paramiko是用python语言写的一个模块,遵循SSH2协议,支持以加密和认证的方式,进行远程服务器的连接。
一安装步骤:
a、安装vc for python2.7 下载地址http://www.microsoft.com/en-gb/download/details.aspx?id=44266
b、安装PyCrypto模块 pip install PyCrypto
c、安装paramiko模块 pip install paramiko
或直接下载已编译版本地址http://www.voidspace.org.uk/python/modules.shtml#pycrypto
http://victorjabur.com/2011/06/08/modules-python-library-compiled-for-windows-32-and-64-unofficial-windows-binaries-for-python/
基本用法
SSHClient

基于用户名密码连接:

基础用法:

import paramiko

# 创建SSH对象
ssh = paramiko.SSHClient()
# 允许连接不在know_hosts文件中的主机
ssh.set_missing_host_key_policy(paramiko.AutoAddPolicy())
# 连接服务器
ssh.connect(hostname='c1.salt.com', port=22, username='wupeiqi', password='123')

# 执行命令
stdin, stdout, stderr = ssh.exec_command('ls')
# 获取命令结果
result = stdout.read()

# 关闭连接
ssh.close()

SSHClient 封装 Transport

import paramiko

transport = paramiko.Transport(('hostname', 22))
transport.connect(username='wupeiqi', password='123')

ssh = paramiko.SSHClient()
ssh._transport = transport

stdin, stdout, stderr = ssh.exec_command('df')
print stdout.read()

transport.close()

由此我们可以看出来,ssh执行命令时,我们可以使用sshclient transport两种方式来实现

基于公钥密钥连接:

基础用法:

import paramiko

private_key = paramiko.RSAKey.from_private_key_file('/home/auto/.ssh/id_rsa')

# 创建SSH对象
ssh = paramiko.SSHClient()
# 允许连接不在know_hosts文件中的主机
ssh.set_missing_host_key_policy(paramiko.AutoAddPolicy())
# 连接服务器
ssh.connect(hostname='c1.salt.com', port=22, username='wupeiqi', key=private_key)

# 执行命令
stdin, stdout, stderr = ssh.exec_command('df')
# 获取命令结果
result = stdout.read()

# 关闭连接
ssh.close()

封装transport:``

import paramiko

private_key = paramiko.RSAKey.from_private_key_file('/home/auto/.ssh/id_rsa')

transport = paramiko.Transport(('hostname', 22))
transport.connect(username='wupeiqi', pkey=private_key)

ssh = paramiko.SSHClient()
ssh._transport = transport

stdin, stdout, stderr = ssh.exec_command('df')

transport.close()

封装transport:

import paramiko

private_key = paramiko.RSAKey.from_private_key_file('/home/auto/.ssh/id_rsa')

transport = paramiko.Transport(('hostname', 22))
transport.connect(username='wupeiqi', pkey=private_key)

ssh = paramiko.SSHClient()
ssh._transport = transport

stdin, stdout, stderr = ssh.exec_command('df')

transport.close()

SFTPClient

用于连接远程服务器并执行上传下载

基于用户名密码上传下载:

import paramiko

transport = paramiko.Transport(('hostname',22))
transport.connect(username='wupeiqi',password='123')

sftp = paramiko.SFTPClient.from_transport(transport)
# 将location.py 上传至服务器 /tmp/test.py
sftp.put('/tmp/location.py', '/tmp/test.py')
# 将remove_path 下载到本地 local_path
sftp.get('remove_path', 'local_path')

transport.close()

基于公钥密钥上传下载:

import paramiko

private_key = paramiko.RSAKey.from_private_key_file('/home/auto/.ssh/id_rsa')

transport = paramiko.Transport(('hostname', 22))
transport.connect(username='wupeiqi', pkey=private_key )

sftp = paramiko.SFTPClient.from_transport(transport)
# 将location.py 上传至服务器 /tmp/test.py
sftp.put('/tmp/location.py', '/tmp/test.py')
# 将remove_path 下载到本地 local_path
sftp.get('remove_path', 'local_path')

transport.close()

有此看出,如果只做上传下载方式的话,我们只能使用transport,其实无论是ssh,还是sftp,都是调用了transport,基于socket实现的

生产需求:上传某文件并覆盖
demo:``

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
import paramiko
import uuid

class SSHConnection(object):

    def __init__(self, host='172.16.103.191', port=22, username='wupeiqi',pwd='123'):
        self.host = host
        self.port = port
        self.username = username
        self.pwd = pwd
        self.__k = None

    def create_file(self):
        file_name = str(uuid.uuid4())
        with open(file_name,'w') as f:
            f.write('sb')
        return file_name

    def run(self):
        self.connect()
        self.upload('/home/wupeiqi/tttttttttttt.py')
        self.rename('/home/wupeiqi/tttttttttttt.py', '/home/wupeiqi/ooooooooo.py)
        self.close()

    def connect(self):
        transport = paramiko.Transport((self.host,self.port))
        transport.connect(username=self.username,password=self.pwd)
        self.__transport = transport

    def close(self):

        self.__transport.close()

    def upload(self,target_path):
        # 连接,上传
        file_name = self.create_file()

        sftp = paramiko.SFTPClient.from_transport(self.__transport)
        # 将location.py 上传至服务器 /tmp/test.py
        sftp.put(file_name, target_path)

    def rename(self, old_path, new_path):

        ssh = paramiko.SSHClient()
        ssh._transport = self.__transport
        # 执行命令
        cmd = "mv %s %s" % (old_path, new_path,)
        stdin, stdout, stderr = ssh.exec_command(cmd)
        # 获取命令结果
        result = stdout.read()

    def cmd(self, command):
        ssh = paramiko.SSHClient()
        ssh._transport = self.__transport
        # 执行命令
        stdin, stdout, stderr = ssh.exec_command(command)
        # 获取命令结果
        result = stdout.read()
        return result

ha = SSHConnection()
ha.run()

对于更多限制命令,需要在系统中设置:

位置:/etc/sudoers,代码:

Defaults    requiretty
Defaults:cmdb    !requiretty

堡垒机
执行流程:
管理员为用户在服务器上创建账号(将公钥放置服务器,或者使用用户名密码)
用户登陆堡垒机,输入堡垒机用户名密码,现实当前用户管理的服务器列表
用户选择服务器,并自动登陆
执行操作并同时将用户操作记录
需要注意的是,如果想实现用户登录后直接操作,需要配置下堡垒机用户家目录的.bashrc文件:

/usr/bin/env python $PATH/s7.py
logout

将这两行假如即可.

看下实现方式:

简单调用:

import paramiko
import sys
import os
import socket
import select
import getpass

tran = paramiko.Transport(('192.168.4.193', 22,))
tran.start_client()
tran.auth_password('root', '7ujm8ik,')

# 打开一个通道
chan = tran.open_session()
# 获取一个终端
chan.get_pty()
# 激活器
chan.invoke_shell()

#########
# 利用sys.stdin,肆意妄为执行操作
# 用户在终端输入内容,并将内容发送至远程服务器
# 远程服务器执行命令,并将结果返回
# 用户终端显示内容
#########

交互操作(无tab)

import paramiko
import sys
import os
import socket
import select
import getpass
from paramiko.py3compat import u

tran = paramiko.Transport(('10.211.55.4', 22,))
tran.start_client()
tran.auth_password('wupeiqi', '123')

# 打开一个通道
chan = tran.open_session()
# 获取一个终端
chan.get_pty()
# 激活器
chan.invoke_shell()

while True:
    # 监视用户输入和服务器返回数据
    # sys.stdin 处理用户输入
    # chan 是之前创建的通道,用于接收服务器返回信息
    readable, writeable, error = select.select([chan, sys.stdin, ],[],[],1)
    if chan in readable:
        try:
            x = u(chan.recv(1024))
            if len(x) == 0:
                print('\r\n*** EOF\r\n')
                break
            sys.stdout.write(x)
            sys.stdout.flush()
        except socket.timeout:
            pass
    if sys.stdin in readable:
        inp = sys.stdin.readline()
        chan.sendall(inp)

chan.close()
tran.close()

但此次我们会发现,没有tab补全,跟我们真是在shell里执行命令还是略有差距的,那么来第二个.

交互操作(有tab功能)

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*-coding=utf-8-*-
# Auther:ccorz Mail:ccniubi@163.com Blog:http://www.cnblogs.com/ccorz/
# GitHub:https://github.com/ccorzorz

import paramiko
import sys
import os
import socket
import select
import getpass
import termios
import tty
from paramiko.py3compat import u

tran = paramiko.Transport(('192.168.4.193', 22,))
tran.start_client()
tran.auth_password('root', '7ujm8ik,')

# 打开一个通道
chan = tran.open_session()
# 获取一个终端
chan.get_pty()
# 激活器
chan.invoke_shell()

# 获取原tty属性
oldtty = termios.tcgetattr(sys.stdin)
try:
    # 为tty设置新属性
    # 默认当前tty设备属性:
    #   输入一行回车,执行
    #   CTRL+C 进程退出,遇到特殊字符,特殊处理。

    # 这是为原始模式,不认识所有特殊符号
    # 放置特殊字符应用在当前终端,如此设置,将所有的用户输入均发送到远程服务器
    tty.setraw(sys.stdin.fileno())
    chan.settimeout(0.0)

    while True:
        # 监视 用户输入 和 远程服务器返回数据(socket)
        # 阻塞,直到句柄可读
        r, w, e = select.select([chan, sys.stdin], [], [], 1)
        if chan in r:
            try:
                x = u(chan.recv(1024))
                if len(x) == 0:
                    print('\r\n*** EOF\r\n')
                    break
                sys.stdout.write(x)
                sys.stdout.flush()
            except socket.timeout:
                pass
        if sys.stdin in r:
            x = sys.stdin.read(1)
            if len(x) == 0:
                break
            chan.send(x)

finally:
    # 重新设置终端属性,必须设置,否则再次登录后无法使用
    termios.tcsetattr(sys.stdin, termios.TCSADRAIN, oldtty)

chan.close()
tran.close()

生产需求
在生产中,我们还需要更多的需求:

有日志记录,我们可以把管理员的每一条记录都记录到数据库中
tab补全时,记录的中间会有空格之类的需要处理
我们来看下怎么实现

import paramiko
import sys
import os
import socket
import getpass

# from paramiko.py3compat import u

# windows does not have termios...
try:
    import termios
    import tty
    has_termios = True
except ImportError:
    has_termios = False

def interactive_shell(chan):
    if has_termios:
        posix_shell(chan)
    else:
        windows_shell(chan)

def posix_shell(chan):
    import select

    oldtty = termios.tcgetattr(sys.stdin)
    try:
        tty.setraw(sys.stdin.fileno())
        tty.setcbreak(sys.stdin.fileno())
        chan.settimeout(0.0)
        f = open('handle.log','a+')
        tab_flag = False
        temp_list = []
        while True:
            r, w, e = select.select([chan, sys.stdin], [], [])
            if chan in r:
                try:
                    x = chan.recv(1024)
                    if len(x) == 0:
                        sys.stdout.write('\r\n*** EOF\r\n')
                        break
                    if tab_flag:
                        if x.startswith('\r\n'):
                            pass
                        else:
                            f.write(x)
                            f.flush()
                        tab_flag = False
                    sys.stdout.write(x)
                    sys.stdout.flush()
                except socket.timeout:
                    pass
            if sys.stdin in r:
                x = sys.stdin.read(1)
                if len(x) == 0:
                    break
                if x == '\t':
                    tab_flag = True
                else:
                    f.write(x)
                    f.flush()
                chan.send(x)

    finally:
        termios.tcsetattr(sys.stdin, termios.TCSADRAIN, oldtty)

def windows_shell(chan):
    import threading

    sys.stdout.write("Line-buffered terminal emulation. Press F6 or ^Z to send EOF.\r\n\r\n")

    def writeall(sock):
        while True:
            data = sock.recv(256)
            if not data:
                sys.stdout.write('\r\n*** EOF ***\r\n\r\n')
                sys.stdout.flush()
                break
            sys.stdout.write(data)
            sys.stdout.flush()

    writer = threading.Thread(target=writeall, args=(chan,))
    writer.start()

    try:
        while True:
            d = sys.stdin.read(1)
            if not d:
                break
            chan.send(d)
    except EOFError:
        # user hit ^Z or F6
        pass

def run():
    # 获取当前登录用户
"""

    host_list = [
        {'host': "192.168.11.139", 'username': 'oldboy', 'pwd': "123"},
        {'host': "192.168.11.138", 'username': 'oldboy', 'pwd': "123"},
        {'host': "192.168.11.137", 'username': 'oldboy', 'pwd': "123"},
    ]
    for item in enumerate(host_list, 1):
        print(item['host'])

    num = raw_input('序号:')
    sel_host = host_list[int(num) -1]
    hostname = sel_host['host']
    username = sel_host['username']
    pwd = sel_host['pwd']
    print(hostname,username,pwd)
"""

    tran = paramiko.Transport((hostname, 22,))
    tran.start_client()
    tran.auth_password(username, pwd)
    # 打开一个通道
    chan = tran.open_session()
    # 获取一个终端
    chan.get_pty()
    # 激活器
    chan.invoke_shell()

    interactive_shell(chan)

    chan.close()
    tran.close()

if __name__ == '__main__':
    run()

银角究极版
珍藏下吧:

import paramiko
import sys
import os
import socket
import getpass

from paramiko.py3compat import u

# windows does not have termios...
try:
    import termios
    import tty
    has_termios = True
except ImportError:
    has_termios = False

def interactive_shell(chan):
    if has_termios:
        posix_shell(chan)
    else:
        windows_shell(chan)

def posix_shell(chan):
    import select

    oldtty = termios.tcgetattr(sys.stdin)
    try:
        tty.setraw(sys.stdin.fileno())
        tty.setcbreak(sys.stdin.fileno())
        chan.settimeout(0.0)
        log = open('handle.log', 'a+', encoding='utf-8')
        flag = False
        temp_list = []
        while True:
            r, w, e = select.select([chan, sys.stdin], [], [])
            if chan in r:
                try:
                    x = u(chan.recv(1024))
                    if len(x) == 0:
                        sys.stdout.write('\r\n*** EOF\r\n')
                        break
                    if flag:
                        if x.startswith('\r\n'):
                            pass
                        else:
                            temp_list.append(x)
                        flag = False
                    sys.stdout.write(x)
                    sys.stdout.flush()
                except socket.timeout:
                    pass
            if sys.stdin in r:
                x = sys.stdin.read(1)
                import json

                if len(x) == 0:
                    break

                if x == '\t':
                    flag = True
                else:
                    temp_list.append(x)
                if x == '\r':
                    log.write(''.join(temp_list))
                    log.flush()
                    temp_list.clear()
                chan.send(x)

    finally:
        termios.tcsetattr(sys.stdin, termios.TCSADRAIN, oldtty)

def windows_shell(chan):
    import threading

    sys.stdout.write("Line-buffered terminal emulation. Press F6 or ^Z to send EOF.\r\n\r\n")

    def writeall(sock):
        while True:
            data = sock.recv(256)
            if not data:
                sys.stdout.write('\r\n*** EOF ***\r\n\r\n')
                sys.stdout.flush()
                break
            sys.stdout.write(data)
            sys.stdout.flush()

    writer = threading.Thread(target=writeall, args=(chan,))
    writer.start()

    try:
        while True:
            d = sys.stdin.read(1)
            if not d:
                break
            chan.send(d)
    except EOFError:
        # user hit ^Z or F6
        pass

def run():
    default_username = getpass.getuser()
    username = input('Username [%s]: ' % default_username)
    if len(username) == 0:
        username = default_username

    hostname = input('Hostname: ')
    if len(hostname) == 0:
        print('*** Hostname required.')
        sys.exit(1)

    tran = paramiko.Transport((hostname, 22,))
    tran.start_client()

    default_auth = "p"
    auth = input('Auth by (p)assword or (r)sa key[%s] ' % default_auth)
    if len(auth) == 0:
        auth = default_auth

    if auth == 'r':
        default_path = os.path.join(os.environ['HOME'], '.ssh', 'id_rsa')
        path = input('RSA key [%s]: ' % default_path)
        if len(path) == 0:
            path = default_path
        try:
            key = paramiko.RSAKey.from_private_key_file(path)
        except paramiko.PasswordRequiredException:
            password = getpass.getpass('RSA key password: ')
            key = paramiko.RSAKey.from_private_key_file(path, password)
        tran.auth_publickey(username, key)
    else:
        pw = getpass.getpass('Password for %s@%s: ' % (username, hostname))
        tran.auth_password(username, pw)

    # 打开一个通道
    chan = tran.open_session()
    # 获取一个终端
    chan.get_pty()
    # 激活器
    chan.invoke_shell()

    interactive_shell(chan)

    chan.close()
    tran.close()

if __name__ == '__main__':
    run()

数据库模型
其实堡垒机的难点是在数据库的设计上

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*-coding=utf-8-*-
# Auther:ccorz Mail:ccniubi@163.com Blog:http://www.cnblogs.com/ccorz/
# GitHub:https://github.com/ccorzorz

from sqlalchemy import create_engine, and_, or_, func, Table
from sqlalchemy.ext.declarative import declarative_base
from sqlalchemy import Column, Integer, String, ForeignKey, UniqueConstraint, DateTime
from  sqlalchemy.orm import sessionmaker, relationship

engine = create_engine("mysql+pymysql://root:7ujm8ik,@192.168.4.193:3306/test13", max_overflow=5)
Base = declarative_base()  # 生成一个SqlORM 基类

class UserProfile2HostUser(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'userprofile_2_hostuser'
    id = Column(Integer, primary_key=True, autoincrement=True)
    userprofile_id = Column(Integer, ForeignKey('user_profile.id'),primary_key=True)
    hostuser_id = Column(Integer, ForeignKey('host_user.id'),primary_key=True)
    # userprofile = relationship('UserProfile',secondary=lambda :)

class Host(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'host'
    id = Column(Integer, primary_key=True, autoincrement=True)
    hostname = Column(String(64), unique=True, nullable=False)
    ip_addr = Column(String(128), unique=True, nullable=False)
    port = Column(Integer, default=22)

class HostUser(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'host_user'
    id = Column(Integer, primary_key=True, autoincrement=True)
    AuthTypes = [
        (u'ssh-passwd', u'SSH/Password'),
        (u'ssh-key', u'SSH/KEY'),
    ]
    auth_type = Column(String(64))
    username = Column(String(64), nullable=False)
    password = Column(String(255))
    host_id = Column(Integer, ForeignKey('host.id'))
    host = relationship('Host', backref='uu')
    __table_args__ = (UniqueConstraint(u'host_id', u'username', name='_host_username_uc'),)

class Group(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'group'
    id = Column(Integer, primary_key=True, autoincrement=True)
    name = Column(String(64), unique=True, nullable=False)

#
# obj = session.query(HostUser.username,HostUser.password,Host.hostname,Host.port).join(Host).filter(HostUser.id == 1).first()
# (用户名,密码,主机名,端口)

class UserProfile(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'user_profile'
    id = Column(Integer, primary_key=True)
    username = Column(String(64), unique=True, nullable=False)
    # 存密码感觉没什么卵用
    # password = Column(String(255),nullable=False)
    # 如果是一个人只能在一个组下
    group_id = Column(Integer, ForeignKey('group.id'))
    #需要这么加secondary,否则插入数据时会报错
    host_list = relationship('HostUser', secondary=lambda :UserProfile2HostUser.__table__, backref='userprofiles')

"""
# 输入用户名和密码:
#
obj = session.query(UserProfile).filter(username=输入的用户名, password=输入的密码).first()
if not obj:
    # 堡垒机登录用户对象
    # 输入这个人的所有机器
    obj.host_list # 当前堡垒机登录用户,所有的服务器用户名
    #
    for item  in obj.host_list:
        # item,是一个HostUser对象
        item.password,item.username,
        # item.host 对象,host对象
        item.host.hostname,item.host.port
    # item 目标机器HostUser对象
    host_obj = input(:...)
    session.add(AuditLog(userprofile_id=obj.id,hostuser_id = host_obj.id, "ifconfig"))
"""

class Log(Base):
    __tablename__ = 'log'
    id = Column(Integer, primary_key=True)
    userprofile_id = Column(Integer, ForeignKey('user_profile.id'))
    hostuser_id = Column(Integer, ForeignKey('host_user.id'))
    cmd = Column(String(255))
    date = Column(DateTime)

# class Session:
#     session = None
#     def __init__(self):
#         self.engine = create_engine("mysql+pymysql://root:7ujm8ik,@192.168.4.193:3306/test13", max_overflow=5)
#         self.ss = sessionmaker(bind=self.engine)
#         self.obj = ss()
#         self.Session.session = obj
#
#     @classmethod
#     def instance(cls):
#         if not cls.session:
#             cls()
#         return cls.session

# ss = Session()
# 定义初始化数据库函数
def init_db():
    Base.metadata.create_all(engine)

# init_db()

# 删除数据库函数
def drop_db():
    Base.metadata.drop_all(engine)

# drop_db()

# 实例化数据库操作对象为session
Session = sessionmaker(bind=engine)
ss = Session()
#
# ss.add_all([
#     Group(id=1, name='DBA'),
#     Group(id=2, name='SA')
# ])
#
# ss.add_all([
#     UserProfile(id=1,username='chengc',group_id=2),
#     UserProfile(id=2,username='root',group_id=2)
# ])
#
# ss.add_all([
#     Host(id=1,hostname='test',ip_addr='192.168.4.193',port=22),
#     Host(id=2,hostname='zhongrt1',ip_addr='223.202.101.164',port=43228)
# ])
#
# ss.add_all([
#     HostUser(id=1,auth_type='pwd',username='root',password='7ujm8ik,',host_id=1),
#     HostUser(id=2,auth_type='pwd',username='root',password='asdf',host_id=2)
# ])
#
# ss.add_all([
#     UserProfile2HostUser(userprofile_id=1,hostuser_id=1),
#     UserProfile2HostUser(userprofile_id=2,hostuser_id=1)
# ])
# #
# ss.add_all([Group(id=3,name='SB')])

特别注意:如果使用relationship虚拟关系时,需要添加secondary=类名.table,否则插入数据时会报错!