一、FastDFS简介

一、FastDFS简介

FastDFS是由国人余庆所开发,其项目地址:https://github.com/happyfish100
 FastDFS是一个轻量级的开源分布式文件系统,主要解决了大容量的文件存储和高并发访问的问题,文件存取时实现了负载均衡。
 支持存储服务器在线扩容,支持相同的文件只保存一份,节约磁盘。
 FastDFS只能通过Client API访问,不支持POSIX访问方式。
 FastDFS适合中大型网站使用,用来存储资源文件(如:图片、文档、视频等)

二、FastDFS组成部分及其它名词

1、tracker server

跟踪服务器:用来调度来自客户端的请求。且在内存中记录所有存储组和存储服务器的信息状态。

2、storage server

存储服务器:用来存储文件(data)和文件属性(metadata)

3、client

客户端:业务请求发起方,通过专用接口基于TCP协议与tracker以及storage server进行交互

group

组,也可称为卷:同组内上的文件是完全相同的

文件标识

包括两部分:组名和文件名(包含路径)

meta data

文件相关属性:键值对(Key Value Pair)方式

fid

文件标识符:
例如:
group1/M00/00/00/CgEOxVegXB2AdYafAAAB0b8tBbQ9155303
group_name:存储组的组名;上传完成后,需要客户端自行保存
M##:服务器配置的虚拟路径,与磁盘选项store_path#对应
两级以两位16进制数字命名的目录
文件名:与原文件名并不相同;由storage server根据特定信息生成。文件名包含:源存储服务器的IP地址、文件创建时间戳、文件大小、随机数和文件扩展名等

三、FastDFS同步机制

1、同一组内的storage server之间是对等的,文件上传、删除等操作可以在任意一台storage server上进行;
 2、文件同步只在同组内的storage server之间进行,采用push方式,即源服务器同步给目标服务器;
 3、源头数据才需要同步,备份数据不需要再次同步,否则就构成环路了;
 上述第二条规则有个例外,就是新增加一台storage server时,由已有的一台storage server将已有的所有数据(包括源头数据和备份数据)同步给该新增服务器。

四、FastDFS与集中存储方式对比

fastdfs2.png

五、FastDFS和mogileFS对比

fastdfs1.png

六、FastDFS安装配置

1、安装开发环境

# yum groupinstall "Development Tools" "Server platform Development"

2、安装libfastcommon

# git clone https://github.com/happyfish100/libfastcommon.git
# cd libfastcommon/
# ./make.sh
# ./make.sh install

3、安装fastdfs

# cd /root/
# git clone https://github.com/happyfish100/fastdfs.git
# cd fastdfs/
# ./make.sh
# ./make.sh install

tracker 配置

配置文件修改:根据需求修改

# cd /etc/fdfs
# cp tracker.conf.sample tracker.conf
# vim /etc/fdfs/tracker.conf
 base_path=/data/fdfs/tracker # 存储日志及tracker的状态信息

启动服务(Centos6):

# mkdir -pv /data/fdfs/tracker
# service fdfs_trackerd start

启动服务(Centos7)方式一:

# mkdir -pv /data/fdfs/tracker
# /etc/init.d/fdfs_trackerd start

启动服务(Centos7)方式二:
添加systemd的units文件

# cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/fdfs_trackerd << EOF
# Systemd unit file for default tomcat
#

[Unit]
Description=FastDFS tracker script
After=syslog.target network.target

[Service]
Type=notify
ExecStart=/usr/bin/fdfs_trackerd /etc/fdfs/tracker.conf


[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

通过systemd启动

systemctl start fdfs_trackerd.service
# ss -tnl|grep 22122
LISTEN     0      128          *:22122                    *:*  

storage 配置

根据需求修改

# cd /etc/fdfs
# cp storage.conf.sample storage.conf
# vim /etc/fdfs/storage.conf
 group_name=group1  #指定组名
 base_path=/data/fdfs/storage # 用于存储数据
 store_path_count=2 # 设置设备数量
 store_path0=/data/fdfs/storage/m0 #指定存储路径0
 store_path1=/data/fdfs/storage/m1 #指定存储路径1
 # 注意:同一组内存储路径不能冲突,例如:下一个节点的存储路径就是m2,m3....等
 tracker_server=10.1.14.197:22122 #指定tracker

启动服务(Centos6):

# mkdir -pv /data/fdfs/storage/{m0,m1} # 创建数据目录
# service fdfs_storaged start

启动服务(Centos7)方式一:

# mkdir -pv /data/fdfs/storage/{m0,m1} # 创建数据目录
# /etc/init.d/fdfs_storaged start

启动服务(Centos7)方式二:
添加systemd的units文件

# mkdir -pv /data/fdfs/storage/{m0,m1} # 创建数据目录

# cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/fdfs_trackerd << EOF
# Systemd unit file for default fastdfs storage
#

[Unit]
Description=FastDFS storage script
After=syslog.target network.target

[Service]
Type=notify
ExecStart=/usr/bin/fdfs_storaged /etc/fdfs/storage.conf


[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

通过systemd启动

systemctl start fdfs_storaged.service
# ss -tnl|grep 23000
LISTEN     0      128          *:23000                    *:*  

client配置

修改客户端配置文件

base_path=/data/fdfs/client
tracker_server=10.1.14.197:22122

七、测试FastDFS

1、上传文件

fdfs_upload_file   [storage_ip:port] [store_path_index]

# fdfs_upload_file /etc/fdfs/client.conf /etc/issue
group1/M00/00/00/CgEOxVeMxeuABKiEAAAAF30Ccq85795930

2、查看文件

fdfs_file_info

# fdfs_file_info /etc/fdfs/client.conf group1/M00/00/00/CgEOxVeMxeuABKiEAAAAF30Ccq85795930

source storage id: 0
source ip address: 10.1.14.198
file create timestamp: 2016-07-18 20:04:59
file size: 23
file crc32: 2097312431 (0x7D0272AF)

3、下载文件

fdfs_download_file   [local_filename] [ ]

# fdfs_download_file /etc/fdfs/client.conf group1/M00/00/00/CgEOxVeMxeuABKiEAAAAF30Ccq85795930 /tmp/issue

4、查看存储节点状态

# fdfs_monitor /etc/fdfs/client.conf
[2016-08-03 11:58:20] DEBUG - base_path=/data/fdfs/client, connect_timeout=30, network_timeout=60, tracker_server_count=1, anti_steal_token=0, anti_steal_secret_key length=0, use_connection_pool=0, g_connection_pool_max_idle_time=3600s, use_storage_id=0, storage server id count: 0

server_count=1, server_index=0

tracker server is 10.1.14.197:22122

group count: 1

Group 1:
group name = mage1
disk total space = 18898 MB
disk free space = 17222 MB
trunk free space = 0 MB
storage server count = 2
active server count = 2
storage server port = 23000
storage HTTP port = 8888
store path count = 1
subdir count per path = 256
current write server index = 1
current trunk file id = 0

   Storage 1:
       id = 10.1.14.198
       ip_addr = 10.1.14.198  ACTIVE
       http domain =
       version = 5.08
       join time = 2016-08-03 20:40:46
       up time = 2016-08-03 11:58:16
       total storage = 18898 MB
       free storage = 17222 MB
       upload priority = 10
       store_path_count = 1
       subdir_count_per_path = 256
       storage_port = 23000
       storage_http_port = 8888
       current_write_path = 0
       source storage id =
       if_trunk_server = 0
       connection.alloc_count = 256
       connection.current_count = 0
       connection.max_count = 0
       total_upload_count = 1
       success_upload_count = 1
       total_append_count = 0
       success_append_count = 0
       total_modify_count = 0
       success_modify_count = 0
       total_truncate_count = 0
       success_truncate_count = 0
       total_set_meta_count = 0
       success_set_meta_count = 0
       total_delete_count = 0
       success_delete_count = 0
       total_download_count = 0
       success_download_count = 0
       total_get_meta_count = 0
       success_get_meta_count = 0
       total_create_link_count = 0
       success_create_link_count = 0
       total_delete_link_count = 0
       success_delete_link_count = 0
       total_upload_bytes = 23
       success_upload_bytes = 23
       total_append_bytes = 0
       success_append_bytes = 0
       total_modify_bytes = 0
       success_modify_bytes = 0
       stotal_download_bytes = 0
       success_download_bytes = 0
       total_sync_in_bytes = 0
       success_sync_in_bytes = 0
       total_sync_out_bytes = 0
       success_sync_out_bytes = 0
       total_file_open_count = 1
       success_file_open_count = 1
       total_file_read_count = 0
       success_file_read_count = 0
       total_file_write_count = 1
       success_file_write_count = 1
       last_heart_beat_time = 2016-08-03 11:58:15
       last_source_update = 2016-08-03 20:43:55
       last_sync_update = 1970-01-01 08:00:00
       last_synced_timestamp = 1970-01-01 08:00:00
   Storage 2:
       id = 10.1.14.199
       ip_addr = 10.1.14.199  ACTIVE
       http domain =
       version = 5.08
       join time = 2016-08-03 20:42:13
       up time = 2016-08-03 11:58:08
       total storage = 18898 MB
       free storage = 17222 MB
       upload priority = 10
       store_path_count = 1
       subdir_count_per_path = 256
       storage_port = 23000
       storage_http_port = 8888
       current_write_path = 0
       source storage id = 10.1.14.198
       if_trunk_server = 0
       connection.alloc_count = 256
       connection.current_count = 0
       connection.max_count = 0
       total_upload_count = 0
       success_upload_count = 0
       total_append_count = 0
       success_append_count = 0
       total_modify_count = 0
       success_modify_count = 0
       total_truncate_count = 0
       success_truncate_count = 0
       total_set_meta_count = 0
       success_set_meta_count = 0
       total_delete_count = 0
       success_delete_count = 0
       total_download_count = 0
       success_download_count = 0
       total_get_meta_count = 0
       success_get_meta_count = 0
       total_create_link_count = 0
       success_create_link_count = 0
       total_delete_link_count = 0
       success_delete_link_count = 0
       total_upload_bytes = 0
       success_upload_bytes = 0
       total_append_bytes = 0
       success_append_bytes = 0
       total_modify_bytes = 0
       success_modify_bytes = 0
       stotal_download_bytes = 0
       success_download_bytes = 0
       total_sync_in_bytes = 23
       success_sync_in_bytes = 23
       total_sync_out_bytes = 0
       success_sync_out_bytes = 0
       total_file_open_count = 1
       success_file_open_count = 1
       total_file_read_count = 0
       success_file_read_count = 0
       total_file_write_count = 1
       success_file_write_count = 1
       last_heart_beat_time = 2016-08-03 11:58:07
       last_source_update = 1970-01-01 08:00:00
       last_sync_update = 2016-08-03 20:43:57
       last_synced_timestamp = 2016-08-03 20:43:55 (0s delay)

八、配置nginx为storage server提供http访问接口

1、下载fastdfs-nginx-module

# git clone https://github.com/happyfish100/fastdfs-nginx-module.git

2、下载nginx源码,并编译支持fastdfs

# 安装依赖程序
# yum install openssl-devel pcre-devel -y &>/dev/null

# wget http://nginx.org/download/nginx-1.10.1.tar.gz &>/dev/null

# tar xf /root/nginx-1.10.1.tar.gz

# cd /root/nginx-1.10.1
# useradd -r nginx &>/dev/null

# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/nginx --conf-path=/etc/nginx/nginx.conf --error-log-path=/var/log/nginx/error.log --http-log-path=/var/log/nginx/access.log --pid-path=/var/run/nginx/nginx.pid --lock-path=/var/lock/nginx.lock --user=nginx --group=nginx --with-http_ssl_module --with-http_stub_status_module --with-pcre --add-module=../fastdfs-nginx-module/src
# make
# make install

3、复制配置文件

# cp /root/fastdfs-nginx-module/src/mod_fastdfs.conf  /etc/fdfs/
# cp /root/fastdfs-5.0.8/conf/{http.conf,mime.types}  /etc/fdfs/

注意:fastdfs-5.0.8fastdfs源码目录,如为更改,应叫fastdfs

4、配置fastdfs-nginx-module配置文件

# vim /etc/fdfs/mod_fastdfs.conf
base_path=/data/fdfs/storage #存储节点的目录位置
tracker_server=10.1.14.197:22122 #制定tracker-server
storage_server_port=23000
group_name=mage1  #制定组名
url_have_group_name = true  #访问路径中是否包括组名
store_path_count=1 #配置路径个数
store_path0=/data/fdfs/storage/m0  #指定要查看的路径

[group1]
group_name=mage1
storage_server_port=23000
store_path_count=1
store_path0=/data/fdfs/storage/m0

5、配置nginx

# vim /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
location ~ /mage[0-9]+/M00/ {
   root /data/fdfs/storage/m0/data/;
   ngx_fastdfs_module;
}      
# cat >> /etc/profile.d/nginx.sh << EOF
export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/nginx/sbin
EOF

# source /etc/profile.d/nginx.sh

6、为存储文件路径穿件链接至M00

# ln -sv /data/fdfs/storage/m0/data  /data/fdfs/storage/m0/data/M00 

7、启动nginx和重启storage并上传文件测试

启动nginx
# nginx -t
# nginx
# /etc/init.d/fdfs_storaged restart
# ss -tnl|grep -E "(80|23000)"
LISTEN     0      128          *:80                       *:*                  
LISTEN     0      128          *:23000                    *:*  

上传文件

# fdfs_upload_file /etc/fdfs/client.conf /usr/share/wallpapers/CentOS7/contents/p_w_picpaths/2560x1600.jpg
mage1/M00/00/00/CgEOx1ehc2eATt6RAA6q2wjnW8s035.jpg

查看测试

fastdfs3.png

 作者:Antony WX&QQ:1257465991 
 Q/A:如有问题请慷慨提出

如有格式问题请访问:
http://zantony.top/2016/08/02/%E5%88%86%E5%B8%83%E5%BC%8F%E6%96%87%E4%BB%B6%E7%B3%BB%E7%BB%9F-FastDFS/