前言:

在去年的时候就一直打算把这系列的文章翻译,但由于众所周知的人类固有缺陷的原因,迟迟没有下笔。进入新的一年,眼看Win7都要发布了,Vista的东西再不快点发布出去就快烂箱底 - -#

过年7天,日子还是过得很快的,眼看自己也在新公司工作满一年,快乐、悲伤、愤怒都让自己品尝了一遍。自己也算是终于开始上道了,虽然还有很多不成熟的地方,希望自己在新年里能百尺竿头更进一步。

关于部署这块,09年里大概是不会像08年里那样狂热,这个系列文章翻译结束后,我大概会把这两年里学习的东西做个总结,把一些该考的考试考了,也算是给自己一个交代。接下来,就是转向开发咯。学计算机的,怎么能不懂开发?说出去会笑死人的,更何况,在我心里,还是有梦想的~~

废话不说,开始第一篇,了解Window Automated Installation Kit

原帖地址:http://www.windowsnetworking.com/articles_tutorials/Deploying-Vista-Understanding-Windows-AIK.html

PS 如果有看客觉得翻译上有什么不通顺或者毛病的地方请参阅原帖地址,翻译上可能有的部分会被我整段整段删除。

The IT lifecycle for a typical enterprise involves the following phases: plan, test, deploy, configure, maintain and troubleshoot. These phases are the same regardless of whether you’re implementing applications, suites of applications, operating systems, or whole solutions. An important part of this lifecycle is the deployment phase, which can involve anything from popping a DVD into a single box to install something, to automating the deployment of an application or operating system to thousands of desktops at multiple sites.

在一个典型的企业里IT生命流程包含了下面几个阶段:计划、测试、部署、配置、维护和问题解决。无论你是部署软件、部署操作系统或者整个解决方案,这些步骤都是相同的。在整个生命流程里最重要的部分就是部署阶段,你可能是从一个DVD光盘里安装、或者使用一些技术进行把软件或操作系统到部署到不同站点的数以千计的客户端上。

In the past, deploying Microsoft Windows to large numbers of computers has usually meant one of three things: cobbling together an automated deployment solution using MS-DOS network boot floppies, unattend.txt files, cmdlines.txt files, and various .ini and .inf files; using Remote Installation Services (RIS), a server-based deployment solution first introduced in Windows 2000 Server; or buying a third-party disk imaging or “cloning” tool like Norton Ghost and using this instead. Of course, if you were a Microsoft Software Assurance (SA) volume license customer, or an OEM, then starting with Windows XP you also had access to another tool, the Windows Preinstallation Environment (Windows PE), which basically meant you could throw out your MS-DOS boot disks. Anyway, most time- and budget-conscious admins chose the third approach (cloning) especially if they had more than a few dozen machines to install, and while some very large enterprises deployed RIS, most small and medium-sized businesses (SMBs) preferred third-party disk-imaging solutions like Ghost. In fact, the word “ghosting” became synonymous with “deploying” for many Windows administrators.

在过去,Windows部署到多台计算机时常常意味着三件事情中的一件:

  1. 用带网络驱动的启动软盘启动的,使用Unattend.txt文件、Cmdlines.txt文件和各种ini及inf文件进行的自动部署;
  2. 使用远程安装服务Remote Installation Services (RIS);
  3. 购买一个第三方的基于磁盘镜像或者“克隆”工具(比如Ghost)的方案。

当然,如果你是一个微软的SA批量客户端用户,或者OEM客户,你可能不会使用DOS启动盘,而是使用Windows Preinstallation Environment (Windows PE)作为平台使用其他一些工具。无论如何,大部分对时间和成本敏感的管理员在部署大量计算机时会选择第三方如Ghost这样的部署技术,而当一些非常大的大企业里则部署了RIS,大多数中小企业却选择了第三方的磁盘镜像技术。事实上,对很多Windows管理员而言,“Ghost”就等同于“装机”。

With the arrival of Windows Vista however, the landscape has changed as Vista now has a number of tools for preparing, capturing and servicing disk images and then deploying them in unattended fashion to bare-metal systems. Some of these deployment tools (like Sysprep.exe) are included in the operating system itself; others are available from the Microsoft Download Center as a free download; still others like Windows Deployment Services (Windows DS), the successor to RIS, are provided as a role you can add to Windows Server 2008. In addition to such tools, Microsoft has also developed a Solution Accelerator (SA)—a collection of tools, scripts and documentation—for taking some of the complexity out of deploying Windows. The first version of this was called the Solution Accelerator for Business Desktop Deployment 2007, or BDD 2007 for short.

伴随着Vista的发布,情况发生了变化,因为Vista提供一整套用于准备、抓取和服务的磁盘镜像工具来实施对裸机进行的自动无人参与部署。这些工具的中有的(比如Sysprep.exe)包含在操作系统本身中,其余的则是可以从Microsoft的下载中心进行下载,还有一些诸如WDS,RIS的继任者,是作为一个角色包含在Windows Server 2008里。除了这些工具,Microsoft还开发了一套解决方案加速器:一个工具、脚本和文档的集合,他的出现大大简化了部署Windows的复杂性。这个加速器就是我们熟知的BDD2007。

Note:
While the focus of these articles will be on deploying Vista, much of the content will be helpful for deploying Windows Server 2008 as well, and to facilitate this the articles will focus on version 1.1 of the Windows AIK, which will be released with Windows Vista Service Pack 1 and Windows Server 2008. Note also that deploying pre-Vista versions of Windows will not be covered in these articles

注意:

本系列的文章主要关注于Vista的部署,但绝大部分内容对部署2008同样有效。适用的WAIK版本为1.1。(现在已经发布)同时注意,本文不会涉及Vista之前的操作系统部署。

What`s in WAIK?

WAIK里有什么?

The Windows AIK consists of tools, documentation and samples to enable administrators to perform automated deployment of the Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 family of operating system platforms. Windows AIK 1.1 can be used to deploy Windows Vista RTM, Windows Vista with SP1, and Windows Server 2008. To use the Windows AIK, you first have to obtain it. Version 1.0 is available from the Microsoft Download Center; at the time of writing, version 1.1 is still under development and can be obtained from Microsoft Connect if you’re on the Windows Server 2008 beta program.

WAIK包含了工具、文档以及案例,使得管理员可以实施Vista和2008家族操作系统的自动部署。WAIK 1.1可以用于部署Vista、Vista SP1和2008。你可以从微软的下载中心获得WAIK,现在最新的正式版是1.1,使用于Vista SP1和2008,也有供Win7使用的测试版可以下载。

To use Windows AIK, you first install it on a technician computer, which is simply the computer you will use to create answer files, build configuration sets, build custom Windows PE images, and so on. Your technician computer doesn’t have to be running Windows Vista or Windows Server 2008—you can use a Windows XP or Windows Server 2003 machine instead if you want. Your technician computer does need to have the .NET Framework 2.0 and MSXML 6.0 installed on it however, but you can install these directly from the Windows AIK splash screen before you install the Windows AIK itself (Figure 1):

在安装WAIk之前,你应当先确定用什么电脑来安装它——这台电脑将是你的实验台,你还要在这台计算机上创建应答文件、建立配置文件并创建定制的PE镜像等等。这台计算机不需要运行Vista或者2008,你可以用一台XP或者2003的机器来完成你的工作。当然,你还要安装.net Framework 2.0以及MSXML 6.0,你可以从WAIK的安装界面里直接安装需要的程序。

After you install the Windows AIK on your technician computer, you’ll have access to the following tools:

当你安装好WAIK,你将可以使用这些工具:

  • Windows System Image Manager (Windows SIM), which can be used to create XML answer files and distribution shares.

Windows系统镜像管理器,用来创建XML格式的应答文件以及分发共享

  • ImageX, a command-line tool for capturing, servicing, and applying Windows Imaging Format (WIM) files, which are file-based Windows disk images used by Windows Vista and later.

ImageX,一个用来抓取、服务及应用WIM镜像文件的命令行工具

  • PEimg.exe, a command-line tool for creating and modifying Windows PE 2.1 images offline.

PEimg.exe,一个命令行工具,可以脱机创建和修改PE 2.1镜像

  • Package Manager (Pkgmgr.exe), a command-line tool for offline servicing of Windows images.

包管理器(Pkgmgr.exe),离线管理Windows镜像的命令行工具

  • Other command-line tools including BCDEdit, Bootsect, DiskPart, Drvload, and others that can be used to automate various aspects of deployment.

其他一些命令工具,包括BCDEdit, Bootsect, DiskPart, Drvload等等,用于实现自动化部署的各个任务。

In addition, Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 also includes Sysprep.exe, the System Preparation Tool, which is used to prepare a computer for disk imaging by removing machine-specific information such as SIDs, and also for other purposes such as adding device drivers to an existing Windows installation using Audit mode.

除了以上这些,Vista和2008也包含了Sysprep.exe,系统准备工具,可以用来移除一些特别信息,像SIDs,以便进行系统镜像,也可以用于一些其他目的,像是在审计模式里向已经存在的Windows安装中添加驱动。

When the Windows AIK is installed on a technician computer, it creates a folder structure similar to the one shown in Figure 2 below. After you’ve installed the Windows AIK it’s worthwhile exploring the contents of these folders as there is much helpful documentation and also sample files of various kinds that illustrate how these different tools can be used to deploy Windows.

当WAIK安装好后,会在计算机上创建如图中那样的文件夹结构。这些文件值得你去探索一些,他们对你的部署十分有用,那些文档中的案例会告诉你如何使用不同的工具来进行Windows的部署。

Quick Guide To Changes in Deployment Tools and Technologies in Vista

In future articles of this series, we’re going to dive deep into how to use each of these tools, but before we start doing this let me leave you with something that will kick start your learning concerning how deployment tools and technologies have changed in Vista. I’m assuming you’re familiar with the standard Microsoft tools and technologies used to deploy Windows XP, right? Well, if so, here’s a quick guide to how these things have changed in Windows Vista and beyond:

在接下来的系列中,我们将会深入如何使用这些工具,但在开始之前,请允许我列出那些Vista中部署工具及技术的改变。在这里我假设你已经了解了XP下的部署工具和技术:

Tool or Technology

Old (pre-Vista)

New (Vista and Beyond)

Sysprep.exe

Found in Deploy.cab on your product CD

在产品光盘的Deploy.cab中

Found in %WINDIR%\System32\Sysprep folder

在system32\sysprep目录中

Disk imaging tool

磁盘镜像工具

None (use Ghost or some other third-party product)

没有(使用第三方产品)

ImageX (included in Windows AIK)

使用WAIK的ImageX

Tool for creating answer files

Setup Manager (found in Deploy.cab)

产品CD中的Deploy.cab里

Windows SIM (included in Windows AIK)

WAIK的Windows镜像管理器

Answer file format

应答文件的格式

Text file with sections and key=value parameters

文本文件

XML file

XML文件

Number of different answer files

应答文件的数量

Lots e.g. unattend.txt, winnt.sif, sysprep.inf, winborn.ini, oobeinfo.ini and so on.

Only two: unattend.xml and (optionally) oobe.xml.

 

How to run additional commands during installation

如何在安装过程中运行其他命令

List them in cmdlines.txt and use $OEM$ folder on your distribution share

把命令列在Cmdlines.tx中并调用共享中的$OEM$

Use RunAsynchronous or RunSynchronous in unattend.xml

在unattend.xml填写RunAsynchronous或者RunSynchronous

How to run additional commands after first logon

如何在第一次登录后运行附加命令

Use [GuiRunOnce] section of unattend.txt.

在unattend.txt里填写[GuiRunOnce]

Use FirstLogonCommands in unattend.xml

修改unattend.xml的FirstLogonCommands

How to provide supplementary files for an installation

如何为安装提供附加文件

Use $OEM$ folders and various subfolders under this

使用$OEM$目录和里面的子目录

Use ImageX to create a data image

用ImageX来创建资源的镜像文件