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The IT lifecycle for a typical enterprise involves the following phases: plan, test, deploy, configure, maintain and troubleshoot. These phases are the same regardless of whether you’re implementing applications, suites of applications, operating systems, or whole solutions. An important part of this lifecycle is the deployment phase, which can involve anything from popping a DVD into a single box to install something, to automating the deployment of an application or operating system to thousands of desktops at multiple sites.

In the past, deploying Microsoft Windows to large numbers of computers has usually meant one of three things: cobbling together an automated deployment solution using MS-DOS network boot floppies, unattend.txt files, cmdlines.txt files, and various .ini and .inf files; using Remote Installation Services (RIS), a server-based deployment solution first introduced in Windows 2000 Server; or buying a third-party disk imaging or “cloning” tool like Norton Ghost and using this instead. Of course, if you were a Microsoft Software Assurance (SA) volume license customer, or an OEM, then starting with Windows XP you also had access to another tool, the Windows Preinstallation Environment (Windows PE), which basically meant you could throw out your MS-DOS boot disks. Anyway, most time- and budget-conscious admins chose the third approach (cloning) especially if they had more than a few dozen machines to install, and while some very large enterprises deployed RIS, most small and medium-sized businesses (SMBs) preferred third-party disk-imaging solutions like Ghost. In fact, the word “ghosting” became synonymous with “deploying” for many Windows administrators.

1. 用带网络驱动的启动软盘启动的，使用Unattend.txt文件、Cmdlines.txt文件和各种ini及inf文件进行的自动部署；
2. 使用远程安装服务Remote Installation Services (RIS)；
3. 购买一个第三方的基于磁盘镜像或者“克隆”工具（比如Ghost）的方案。

With the arrival of Windows Vista however, the landscape has changed as Vista now has a number of tools for preparing, capturing and servicing disk images and then deploying them in unattended fashion to bare-metal systems. Some of these deployment tools (like Sysprep.exe) are included in the operating system itself; others are available from the Microsoft Download Center as a free download; still others like Windows Deployment Services (Windows DS), the successor to RIS, are provided as a role you can add to Windows Server 2008. In addition to such tools, Microsoft has also developed a Solution Accelerator (SA)—a collection of tools, scripts and documentation—for taking some of the complexity out of deploying Windows. The first version of this was called the Solution Accelerator for Business Desktop Deployment 2007, or BDD 2007 for short.

Note:
While the focus of these articles will be on deploying Vista, much of the content will be helpful for deploying Windows Server 2008 as well, and to facilitate this the articles will focus on version 1.1 of the Windows AIK, which will be released with Windows Vista Service Pack 1 and Windows Server 2008. Note also that deploying pre-Vista versions of Windows will not be covered in these articles

What`s in WAIK?

WAIK里有什么？

The Windows AIK consists of tools, documentation and samples to enable administrators to perform automated deployment of the Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 family of operating system platforms. Windows AIK 1.1 can be used to deploy Windows Vista RTM, Windows Vista with SP1, and Windows Server 2008. To use the Windows AIK, you first have to obtain it. Version 1.0 is available from the Microsoft Download Center; at the time of writing, version 1.1 is still under development and can be obtained from Microsoft Connect if you’re on the Windows Server 2008 beta program.

WAIK包含了工具、文档以及案例，使得管理员可以实施Vista和2008家族操作系统的自动部署。WAIK 1.1可以用于部署Vista、Vista SP1和2008。你可以从微软的下载中心获得WAIK，现在最新的正式版是1.1，使用于Vista SP1和2008，也有供Win7使用的测试版可以下载。

To use Windows AIK, you first install it on a technician computer, which is simply the computer you will use to create answer files, build configuration sets, build custom Windows PE images, and so on. Your technician computer doesn’t have to be running Windows Vista or Windows Server 2008—you can use a Windows XP or Windows Server 2003 machine instead if you want. Your technician computer does need to have the .NET Framework 2.0 and MSXML 6.0 installed on it however, but you can install these directly from the Windows AIK splash screen before you install the Windows AIK itself (Figure 1):

After you install the Windows AIK on your technician computer, you’ll have access to the following tools:

• Windows System Image Manager (Windows SIM), which can be used to create XML answer files and distribution shares.

Windows系统镜像管理器，用来创建XML格式的应答文件以及分发共享

• ImageX, a command-line tool for capturing, servicing, and applying Windows Imaging Format (WIM) files, which are file-based Windows disk images used by Windows Vista and later.

ImageX，一个用来抓取、服务及应用WIM镜像文件的命令行工具

• PEimg.exe, a command-line tool for creating and modifying Windows PE 2.1 images offline.

PEimg.exe，一个命令行工具，可以脱机创建和修改PE 2.1镜像

• Package Manager (Pkgmgr.exe), a command-line tool for offline servicing of Windows images.

• Other command-line tools including BCDEdit, Bootsect, DiskPart, Drvload, and others that can be used to automate various aspects of deployment.

In addition, Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 also includes Sysprep.exe, the System Preparation Tool, which is used to prepare a computer for disk imaging by removing machine-specific information such as SIDs, and also for other purposes such as adding device drivers to an existing Windows installation using Audit mode.

When the Windows AIK is installed on a technician computer, it creates a folder structure similar to the one shown in Figure 2 below. After you’ve installed the Windows AIK it’s worthwhile exploring the contents of these folders as there is much helpful documentation and also sample files of various kinds that illustrate how these different tools can be used to deploy Windows.

Quick Guide To Changes in Deployment Tools and Technologies in Vista

In future articles of this series, we’re going to dive deep into how to use each of these tools, but before we start doing this let me leave you with something that will kick start your learning concerning how deployment tools and technologies have changed in Vista. I’m assuming you’re familiar with the standard Microsoft tools and technologies used to deploy Windows XP, right? Well, if so, here’s a quick guide to how these things have changed in Windows Vista and beyond:

 Tool or Technology Old (pre-Vista) New (Vista and Beyond) Sysprep.exe Found in Deploy.cab on your product CD 在产品光盘的Deploy.cab中 Found in %WINDIR%\System32\Sysprep folder 在system32\sysprep目录中 Disk imaging tool 磁盘镜像工具 None (use Ghost or some other third-party product) 没有（使用第三方产品） ImageX (included in Windows AIK) 使用WAIK的ImageX Tool for creating answer files Setup Manager (found in Deploy.cab) 产品CD中的Deploy.cab里 Windows SIM (included in Windows AIK) WAIK的Windows镜像管理器 Answer file format 应答文件的格式 Text file with sections and key=value parameters 文本文件 XML file XML文件 Number of different answer files 应答文件的数量 Lots e.g. unattend.txt, winnt.sif, sysprep.inf, winborn.ini, oobeinfo.ini and so on. Only two: unattend.xml and (optionally) oobe.xml. How to run additional commands during installation 如何在安装过程中运行其他命令 List them in cmdlines.txt and use $OEM$ folder on your distribution share 把命令列在Cmdlines.tx中并调用共享中的$OEM$ Use RunAsynchronous or RunSynchronous in unattend.xml 在unattend.xml填写RunAsynchronous或者RunSynchronous How to run additional commands after first logon 如何在第一次登录后运行附加命令 Use [GuiRunOnce] section of unattend.txt. 在unattend.txt里填写[GuiRunOnce] Use FirstLogonCommands in unattend.xml 修改unattend.xml的FirstLogonCommands How to provide supplementary files for an installation 如何为安装提供附加文件 Use $OEM$ folders and various subfolders under this 使用$OEM$目录和里面的子目录 Use ImageX to create a data image 用ImageX来创建资源的镜像文件