \\
--bind-address=192.168.100.11 \\
--secure-port=6443 \\
--advertise-address=192.168.100.11 \\
--allow-privileged=true \\
--service-cluster-ip-range=10.0.0.0/24 \\
--enable-admission-plugins=NamespaceLifecycle,LimitRanger,ServiceAccount,ResourceQuota,NodeRestriction \\
--authorization-mode=RBAC,Node \\
--enable-bootstrap-token-auth=true \\
--token-auth-file=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/token.csv \\
--service-node-port-range=30000-32767 \\
--kubelet-client-certificate=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/server.pem \\
--kubelet-client-key=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/server-key.pem \\
--tls-cert-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/server.pem  \\
--tls-private-key-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/server-key.pem \\
--client-ca-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \\
--service-account-key-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem \\
--etcd-cafile=/opt/etcd/ssl/ca.pem \\
--etcd-certfile=/opt/etcd/ssl/server.pem \\
--etcd-keyfile=/opt/etcd/ssl/server-key.pem \\
--audit-log-maxage=30 \\
--audit-log-maxbackup=3 \\
--audit-log-maxsize=100 \\
--audit-log-path=/opt/kubernetes/logs/k8s-audit.log"
EOF

---
注:上面两个\ \ 第一个是转义符,第二个是换行符,使用转义符是为了使用EOF保留换行符。
–logtostderr:启用日志
—v:日志等级
–log-dir:日志目录
–etcd-servers:etcd集群地址
–bind-address:监听地址
–secure-port:https安全端口
–advertise-address:集群通告地址
–allow-privileged:启用授权
–service-cluster-ip-range:Service虚拟IP地址段
–enable-admission-plugins:准入控制模块
–authorization-mode:认证授权,启用RBAC授权和节点自管理
–enable-bootstrap-token-auth:启用TLS bootstrap机制
–token-auth-file:bootstrap token文件
–service-node-port-range:Service nodeport类型默认分配端口范围
–kubelet-client-xxx:apiserver访问kubelet客户端证书
–tls-xxx-file:apiserver https证书
–etcd-xxxfile:连接Etcd集群证书
–audit-log-xxx:审计日志
---

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2. 拷贝刚才生成的证书

把刚才生成的证书拷贝到配置文件中的路径:
cp ~/TLS/k8s/ca*pem ~/TLS/k8s/server*pem /opt/kubernetes/ssl/

image_1e9tc8hf911cpkau1jp4di8evcga.png-67.3kB

3. 启用 TLS Bootstrapping 机制

TLS Bootstraping:Master apiserver启用TLS认证后,Node节点kubelet和kube-proxy要与kube-apiserver进行通信,必须使用CA签发的有效证书才可以,当Node节点很多时,这种客户端证书颁发需要大量工作,同样也会增加集群扩展复杂度。为了简化流程,Kubernetes引入了TLS bootstraping机制来自动颁发客户端证书,kubelet会以一个低权限用户自动向apiserver申请证书,kubelet的证书由apiserver动态签署。所以强烈建议在Node上使用这种方式,目前主要用于kubelet,kube-proxy还是由我们统一颁发一个证书。

TLS bootstraping 工作流程:

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创建上述配置文件中token文件:

cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/token.csv << EOF
c47ffb939f5ca36231d9e3121a252940,kubelet-bootstrap,10001,"system:node-bootstrapper"
EOF

格式:token,用户名,UID,用户组

token也可自行生成替换:

head -c 16 /dev/urandom | od -An -t x | tr -d ' '

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4. systemd管理apiserver

cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-apiserver.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes API Server
Documentation=https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes
[Service]
EnvironmentFile=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-apiserver.conf
ExecStart=/opt/kubernetes/bin/kube-apiserver \$KUBE_APISERVER_OPTS
Restart=on-failure
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

image_1e9tcemk61mlq8531l1mgks10b9hh.png-104kB

5. 启动并设置开机启动

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kube-apiserver
systemctl enable kube-apiserver

image_1e9tcgcq7i41168t1j37rmfrpehu.png-59.1kB

6. 授权kubelet-bootstrap用户允许请求证书

kubectl create clusterrolebinding kubelet-bootstrap \
--clusterrole=system:node-bootstrapper \
--user=kubelet-bootstrap

image_1e9tchrac183fukjjtr11gj1p0oib.png-48.2kB

4.5 部署kube-controller-manager

1. 创建配置文件

cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-controller-manager.conf << EOF
KUBE_CONTROLLER_MANAGER_OPTS="--logtostderr=false \\
--v=2 \\
--log-dir=/opt/kubernetes/logs \\
--leader-elect=true \\
--master=127.0.0.1:8080 \\
--bind-address=127.0.0.1 \\
--allocate-node-cidrs=true \\
--cluster-cidr=10.244.0.0/16 \\
--service-cluster-ip-range=10.0.0.0/24 \\
--cluster-signing-cert-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \\
--cluster-signing-key-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem  \\
--root-ca-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \\
--service-account-private-key-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem \\
--experimental-cluster-signing-duration=87600h0m0s"
EOF

image_1e9tcjddm103o6me1uurpv754cio.png-122.4kB

–master:通过本地非安全本地端口8080连接apiserver。
–leader-elect:当该组件启动多个时,自动选举(HA)
–cluster-signing-cert-file/–cluster-signing-key-file:自动为kubelet颁发证书的CA,与apiserver保持一致

2. systemd管理controller-manager

cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-controller-manager.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Controller Manager
Documentation=https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes
[Service]
EnvironmentFile=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-controller-manager.conf
ExecStart=/opt/kubernetes/bin/kube-controller-manager \$KUBE_CONTROLLER_MANAGER_OPTS
Restart=on-failure
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

image_1e9tcl80n14er64e12944l71krsj5.png-83.2kB

3. 启动并设置开机启动

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kube-controller-manager
systemctl enable kube-controller-manager

image_1e9tcmh88gr7141rt2i1lan1mufji.png-46kB


4.6 部署kube-scheduler
1. 创建配置文件

cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-scheduler.conf << EOF
KUBE_SCHEDULER_OPTS="--logtostderr=false \
--v=2 \
--log-dir=/opt/kubernetes/logs \
--leader-elect \
--master=127.0.0.1:8080 \
--bind-address=127.0.0.1"
EOF

image_1e9tcoekv1nh11ltcdrieii12jtjv.png-64.6kB

–master:通过本地非安全本地端口8080连接apiserver。
–leader-elect:当该组件启动多个时,自动选举(HA)
2. systemd管理scheduler

cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-scheduler.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Scheduler
Documentation=https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes
[Service]
EnvironmentFile=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-scheduler.conf
ExecStart=/opt/kubernetes/bin/kube-scheduler \$KUBE_SCHEDULER_OPTS
Restart=on-failure
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

image_1e9tcq6v3ppo1da1rio4bvu5kc.png-85.9kB

3. 启动并设置开机启动

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kube-scheduler
systemctl enable kube-scheduler

image_1e9tcs3kp1kda5eb679s0s8agkp.png-63.7kB

4. 查看集群状态

所有组件都已经启动成功,通过kubectl工具查看当前集群组件状态:

kubectl get cs

如上输出说明Master节点组件运行正常。

image_1e9tctbpl12qp12deac8bih61rl6.png-51.3kB


五、部署Worker Node

下面还是在Master Node上操作,即同时作为Worker Node

5.1 创建工作目录并拷贝二进制文件

在所有worker node创建工作目录:

mkdir -p /opt/kubernetes/{bin,cfg,ssl,logs} 

image_1eapjj3f0c5b1ths12cpebs1g921g.png-15.6kB

image_1eapjjfvb1o4e1col1rmc1mqp7iu1t.png-22.1kB


从master节点拷贝

cd kubernetes/server/bin
cp kubelet kube-proxy /opt/kubernetes/bin   # 本地拷贝

image_1eapjij4q1u9ur0lssom8c1anl13.png-92kB

在master 节点上面执行

5.2 部署kubelet
1. 创建配置文件

cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet.conf << EOF
KUBELET_OPTS="--logtostderr=false \\
--v=2 \\
--log-dir=/opt/kubernetes/logs \\
--hostname-override=node01.flyfish \\
--network-plugin=cni \\
--kubeconfig=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet.kubeconfig \\
--bootstrap-kubeconfig=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/bootstrap.kubeconfig \\
--config=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet-config.yml \\
--cert-dir=/opt/kubernetes/ssl \\
--pod-infra-container-image=lizhenliang/pause-amd64:3.0"
EOF

-----
–hostname-override:显示名称,集群中唯一
–network-plugin:启用CNI
–kubeconfig:空路径,会自动生成,后面用于连接apiserver
–bootstrap-kubeconfig:首次启动向apiserver申请证书
–config:配置参数文件
–cert-dir:kubelet证书生成目录
–pod-infra-container-image:管理Pod网络容器的镜像

---

image_1eanss1ugvjol671uic1cj7ncbm.png-88.6kB

2. 配置参数文件
cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet-config.yml << EOF
kind: KubeletConfiguration
apiVersion: kubelet.config.k8s.io/v1beta1
address: 0.0.0.0
port: 10250
readOnlyPort: 10255
cgroupDriver: cgroupfs
clusterDNS:
- 10.0.0.2
clusterDomain: cluster.local 
failSwapOn: false
authentication:
  anonymous:
    enabled: false
  webhook:
    cacheTTL: 2m0s
    enabled: true
  x509:
    clientCAFile: /opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem 
authorization:
  mode: Webhook
  webhook:
    cacheAuthorizedTTL: 5m0s
    cacheUnauthorizedTTL: 30s
evictionHard:
  imagefs.available: 15%
  memory.available: 100Mi
  nodefs.available: 10%
  nodefs.inodesFree: 5%
maxOpenFiles: 1000000
maxPods: 110
EOF

image_1eanssm7s11mlk2f11rn6t81trk13.png-163kB

在 server节点上面执行

3. 生成bootstrap.kubeconfig文件
写一个boot.sh 脚本 把下面的内容放进去
---

KUBE_APISERVER="https://192.168.100.11:6443" # apiserver IP:PORT
TOKEN="c47ffb939f5ca36231d9e3121a252940" # 与token.csv里保持一致

# 生成 kubelet bootstrap kubeconfig 配置文件
kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes \
  --certificate-authority=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --server=${KUBE_APISERVER} \
  --kubeconfig=bootstrap.kubeconfig
kubectl config set-credentials "kubelet-bootstrap" \
  --token=${TOKEN} \
  --kubeconfig=bootstrap.kubeconfig
kubectl config set-context default \
  --cluster=kubernetes \
  --user="kubelet-bootstrap" \
  --kubeconfig=bootstrap.kubeconfig
kubectl config use-context default --kubeconfig=bootstrap.kubeconfig
---

. ./boot.sh

image_1eansvvl11gpppu13ip1hsfho91g.png-78.3kB

拷贝到配置文件路径:

cp bootstrap.kubeconfig /opt/kubernetes/cfg

image_1eant0mp11f8c1nq5i0men11pk21t.png-78.3kB

4. systemd管理kubelet

cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/kubelet.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Kubelet
After=docker.service
[Service]
EnvironmentFile=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet.conf
ExecStart=/opt/kubernetes/bin/kubelet \$KUBELET_OPTS
Restart=on-failure
LimitNOFILE=65536
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

image_1eant27q0qmo70411cbqrf1a3e2d.png-90.8kB

5. 启动并设置开机启动
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kubelet
systemctl enable kubelet

image_1eant2rnu5je1l7f9ab1gmem9k2q.png-75kB

5.3 批准kubelet证书申请并加入集群
# 查看kubelet证书请求
kubectl get csr 

image_1eapjnikc1p50tj5lqa3v8ai2a.png-68.7kB

# 批准申请

kubectl certificate approve node-csr--vTFwyeAv5dSatbGrgpJptwQ5Fc_WvLpmYgdQN4bvaI

image_1eant82su1kis1v7f127v1n9776v3k.png-70kB

image_1e9teu80b1d8t1ta8139hl481rtlqf.png-37.3kB

注:由于网络插件还没有部署,节点会没有准备就绪 NotReady
5.4 部署kube-proxy
1. 创建配置文件

cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy.conf << EOF
KUBE_PROXY_OPTS="--logtostderr=false \\
--v=2 \\
--log-dir=/opt/kubernetes/logs \\
--config=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy-config.yml"
EOF

image_1eapjpjvm19pi11601vncv2q15ps2n.png-56.5kB

2. 配置参数文件

cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy-config.yml << EOF
kind: KubeProxyConfiguration
apiVersion: kubeproxy.config.k8s.io/v1alpha1
bindAddress: 0.0.0.0
metricsBindAddress: 0.0.0.0:10249
clientConnection:
  kubeconfig: /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy.kubeconfig
hostnameOverride: node01.flyfish
clusterCIDR: 10.0.0.0/24
EOF

image_1eapjqdev1tc2vio1ou81u8v2ja34.png-115.1kB

# 切换工作目录
cd TLS/k8s

# 创建证书请求文件
cat > kube-proxy-csr.json << EOF
{
  "CN": "system:kube-proxy",
  "hosts": [],
  "key": {
    "algo": "rsa",
    "size": 2048
  },
  "names": [
    {
      "C": "CN",
      "L": "BeiJing",
      "ST": "BeiJing",
      "O": "k8s",
      "OU": "System"
    }
  ]
}
EOF
---
# 生成证书
cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes kube-proxy-csr.json | cfssljson -bare kube-proxy

ls kube-proxy*pem
kube-proxy-key.pem  kube-proxy.pem

cp -p kube-proxy-key.pem  kube-proxy.pem /opt/kubernetes/ssl/

image_1eapjsne74vb3v7ipb4mq1iiq3h.png-209kB

image_1eapjt3pu1gru1p4p12vj6ds17a93u.png-141kB

生成kubeconfig文件:
cd /opt/kubernetes/ssl/
vim kubeconfig.sh 
---
KUBE_APISERVER="https://192.168.100.11:6443"

kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes \
  --certificate-authority=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --server=${KUBE_APISERVER} \
  --kubeconfig=kube-proxy.kubeconfig
kubectl config set-credentials kube-proxy \
  --client-certificate=./kube-proxy.pem \
  --client-key=./kube-proxy-key.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --kubeconfig=kube-proxy.kubeconfig
kubectl config set-context default \
  --cluster=kubernetes \
  --user=kube-proxy \
  --kubeconfig=kube-proxy.kubeconfig
kubectl config use-context default --kubeconfig=kube-proxy.kubeconfig
---

. ./kubeconfig.sh

cp -p kube-proxy.kubeconfig /opt/kubernetes/cfg/

image_1eapjvsbq1o5bkd8gvv2091v4i55.png-183.1kB

image_1eapjvdo4o1m135ienkcsd1h6d4o.png-73.4kB

4. systemd管理kube-proxy

cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-proxy.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Proxy
After=network.target
[Service]
EnvironmentFile=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy.conf
ExecStart=/opt/kubernetes/bin/kube-proxy \$KUBE_PROXY_OPTS
Restart=on-failure
LimitNOFILE=65536
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

image_1eapk0vdp7dvd661ma21eqd2q95i.png-79.3kB

5. 启动并设置开机启动

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kube-proxy
systemctl enable kube-proxy

image_1eapk1en5132uare1ov11god1olk5v.png-58.3kB

5.5 部署CNI网络

先准备好CNI二进制文件:

下载地址:https://github.com/containernetworking/plugins/releases/download/v0.8.6/cni-plugins-linux-amd64-v0.8.6.tgz

解压二进制包并移动到默认工作目录:
mkdir /opt/cni/bin -p
tar zxvf cni-plugins-linux-amd64-v0.8.6.tgz -C /opt/cni/bin

image_1eapk39gj2cs1n931o0rc6u1s8b6s.png-109.2kB

部署CNI网络:

wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/coreos/flannel/master/Documentation/kube-flannel.yml
sed -i -r "s#quay.io/coreos/flannel:.*-amd64#lizhenliang/flannel:v0.12.0-amd64#g" kube-flannel.yml

image_1eapk4ggk12a212rc15harmk1mm79.png-167.5kB

kubectl apply -f kube-flannel.yml

kubectl get pods -n kube-system

部署好网络插件,Node准备就绪。

kubectl get node

image_1eapk5geh2ngvqsanoqcp11vt7m.png-137.9kB

image_1eapk61qb1sevp081d38ll21vdb83.png-48.7kB


5.6 授权apiserver访问kubelet

cat > apiserver-to-kubelet-rbac.yaml << EOF
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRole
metadata:
  annotations:
    rbac.authorization.kubernetes.io/autoupdate: "true"
  labels:
    kubernetes.io/bootstrapping: rbac-defaults
  name: system:kube-apiserver-to-kubelet
rules:
  - apiGroups:
      - ""
    resources:
      - nodes/proxy
      - nodes/stats
      - nodes/log
      - nodes/spec
      - nodes/metrics
      - pods/log
    verbs:
      - "*"
---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
metadata:
  name: system:kube-apiserver
  namespace: ""
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: ClusterRole
  name: system:kube-apiserver-to-kubelet
subjects:
  - apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
    kind: User
    name: kubernetes
EOF
---

kubectl apply -f apiserver-to-kubelet-rbac.yaml

image_1e9tgdpn01cjs1lg64gs1an9sc7vo.png-115.4kB

image_1e9tge5i616qm1e9dk401ifh211105.png-40.9kB

5.7 新增加Worker Node

1. 拷贝已部署好的Node相关文件到新节点

在master节点将Worker Node涉及文件拷贝到新节点192.168.100.13 上面

scp -r /opt/kubernetes root@192.168.100.12:/opt/

scp -r /usr/lib/systemd/system/{kubelet,kube-proxy}.service root@192.168.100.12:/usr/lib/systemd/system

scp -r /opt/cni/ root@192.168.100.12:/opt/

scp /opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem root@192.168.100.12:/opt/kubernetes/ssl

image_1eapkbdkb5al12bo1prd1aol105g8g.png-127.2kB

image_1eapkk0k91cbksk3vca1j6cc4va7.png-148.3kB


2. 删除kubelet证书和kubeconfig文件
rm -rf /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet.kubeconfig 
rm -rf /opt/kubernetes/ssl/kubelet*

image_1eapkdp162c6gb3b991bsq1oo59q.png-32.1kB

image_1eapkdcop1esm1vu01nk8mppj159d.png-37.6kB

3. 修改主机名

vim /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet.conf
--hostname-override=node02.flyfish

vim /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy-config.yml
hostnameOverride: node02.flyfish

4. 启动并设置开机启动

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kubelet
systemctl enable kubelet
systemctl start kube-proxy
systemctl enable kube-proxy

image_1e9u4ke6018vnr7d1i7h18fifti13.png-100.7kB

5. 在Master上批准新Node kubelet证书申请

kubectl get csr

image_1eapkpbv81t8hl6urmg155o16vpak.png-72.9kB

kubectl certificate approve node-csr-qFbDvbTwo9SP2ZEDyiKfXCBGxO4n4Qe7FCehyPKiXNc

image_1eapkr5nud7s1iqv1ceikks17j1be.png-38.5kB

增加 一个 work节点:

增加 一个 work节点:

   scp -r /opt/kubernetes root@192.168.100.13:/opt/

scp -r /usr/lib/systemd/system/{kubelet,kube-proxy}.service root@192.168.100.13:/usr/lib/systemd/system

scp -r /opt/cni/ root@192.168.100.13:/opt/

scp /opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem root@192.168.100.13:/opt/kubernetes/ssl

image_1eapkut0i106up8i1gstndi92dc8.png-161.9kB

image_1eapkva731l8o1as21fnactq1470cl.png-241.3kB

2. 删除kubelet证书和kubeconfig文件
rm -rf /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet.kubeconfig 
rm -rf /opt/kubernetes/ssl/kubelet*

image_1eapl0vki19k31kgr1lr9vna1htd2.png-41.6kB

3. 修改主机名

vim /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet.conf
--hostname-override=node03.flyfish

vim /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy-config.yml
hostnameOverride: node03.flyfish

image_1eapl3bn74r1d4hf3o1v9s13modf.png-51.7kB

4. 启动并设置开机启动

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kubelet
systemctl enable kubelet
systemctl start kube-proxy
systemctl enable kube-proxy

image_1eapl4psu1t3l132b3br14ri1k8uds.png-103.4kB

5. 在Master上批准新Node kubelet证书申请

kubectl get csr

kubectl certificate approve node-csr-5ZsKjw2Udxrc97q4MtShig83PUJww7E3y_2mpvkMZr0

image_1eapl79ddt9pid81djg6321flqe9.png-146.2kB

kubectl get node 

image_1eaplag0p1dcr13o2tpv1p6n11ctf3.png-52.2kB

六、部署Dashboard和CoreDNS

6.1 部署Dashboard

$ wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/dashboard/v2.0.0-beta8/aio/deploy/recommended.yaml

默认Dashboard只能集群内部访问,修改Service为NodePort类型,暴露到外部:

vim recommended.yaml
----
kind: Service
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
spec:
  ports:
    - port: 443
      targetPort: 8443
      nodePort: 30001
  type: NodePort
  selector:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
----

image_1eaplkvlu1r9ntbh17eg5gs16f0fg.png-81.4kB

image_1eapllvdl1oes15631gir13g79jqft.png-270.3kB

image_1eaplmb5oun4tepobq19a6gn5ga.png-128.7kB

kubectl get pods,svc -n kubernetes-dashboard

image_1eapln8uprie1ov81gjl4b61me1gn.png-78.5kB

访问地址:https://NodeIP:30001

创建service account并绑定默认cluster-admin管理员集群角色:

kubectl create serviceaccount dashboard-admin -n kube-system
kubectl create clusterrolebinding dashboard-admin --clusterrole=cluster-admin --serviceaccount=kube-system:dashboard-admin
kubectl describe secrets -n kube-system $(kubectl -n kube-system get secret | awk '/dashboard-admin/{print $1}')

image_1eaplpmr21e7g18cl19alt7p1j77hh.png-269.1kB

image_1eaploq769d25e1q8u19c018sfh4.png-254.1kB

image_1eaplqg961e774ilkb4173hd7ihu.png-380kB

image_1eaplrdj018v0afs7qtefh1l1eib.png-451.9kB

6.2 部署CoreDNS

CoreDNS用于集群内部Service名称解析。
kubectl apply -f coredns.yaml

image_1eapmkg6u75n16uauov1kkri76io.png-68.8kB

image_1eapmm78a1f08ghb1al21tht1sckj5.png-58.5kB

DNS解析测试:

kubectl run -it --rm dns-test --image=busybox:1.28.4 sh

nslookup kubernetes

image_1eapmodr11dfc1hpt4b5rg1khfji.png-64.6kB