PHP多文件上传格式化

文件上传是所有web应用中最常见的功能,而PHP实现这一功能也非常的简单,只需要前端设置表单的 enctype 值为 multipart/form-data 之后,我们就可以通过 $_FILES 获得表单中的 file 控件中的内容。

同时,我们还可以将 file 控件的名称写成带 [] 的数组形式,这样我们就可以接收到多个上传的文件。比如下面这个测试用的表单:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
<meta charset="UTF-8">
<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
<title>Document</title>
</head>
<body>
<form action="" enctype="multipart/form-data" method="post">

myfile1:<input type="file" name="myfile[]"/><br/>
myfile2:<input type="file" name="myfile[a][]"/><br/>
myfile3:<input type="file" name="myfile[a][b][]"/><br/>
myfile4:<input type="file" name="myfile[c][]"/><br/>
myfile5:<input type="file" name="myfile[]"/><br/>
myfile6:<input type="file" name="myfile[][]"/><br/>
<br/>
newfile1:<input type="file" name="newfile[][]"/><br/>
newfile2:<input type="file" name="newfile[s]"/><br/>

singlefile: <input type="file" name="singlefile"/><br/>
<input type="submit" value="submit"/>
</form>
</body>
</html>

一共有9个 file 控件,其中 myfile 和 newfile 都是数组类型的表单名,而 singlefile 则是一个单独的。先简单的看一下 $_FILES 所获得的内容。

print_r($_FILES);

Array
(
[myfile] => Array
(
[name] => Array
(
[0] => 2591d8b3eee018a0a84f671933ab6c74.png
[a] => Array
(
[0] => 12711584942474_.pic_hd 1.jpg
[b] => Array
(
[0] => 12721584942474_.pic_hd 1.jpg
)

)

[c] => Array
(
[0] => 12731584942474_.pic_hd.jpg
)

[1] => background1.jpg
[2] => Array
(
[0] => adliu_pip_data.xlsx
)

)

[type] => Array
(
[0] => image/png
[a] => Array
(
[0] => image/jpeg
[b] => Array
(
[0] => image/jpeg
)

)

[c] => Array
(
[0] => image/jpeg
)

[1] => image/jpeg
[2] => Array
(
[0] => application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet
)

)

[tmp_name] => Array
(
[0] => /private/var/folders/wj/t2z1cfhs0m9gq48krm8nc0vm0000gn/T/phphD88ZY
[a] => Array
(
[0] => /private/var/folders/wj/t2z1cfhs0m9gq48krm8nc0vm0000gn/T/phpNY8MzY
[b] => Array
(
[0] => /private/var/folders/wj/t2z1cfhs0m9gq48krm8nc0vm0000gn/T/php3MX5tk
)

)

[c] => Array
(
[0] => /private/var/folders/wj/t2z1cfhs0m9gq48krm8nc0vm0000gn/T/phpjgrHMj
)

[1] => /private/var/folders/wj/t2z1cfhs0m9gq48krm8nc0vm0000gn/T/phppXRtnc
[2] => Array
(
[0] => /private/var/folders/wj/t2z1cfhs0m9gq48krm8nc0vm0000gn/T/phpekSY1M
)

)

[error] => Array
(
[0] => 0
[a] => Array
(
[0] => 0
[b] => Array
(
[0] => 0
)

)

[c] => Array
(
[0] => 0
)

[1] => 0
[2] => Array
(
[0] => 0
)

)

[size] => Array
(
[0] => 4973
[a] => Array
(
[0] => 3007
[b] => Array
(
[0] => 1156
)

)

[c] => Array
(
[0] => 6068
)

[1] => 393194
[2] => Array
(
[0] => 36714
)

)

)

[newfile] => Array
(
[name] => Array
(
[0] => Array
(
[0] => 数据列表 (2).xlsx
)

[s] => background1.jpg
)

[type] => Array
(
[0] => Array
(
[0] => application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet
)

[s] => image/jpeg
)

[tmp_name] => Array
(
[0] => Array
(
[0] => /private/var/folders/wj/t2z1cfhs0m9gq48krm8nc0vm0000gn/T/phplSsRfM
)

[s] => /private/var/folders/wj/t2z1cfhs0m9gq48krm8nc0vm0000gn/T/phpuQAvRb
)

[error] => Array
(
[0] => Array
(
[0] => 0
)

[s] => 0
)

[size] => Array
(
[0] => Array
(
[0] => 77032
)

[s] => 393194
)

)

[singlefile] => Array
(
[name] => timg (8).jpeg
[type] => image/jpeg
[tmp_name] => /private/var/folders/wj/t2z1cfhs0m9gq48krm8nc0vm0000gn/T/phpxtSQ4J
[error] => 0
[size] => 10273
)

)

看出有什么问题了吗?

$_FILE['singlefile']['name'];
$_FILE['singlefile']['type'];
$_FILE['singlefile']['tmp_name'];
$_FILE['singlefile']['error'];
$_FILE['singlefile']['error'];

$_FILE['myfile']['name']['a']['b'][0];
$_FILE['myfile']['type']['a']['b'][0];
$_FILE['myfile']['tmp_name']['a']['b'][0];
$_FILE['myfile']['error']['a']['b'][0];
$_FILE['myfile']['error']['a']['b'][0];

单个表单是一个 singlefile 为键名的数组,里面是对应的 name 、 type 等属性。这个非常简单也清晰明了,但是数组形式上传的内容就比较坑了,每一个属性下面都有多个值,而且这些值还有可能是嵌套的数组。就比如说我们要获得 myfile[a][b][] 的上传文件内容,我们就要通过 \$_FILE['myfile']['name']['a']['b'][0] 、 $_FILE['myfile']['type']['a']['b'][0] 这样的形式获得相关的内容。这个可真的不是很友好,那么我们今天的主题就来了,我们把这种内容进行一下格式化,让他变成和 singlefile 类似的结构,也就是一个文件的相关内容都在一个键名结构下,比如 myfile[a][b][] 的内容就全部都在 $_FILE['myfile'][a][b][0]下面。

$files = [];
// 开始数据格式化
foreach ($_FILES as $uploadKey => $uploadFiles) {
// 需要将 $_FILES 中的五个字段都拿出来
$files[$uploadKey] = formatUploadFiles($uploadFiles['name'], $uploadFiles['type'], $uploadFiles['tmp_name'], $uploadFiles['error'], $uploadFiles['size']);
}

// 格式化上传文件数组
function formatUploadFiles($fileNamesArray, $type, $tmp_name, $error, $size)
{
$tmpFiles = [];
// 文件名是否是数组,如果不是数组,就是单个文件上传
if (is_array($fileNamesArray)) {
// 数组形式上传
foreach ($fileNamesArray as $idx => $fileName) {
// 如果还是嵌套的数组,递归遍历接下来的内容
if (is_array($fileName)) {
$tmpFiles[$idx] = formatUploadFiles($fileName, $type[$idx] ?? [], $tmp_name[$idx] ?? [], $error[$idx] ?? [], $size[$idx] ?? []);
} else {
// 组合多维的格式化内容
$tmpFiles[$idx] = [
'name' => $fileName,
'type' => $type[$idx] ?? '',
'tmp_name' => $tmp_name[$idx] ?? '',
'error' => $error[$idx] ?? '',
'size' => $size[$idx] ?? '',
];
}
}
} else {
// 组合单个的内容
$tmpFiles = [
'name' => $fileName,
'type' => $type ?? '',
'tmp_name' => $tmp_name ?? '',
'error' => $error ?? '',
'size' => $size ?? '',
];
}

return $tmpFiles;
}

print_r($files);

代码还是非常好理解的,就是通过一段递归来遍历整个 $_FILES 目录树,相当于一个深度遍历。当然,这样也会带来性能的下降,毕竟是需要进行循环+递归的遍历。不过好在大部分情况下我们上传的文件并不会那么的多。不过反过来说,如果不事先进行格式化,当你想获得所有的上传内容时,一样还是需要进行多层或者递归遍历的。

接下来我们看看格式化之后的输出:

Array
(
[myfile] => Array
(
[0] => Array
(
[name] => 2591d8b3eee018a0a84f671933ab6c74.png
[type] => image/png
[tmp_name] => /private/var/folders/wj/t2z1cfhs0m9gq48krm8nc0vm0000gn/T/phpV7A2yC
[error] => 0
[size] => 4973
)

[a] => Array
(
[0] => Array
(
[name] => 12711584942474_.pic_hd 1.jpg
[type] => image/jpeg
[tmp_name] => /private/var/folders/wj/t2z1cfhs0m9gq48krm8nc0vm0000gn/T/php5q2d1Z
[error] => 0
[size] => 3007
)

[b] => Array
(
[0] => Array
(
[name] => 12721584942474_.pic_hd 1.jpg
[type] => image/jpeg
[tmp_name] => /private/var/folders/wj/t2z1cfhs0m9gq48krm8nc0vm0000gn/T/phpdvv8No
[error] => 0
[size] => 1156
)

)

)

[c] => Array
(
[0] => Array
(
[name] => 12731584942474_.pic_hd.jpg
[type] => image/jpeg
[tmp_name] => /private/var/folders/wj/t2z1cfhs0m9gq48krm8nc0vm0000gn/T/php9tfGmp
[error] => 0
[size] => 6068
)

)

[1] => Array
(
[name] => background1.jpg
[type] => image/jpeg
[tmp_name] => /private/var/folders/wj/t2z1cfhs0m9gq48krm8nc0vm0000gn/T/phplUVpzA
[error] => 0
[size] => 393194
)

[2] => Array
(
[0] => Array
(
[name] => adliu_pip_data.xlsx
[type] => application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet
[tmp_name] => /private/var/folders/wj/t2z1cfhs0m9gq48krm8nc0vm0000gn/T/phpNRtiaC
[error] => 0
[size] => 36714
)

)

)

[newfile] => Array
(
[0] => Array
(
[0] => Array
(
[name] => 数据列表 (2).xlsx
[type] => application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet
[tmp_name] => /private/var/folders/wj/t2z1cfhs0m9gq48krm8nc0vm0000gn/T/phpBLG7aG
[error] => 0
[size] => 77032
)

)

[s] => Array
(
[name] => background1.jpg
[type] => image/jpeg
[tmp_name] => /private/var/folders/wj/t2z1cfhs0m9gq48krm8nc0vm0000gn/T/phpjyqCFY
[error] => 0
[size] => 393194
)

)

[singlefile] => Array
(
[name] =>
[type] => image/jpeg
[tmp_name] => /private/var/folders/wj/t2z1cfhs0m9gq48krm8nc0vm0000gn/T/phpuYJXiE
[error] => 0
[size] => 10273
)

)

和上面原始的 $_FILES 相比是不是清晰明了的很多?这回我们如果需要 myfile[a][b][] 里面全部的内容时,就可以使用下面的方式方便的获取了:

$files['myfile']['a']['b'][0]['name'];
$files['myfile']['a']['b'][0]['type'];
$files['myfile']['a']['b'][0]['tmp_name'];
$files['myfile']['a']['b'][0]['error'];
$files['myfile']['a']['b'][0]['size'];

当然,这种需求在我们的日常工作中并不多见,这里也只是提供一个思路,将数据提前转化成我们需要的格式是一种非常好的习惯,能够让我们的后续操作变得非常简单。

测试代码:

​https://github.com/zhangyue0503/dev-blog/blob/master/php/202004/source/PHP%E5%A4%9A%E6%96%87%E4%BB%B6%E4%B8%8A%E4%BC%A0%E6%A0%BC%E5%BC%8F%E5%8C%96.php​

参考文档:

​https://www.php.net/manual/zh/features.file-upload.php​