1. 常用技巧

Sh ru ntp查看与ntp有关的
Sh ru crypto 查看与vpn有关的
Sh ru | inc crypto 只是关健字过滤而已

2. 故障倒换
failover
failover lan unit primary
failover lan interface testint Ethernet0/3
failover link testint Ethernet0/3
failover mac address Ethernet0/1 0018.1900.5000 0018.1900.5001
failover mac address Ethernet0/0 0018.1900.4000 0018.1900.4001
failover mac address Ethernet0/2 0018.1900.6000 0018.1900.6001
failover mac address Management0/0 0018.1900.7000 0018.1900.7001
failover interface ip testint 10.3.3.1 255.255.255.0 standby 10.3.3.2
注:最好配置虚拟MAC地址
sh failover显示配置信息
write standby写入到备用的防火墙中

failover命令集如下:
configure mode commands/options:
interface Configure the IP address and mask to be used for failover
and/or stateful update information
interface-policy Set the policy for failover due to interface failures
key Configure the failover shared secret or key
lan Specify the unit as primary or secondary or configure the
interface and vlan to be used for failover communication
link Configure the interface and vlan to be used as a link for
stateful update information
mac Specify the virtual mac address for a physical interface
polltime Configure failover poll interval
replication Enable HTTP (port 80) connection replication
timeout Specify the failover reconnect timeout value for
asymmetrically routed sessions

sh failover 命令集如下:

history Show failover switching history
interface Show failover command interface information
state Show failover internal state information
statistics Show failover command interface statistics information
| Output modifiers

3. 配置telnet、ssh及http管理
username jiang password Csmep3VzvPQPCbkx encrypted privilege 15
aaa authentication enable console LOCAL
aaa authentication telnet console LOCAL
aaa authentication ssh console LOCAL
aaa authorization command LOCAL
http 192.168.40.0 255.255.255.0 management
ssh 192.168.40.0 255.255.255.0 inside
4. vpn常用管理命令
sh vpn-sessiondb full l2l 显示site to site 之vpn通道情况
sh ipsec stats 显示ipsec通道情况
sh vpn-sessiondb summary 显示vpn汇总信息
sh vpn-sessiondb detail l2l 显示ipsec详细信息
sh vpn-sessiondb detail svc 查看ssl client信息
sh vpn-sessiondb detail webvpn 查看webvpn信息

sh vpn-sessiondb detail full l2l 相当于linux下的ipsec whack –status 如果没有建立连接,则表示ipsec通道还没有建立起来。
5. 配置访问权限
可以建立对象组,设定不同的权限,如:
object-group network testgroup
description test
network-object 192.168.100.34 255.255.255.255

access-list inside_access_in line 2 extended permit ip object-group all any
access-group inside_access_in in interface inside
6. 配置sitetosite之×××

crypto ipsec transform-set ESP-3DES-SHA esp-3des esp-sha-hmac
crypto map outside_map 20 match address outside_cryptomap_20_1
crypto map outside_map 20 set pfs
crypto map outside_map 20 set peer 218.16.105.48
crypto map outside_map 20 set transform-set ESP-3DES-SHA
crypto map outside_map interface outside

isakmp identity address
isakmp enable outside
isakmp policy 10 authentication pre-share
isakmp policy 10 encryption 3des
isakmp policy 10 hash sha
isakmp policy 10 group 2
isakmp policy 10 lifetime 86400

tunnel-group 218.16.105.48 type ipsec-l2l
tunnel-group 218.16.105.48 ipsec-attributes
pre-shared-key *
peer-id-validate nocheck
tunnel-group-map enable rules

注:打打PFS并设定以IP地址作为peer名,一个接口只能有一个加密图


7. webvpn配置(ssl vpn)
webvpn
enable outside
character-encoding gb2312
csd p_w_picpath disk0:/securedesktop-asa-3.1.1.16.pkg
svc p_w_picpath disk0:/sslclient-win-1.1.0.154.pkg 1
svc enable
customization customization1
title text TEST Web××× system
title style background-color:white;color: rgb(51,153,0);border-bottom:5px groo
ve #669999;font-size:larger;vertical-align:middle;text-align:left;font-weight:bold
tunnel-group-list enable

注:也可通过ASDM图形界面进行配置

登录后,可访问内部资源,如下例:(客户端首先要安装Java插件jre-1_5_0-windows-i586.exe,并打开浏览器的ActiveX)
1) [url=https://sslvpn.test.com.cn/][color=#0000ff]https://sslvpn.test.com.cn[/color][/url] 输入用户名和密码

2) 出现工具条

3) 在Enter Web Address内输入192.168.40.8即可访问内部网站

4)在browse network输入192.168.40.8即可访问共享文件
5)点击application access,即可查看端口转发设置,如使用putty访问本机的2023端口,则即可通过ssh登录192.168.40.8
8. 远程拨入×××
相关的ASA配置命令如下:

access-list inside_access_in extended permit ip object-group remotegroup any
access-list inside_access_in extended permit icmp object-group remotegroup any
access-list remotevpn_splitTunnelAcl standard permit 192.168.100.0 255.255.255.0

access-list vpnclient_splitTunnelAcl standard permit 192.168.100.0 255.255.255.0


ip local pool dialuserIP 192.168.101.1-192.168.101.254 mask 255.255.255.0

group-policy remotevpn attributes
dns-server value 202.96.128.68 192.168.40.16
default-domain value test.com.cn
username jiang password Csmep3VzvPQPCbkx encrypted privilege 15

crypto ipsec transform-set ESP-3DES-SHA esp-3des esp-sha-hmac
crypto ipsec transform-set ESP-DES-MD5 esp-des esp-md5-hmac
crypto ipsec transform-set ESP-DES-SHA esp-des esp-sha-hmac
crypto dynamic-map outside_dyn_map 20 set pfs
crypto dynamic-map outside_dyn_map 20 set transform-set ESP-3DES-SHA
crypto dynamic-map outside_dyn_map 20 set reverse-route

crypto map outside_map 65535 ipsec-isakmp dynamic outside_dyn_map
crypto map outside_map interface outside

tunnel-group remotevpn type ipsec-ra
tunnel-group remotevpn general-attributes
address-pool dialuserIP
default-group-policy remotevpn
tunnel-group remotevpn ipsec-attributes
pre-shared-key *

客户端设置如下:

9. 日志服务器配置
logging enable
logging timestamp
logging emblem
logging trap informational
logging asdm warnings
logging host inside 192.168.40.115 format emblem
logging permit-hostdown
vpn-simultaneous-logins 3

10. Snmp网管配置
snmp-server host inside 192.168.40.47 community testsnmp
snmp-server location DG-GTEST
snmp-server contact jiangdaoyou:6162
snmp-server community testsnmp
snmp-server enable traps snmp authentication linkup linkdown coldstart

注:指定主机后,192.168.40.47才可能进行管理

11. ACS配置
安装后管理:[url=http://ip:2002/][color=#0000ff]http://ip:2002[/color][/url] 通过ACS可以进行授权、认证等等很多功能
因内容太多,暂省略
12. AAA配置
Aaa服务器配置:
aaa-server radius_dg host dc03.xxxx.com
key dfdfdfdf146**U
authentication-port 1812
accounting-port 1813
radius-common-pw dfdfdfdf146**U

对于拨入vpn的配置
tunnel-group vg_testerp general-attributes
address-pool ciscovpnuser
authentication-server-group radius_dg
default-group-policy vg_testerp
13. 升级IOS
copy tftp://192.168.40.180/asa/asa721-k8.bin disk0:/asa721-k8.bin
boot system disk0:/asa721-k8.bin (多个Image时使用)

14. 疑难杂症
1) 在远程子网不能ping通过对方的网关,如在无锡格兰不能ping 192.168.40.251
输入命令:management-access inside (通过ASDM不能设置这一项)

2) NAT有时不能快速启作用
使用命令:clear xlate即可