LNMP应用于中小型企业架构

 

  • 网站架构图

                             wKiom1cXC4bAleWgAAKdrgtG7DU107.jpg

说明:

  1. 1.     两台web服务器放置在公司外网网段(192.168.232.0/24),两台web服务器通过Keepalived实现主备切换,保障web服务高可靠性。

  2. 2.     web服务器之间通过rsync+inotify来实现网站目录数据同步,保证主备切换以后的数据一致性。

  3. 3.     两台mysql服务器放置在公司内网网段(10.0.0.0/24),采用mysql的主从同步架构来保障后台数据库的高可靠性;通过mysql-proxy实现读写分离。

  4. 4.     通过rsync+inotify来实现mysql的本地备份。

  5. 5.     通过zabbix来监控两台web服务器和两台mysql服务器。

 

 

  • 安装步骤

操作系统环境:5台服务器全部用户用centos6.7版本,内核版本2.6.32-573.el6.x86_64

(1)  安装Keepalived

a)  web1配置

安装依赖:

# yum installgcc gcc-c++ autoconf automake -y

# yum installzlib zlib-devel openssl openssl-devel -y

# tar xvf  keepalived-1.2.20.tar.gz -C /usr/local/src ;cd /usr/local/src/keepalived-1.2.20

# ./configure--prefix=/usr/local/keepalived

#make &&make install

#ln -s/usr/local/keepalived/sbin/keepalived /sbin/

# ln -s/usr/local/keepalived/bin/genhash /bin/

# ln -s /usr/local/keepalived/etc/sysconfig/keepalived/etc/sysconfig/keepalived

# mkdir /etc/keepalived/

# cp/usr/local/keepalived/etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf /etc/keepalived/  

# cp/usr/local/keepalived/etc/rc.d/init.d/keepalived  /etc/init.d/

# servicekeepalived start

# chkconfigkeepalived on

 

Master配置

#vim /etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf

vrrp_sync_groupVG1 {                   #vrrp同步组定义             

 

group {

VI_1                                    #vrrp实例 VI_1

VI_2

}

 

}

 

 

vrrp_instanceVI_1 {                    #vrrp实例定义

stateMASTER                            #实例初始化状态,还可以是master!

nopreempt                               #不抢占,用于state 状态中,而且优先级要高于第二个backup

interface eth1                          #实例绑定的网卡

 

#track_interface{                       #设定额外监控的网卡,以下任意网卡故障,状态fault

#eth0

#eth1

#}

 

virtual_router_id51                    #虚拟路由id0-255

priority100                            #优先级,高优先级的将竞选为MASTER

advert_int 1                            #检查间隔,默认1s

 

authentication {

auth_typePASS                          #认证方式,pass

auth_passVI_1                          #认证密码

}

 

 

virtual_ipaddress{                     #虚拟ip地址(vip 可以为多个)

192.168.232.110/24dev eth1 scope global     #虚拟ip地址 绑定在 eth0 网卡

}

 

}

 

vrrp_instanceVI_2 {

state MASTER

nopreempt

interface eth0

 

#track_interface{

#eth0

#eth1

#}

 

virtual_router_id52

priority 100

advert_int 1

 

authentication {

auth_type PASS

auth_pass VI_2

}

 

 

virtual_ipaddress{

10.0.0.110/24dev eth0 scope global

}

 

}

 

b)  web2配置

keepalived安装方式同web1

#vim /etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf

Backup配置

vrrp_sync_groupVG1 {  

group {

VI_1                            

VI_2

}

 

}

 

 

vrrp_instanceVI_1 {                    #vrrp实例定义

stateBACKUP                            #实例初始化状态,还可以是master!

#nopreempt       #不抢占,用于state 状态中,而且优先级要高于第二个backup

interfaceeth1                          #实例绑定的网卡

 

#track_interface{       #设定额外监控的网卡,以下任意网卡故障,状态fault

#eth0

#eth1

#}

 

virtual_router_id51                    #虚拟路由id0-255

priority100                            #优先级,高优先级的将竞选为MASTER

advert_int1                            #检查间隔,默认1s

 

authentication {

auth_typePASS                          #认证方式,pass

auth_passVI_1                          #认证密码

}

 

 

virtual_ipaddress{                     #虚拟ip地址(vip 可以为多个)

192.168.232.110/24dev eth1 scope global     #虚拟ip地址 绑定在 eth0 网卡

}

 

}

 

vrrp_instanceVI_2 {

state BACKUP

#nopreempt

interface eth0

 

#track_interface{

#eth0

#eth1

#}

 

virtual_router_id52

priority 50

advert_int 1

 

authentication {

auth_type PASS

auth_pass VI_2

}

 

 

virtual_ipaddress{

10.0.0.110/24dev eth0 scope global

}

 

}

        

(2)webserver上安装nginx

  1. 解决pcre依赖

# tar xvfpcre-8.37.tar.bz2 -C /usr/local/src/

  1. 编译安装nginx

#tar xvf nginx-1.9.4.tar.gz -C /usr/local/src/ ; cd/usr/local/src/nginx-1.9.4

#./configure --prefix=/usr/local/nginx --with-http_dav_module--with-http_stub_status_module --with-http_addition_module--with-http_sub_module --with-http_flv_module --with-http_mp4_module--with-pcre=/usr/local/src/pcre-8.37

# make ; make install ; cd

# useradd -M -u 8001 -s /sbin/nologin nginx

# vim /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf

       user  nginx nginx;

location / {

            root   html;

            index  index.php index.htmlindex.htm;

        }

location ~ \.php$ {

           root           html;

           fastcgi_pass   127.0.0.1:9000;

           fastcgi_index  index.php;

           fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME  /usr/local/nginx/html$fastcgi_script_name;

           include        fastcgi_params;

       }

#/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx

#echo "/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx " >>/etc/rc.local

(3)webserver上安装php

# tar xvf libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.bz2 -C /usr/local/src/ ; cd/usr/local/src/libmcrypt-2.5.8/

# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/libmcrypt ; make ; makeinstall ; cd

# vim /etc/ld.so.conf

includeld.so.conf.d/*.conf

/usr/local/libmcrypt/lib

          # yum install php-pear

          # ldconfig

          # echo 'ldconfig' >> /etc/rc.local

          # yum install -ylibxml2-devel libcurl-devel libjpeg-devel libpng-devel freetype freetype-devel

          # tar xvfphp-5.6.13.tar.bz2 -C /usr/local/src/ ; cd /usr/local/src/php-5.6.13

#./configure --prefix=/usr/local/php \

--with-mysql=mysqlnd \

--with-mysqli=mysqlnd \

--with-pdo-mysql=mysqlnd \

--with-iconv-dir \

--with-freetype-dir \

--with-jpeg-dir \

--with-png-dir \

--with-zlib \

--with-libxml-dir \

--enable-xml \

--disable-rpath \

--enable-bcmath \

--enable-shmop \

--enable-sysvsem \

--enable-inline-optimization \

--with-curl \

--with-mcrypt=/usr/local/libmcrypt \

--enable-mbregex \

--enable-fpm \

--enable-mbstring \

--with-gd \

--enable-gd-native-ttf \

--with-openssl \

--with-mhash \

--enable-pcntl \

--enable-sockets \

--with-xmlrpc \

--enable-zip \

--enable-soap

# make -j 4 ; make install ; cd

#cp /usr/local/src/php-5.6.13/php.ini-production/usr/local/php/php.ini

# cp /usr/local/php/etc/php-fpm.conf.default/usr/local/php/etc/php-fpm.conf

# cp /usr/local/src/php-5.6.13/sapi/fpm/init.d.php-fpm/etc/init.d/php-fpm

         #chmod +x /etc/init.d/php-fpm

# chkconfigphp-fpm on

#/etc/init.d/php-fpm start

(4)dataserver上安装mysql

#!/bin/bash

yum remove -y mysql mysql-server

clear

yum install gcc gcc-c++ autoconf automake -y

echo'This shell willAuto Install Mysql5.6'

yum install -y cmake ncurses-devel

tar-zxf mysql-5.6.26.tar.gz -C /usr/local/src &&cd/usr/local/src/mysql-5.6.26

useradd -M -s /sbin/nologinmysql

mkdir/usr/local/mysql

cmake -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/usr/local/mysql -DMYSQL_UNIX_ADDR=/tmp/mysql.sock-DDEFAULT_CHARSET=utf8 -DDEFAULT_COLLATION=utf8_general_ci -DWITH_EXTRA_CHARSETS=all -DWITH_MYISAM_STORAGE_ENGINE=1-DWITH_INNOBASE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1-DWITH_MEMORY_STORAGE_ENGINE=1-DWITH_READLINE=1-DENABLED_LOCAL_INFILE=1-DMYSQL_DATADIR=/usr/local/mysql/data -DMYSQL_USER=mysql

make&&makeinstall

chown -R mysql:mysql /usr/local/mysql

/usr/local/mysql/scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql --basedir=/usr/local/mysql --datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data

mv/etc/my.cnf/etc/my.cnf.bak

cp/usr/local/mysql/support-files/my-default.cnf/etc/my.cnf

sed-i '/^\[mysqld\]/adatadir = /usr/local/mysql/data'/etc/my.cnf

sed-i '/^\[mysqld\]/abasedir = /usr/local/mysql'/etc/my.cnf

cp/usr/local/mysql/support-files/mysql.server/etc/init.d/mysqlsev

chmod+x /etc/init.d/mysqlsev

echo"PATH=/usr/local/mysql/bin:$PATH">>/etc/profile

chkconfig mysqlsev on

echo

echo"installsuccess"

source /etc/profile

echo"source/etc/profile">>/etc/rc.local

service mysqlsev restart

echo "If you now running mysql andothers commands,Please running: source /etc/profile"

#mysql_secure_installation                      #给数据库安全加固

# mysql -u root-p                                          #登录数据库

a)  mysql1配置

建立php连接数据库的帐号

mysql> createuser '1511'@'10.0.0.120' identified by '123456'

mysql> GRANTALL ON db_1511.* TO '1511'@'10.0.0.120';

mysql> flush privileges;

 

主从配置(主):

# vim/etc/my.cnf

[mysqld]

basedir =/usr/local/mysql

datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data

user=mysql

# Disablingsymbolic-links is recommended to prevent assorted security risks

symbolic-links=0

#

#####replication

server-id=1

log-bin=mysqlmaster-bin-log

binlog-do-db=db_1511

binlog-ignore-db=mysql

 

# servicemysqlsev start

 

# mysql -uroot-p

mysql> GRANTREPLICATION SLAVE ON *.* TO 'mm'@'10.0.0.30' IDENTIFIED BY '123456';

mysql> flushtables with read lock;

mysql> showmaster status;            # 记录下file名和position

+------------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+-------------------+

 

| File         | Position | Binlog_Do_DB |Binlog_Ignore_DB | Executed_Gtid_Set |

 

+------------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+-------------------+

 

|mysqlmaster-bin.000004 |      327 |              |                  |                  |

 

+------------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+-------------------+

 

1 row in set(0.00 sec)

# mysqldump-uroot -p -h127.0.0.1 -P3306 --all-databases --triggers --routines --events>>/root/all.sql

# mysql -uroot-p

mysql> unlocktables;

 

# scp /root/all.sqlroot@10.0.0.30:/root/

b)  mysql2配置

建立php连接数据库的帐号

mysql> createuser '1511'@'10.0.0.130' identified by '123456'

mysql> GRANTALL ON db_1511.* TO '1511'@'10.0.0.130';

mysql> flush privileges;

 

主从配置(从):

# vim/etc/my.cnf

[mysqld]

basedir =/usr/local/mysql

datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data

user=mysql

# Disablingsymbolic-links is recommended to prevent assorted security risks

symbolic-links=0

#

#####replication

server-id=2

log-bin=mysqlslave-bin-log

binlog-do-db=db_1511

binlog-ignore-db=mysql

 

# servicemysqlsev start

 

# mysql -uroot-p -h127.0.0.1 -P3306 < /root /all.sql

# mysql -uroot-p

mysql> changemaster to master_host = '10.0.0.20',master_user='mm',master_password='123456',master_log_file='mysqlmaster-bin.000004',master_log_pos=327;

mysql> startslave;

mysql> showslave status \G 

......

Slave_IO_Running:Yes

Slave_SQL_Running:Yes

......

c)  mysql-proxy配置

# tar xvf mysql-proxy-0.8.5-linux-el6-x86-64bit.tar.gz

# mv mysql-proxy-0.8.5-linux-el6-x86-64bit/usr/local/mysql-proxy

# echo"PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/mysql-proxy/bin" >> /etc/bashrc

#echo "mysql-proxy -r 10.0.0.30:3306 -b 10.0.0.20:3306 -P 10.0.0.10:3306 -s/usr/local/mysql-proxy/share/doc/mysql-proxy/rw-splitting.lua & ">> /etc/rc.local

# mysql-proxy -r10.0.0.30:3306 -b 10.0.0.20:3306 -P 10.0.0.10:3306 -s/usr/local/mysql-proxy/share/doc/mysql-proxy/rw-splitting.lua &

 

(5)  分别在web1web2服务器上安装应用

 

 

(6)  webserver上安装rsync+inotify

a)   web1web2安装xinetd

# yum installxinetd -y

# vim/etc/xinetd.d/rsync

service rsync

{

        disable = no

        flags           = IPv6

        socket_type     = stream

        wait            = no

        user            = root

        server          = /usr/bin/rsync

        server_args     = --daemon

        log_on_failure  += USERID

}

# [root@web1 ~]#service xinetd restart

Stoppingxinetd:                                           [FAILED]

Startingxinetd:                                          [  OK  ]

#[root@web1 ~]#netstat -antup | grep xinet

tcp        0     0 :::873                     :::*                        LISTEN      2459/xinetd

 

b)   web1web2上编辑以下两个配置文件

# vim /etc/rsyncd.conf

uid = nginx

gid = nginx

use chroot = yes

max connections =200

timeout = 600

pid file =/var/run/rsyncd.pid

lock file =/var/run/rsyncd.lock

log file =/var/log/rsyncd.log

 

[backup]

path =/usr/local/nginx/html/

ignore errors

read only = no

list = no

hosts allow =192.168.232.0/255.255.255.0

auth users = test

secrets file =/etc/rsyncd.password

 

#chownnginx:nginx /usr/local/nginx/html/ -R

#vim /etc/rsyncd.password

test:test        #user:password

#chmod 600 /etc/rsyncd.password

 

文件编辑好以后重启服务

# service xinetdrestart

 

c)   web1web2上安装inotify

优化系统内核:

# vim/etc/sysctl.conf

fs.inotify.max_queued_events= 32768

fs.inotify.max_user_instances= 1024

fs.inotify.max_user_watches= 90000000

 

# sysctl -p

 

#tar -zxvf inotify-tools-3.13.tar.gz

# cdinotify-tools-3.13

#./configure

#make -j 4

# make install

 

d)   生成开机启动脚本

 

web1上生成脚本:

#vim nginx_rsync.sh

#!/bin/sh

exportRSYNC_PASSWORD=test

SRC=/usr/local/nginx/html/

DST=test@192.168.232.130::backup

inotifywait -mrq-e modify,delete,create,attrib ${SRC} | while read D E F

do

        /usr/bin/rsync -ahqzt --delete $SRC$DST

done

 

#echo"/root/nginx_rsync.sh &" >>/etc/rc.local

 

 

web2上生成脚本

#vim nginx_rsync.sh

#!/bin/sh

exportRSYNC_PASSWORD=test

SRC=test@192.168.232.120::backup

DST=/usr/local/nginx/html/

inotifywait -mrq-e modify,delete,create,attrib ${DST} | while read D E F

do

        /usr/bin/rsync -ahqzt --delete $SRC$DST

done

 

#echo"/root/nginx_rsync.sh &" >>/etc/rc.local

 

(7)  安装zabbix

a)   编译lnmp环境

              注意编译PHP时需要加上--with-gettext模块

b)   编译安装zabbix server

# tar xvf zabbix-3.0.1.tar.gz -C/usr/local/src/

# cd/usr/local/src/zabbix-3.0.1/

# mysql -uzabbix-pzabbix zabbix < database/mysql/schema.sql

# echo $?

# mysql -uzabbix-pzabbix zabbix < database/mysql/images.sql

# mysql -uzabbix-pzabbix zabbix < database/mysql/data.sql

# yum install -ynet-snmp-devel

# ./configure--prefix=/usr/local/zabbix --enable-server --enable-agent--with-mysql=/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql_config --with-net-snmp

 --with-libcurl

# echo $?

# make install

# echo $?

# cd/usr/local/zabbix/

# vimetc/zabbix_server.conf

     DBHost=localhost

     DBName=zabbix

     DBUser=zabbix

     DBPassword=zabbix

# vim/usr/local/zabbix/etc/zabbix_agentd.conf

     Server=127.0.0.1

     ServerActive=127.0.0.1

     Hostname=Zabbix server

     UnsafeUserParameters=1

# vim /etc/ld.so.conf

     include ld.so.conf.d/*.conf

     /usr/local/libmcrypt/lib

     /usr/local/mysql/lib/

# ldconfig

#/usr/local/zabbix/sbin/zabbix_server

# echo"/usr/local/zabbix/sbin/zabbix_server" >> /etc/rc.local

# cp -r/usr/local/src/zabbix-3.0.1/frontends/php/* /usr/local/nginx/html/

 

# vim /usr/local/php/lib/php.ini                 # 修改安装前端所需参数

 

c)   汉化zabbix server

 

vim  /usr/local/nginx/html/include/locales.inc.php

'zh_CN' => ['name' => _('Chinese(zh_CN)'),     'display' => true],

 

vim /usr/local/nginx/html/include/defines.inc.php

define('ZBX_GRAPH_FONT_NAME',           ' msyh'); // font file name

define('ZBX_FONT_NAME', ' msyh');

 

windows系统中的C:\Windows\Fonts\微软雅黑\msyh.ttf 文件放到zabbixserver/usr/local/nginx/html/fonts/目录下

 

再去zabbix web管理页面修改语言为中文即可

 

d)   在被监控的server上安装zabbix agent

# yum install -y curl curl-devel net-snmpnet-snmp-devel perl-DBI

# useradd -u 9001 -M -s /sbin/nologin  zabbix

# tar xvf zabbix-3.0.1.tar.gz -C/usr/local/src/

# cd /usr/local/src/zabbix-3.0.1/

# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/zabbix--enable-agent

# make install ; cd

# grep "zabbix" /etc/services --color

# grep "chkconfig"/usr/local/src/zabbix-3.0.1/ -R --color

# cp/usr/local/src/zabbix-3.0.1/misc/init.d/fedora/core/zabbix_agentd /etc/init.d/

# vim /etc/init.d/zabbix_agentd

       BASEDIR=/usr/local/zabbix               #修改此行

 

# chkconfig zabbix_agentd on

 

vim/usr/local/zabbix/etc/zabbix_agentd.conf

Server=192.168.232.220

ServerActive=192.168.232.220

Hostname=web1.1511.com

UnsafeUserParameters=1

# /etc/init.d/zabbix_agentd restart

 

zabbix server上执行

[root@zabbix ~]#  /usr/local/zabbix/bin/zabbix_get -s192.168.232.120 -p10050 -k system.uname

Linux web1.1511.com 2.6.32-573.el6.x86_64#1 SMP Thu Jul 23 15:44:03 UTC 2015 x86_64

至此zabbix_agentd  zabbixserver通讯正常

 

e)   监控nginx

 

修改nginx 配置文件,在server 下面增加以下代码

location /ngx_status {

       stub_status on;

       access_log off;

       #allow 127.0.0.1;

       #deny all;

}

 

重启nginx进程。

 

配置zabbix_agentd

# vim/usr/local/zabbix/etc/zabbix_agentd.conf

增加以下行

UserParameter=nginx.status[*],/usr/local/zabbix/scripts/ngx-status.sh$1

 

编写监控nginx脚本

vim /usr/local/zabbix/scripts/ngx-status.sh

#!/bin/bash

# DateTime: 2015-10-25

# AUTHOR:凉白开

# WEBSITE: http://www.ttlsa.com

# Descriptionzabbix监控nginx性能以及进程状态

# Note:此脚本需要配置在被监控端,否则ping检测将会得到不符合预期的结果

# 文章地址:<spanid="sample-permalink"tabindex="-1">http://www.ttlsa.com/zabbix/<spanid="editable-post-name" title="临时固定链接,点击可更改这部分。">zabbix-monitor-nginx-performance</span>/</span>

 

HOST="127.0.0.1"

PORT="80"

 

# 检测nginx进程是否存在

function ping {

   /sbin/pidof nginx | wc -l

}

# 检测nginx性能

function active {

   /usr/bin/curl "http://$HOST:$PORT/ngx_status/" 2>/dev/null|grep 'Active' | awk '{print $NF}'

}

function reading {

   /usr/bin/curl "http://$HOST:$PORT/ngx_status/" 2>/dev/null|grep 'Reading' | awk '{print $2}'

}

function writing {

   /usr/bin/curl "http://$HOST:$PORT/ngx_status/" 2>/dev/null|grep 'Writing' | awk '{print $4}'

}

function waiting {

   /usr/bin/curl "http://$HOST:$PORT/ngx_status/" 2>/dev/null|grep 'Waiting' | awk '{print $6}'

}

function accepts {

   /usr/bin/curl "http://$HOST:$PORT/ngx_status/" 2>/dev/null|awk NR==3 | awk '{print $1}'

}

function handled {

   /usr/bin/curl "http://$HOST:$PORT/ngx_status/" 2>/dev/null|awk NR==3 | awk '{print $2}'

}

function requests {

   /usr/bin/curl "http://$HOST:$PORT/ngx_status/" 2>/dev/null|awk NR==3 | awk '{print $3}'

}

# 执行function

$1

 

 

给脚本增加执行权限

# chmod +x/usr/local/zabbix/scripts/ngx-status.sh

 

重启zabbix_agentd服务

# /etc/init.d/zabbix_agentd restart

 

zabbix服务器web管理界面添加模版,为nginx服务器增加此模版

 


 

在测试机器上用webbench工具给nginx服务器发送流量

# webbench -c 2000 -t 300http://192.168.232.120/