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温故知新ASP.NET 2.0(C#)(5) - Localization(本地化,多语言)


作者:webabcd


介绍
声明性资源表达式可使您的应用程序使用多种语言,而不必手动编写代码来检索资源并在页中进行替换。您只需使用 ASP.NET 2.0 中新提供的表达式语法即可对资源替换进行定义。ASP.NET 2.0 支持标准的 resx 文件格式自动进行运行时资源检索。


关键
1、Culture - 决定各种数据类型是如何组织,如数字与日期;UICulture - 决定了采用哪一种本地化资源,也就是使用哪种语言。在页的@Page指令中或者配置文件的<system.web><globalization>元素中设置(另外该元素内还可以设置属性requestEncoding,responseEncoding,fileEncoding)。Culture="en-us"和Culture="auto:en-us"的区别在于,后者会先自动匹配,无法自动匹配则用en-us

2、HTTP 允许浏览器使用“接受语言”(Accept-Language) HTTP 请求标头字段将一个首选语言列表发送到 Web 服务器。在IE中选择工具 - Internet 选项 - 语言

3、web.sitemap应用本地化的时候设置<siteMap>的属性enableLocalization="true"。访问全局资源:$Resources: 全局资源名, 资源内的key, 默认值;或者resourceKey="web.sitemap.resx文件中的key"

4、编程方式处理用GetGlobalResourceObject() 和 GetLocalResourceObject()

5、编程设置Culture 和 UICulture请重写InitializeCulture(),对 Thread.CurrentThread.CurrentCulture 和 Thread.CurrentThread.CurrentUICulture进行设置

6、访问全局资源:$ Resources:全局资源名,资源内的key;显式访问本地资源:$ Resources:key.属性;隐式访问本地资源:meta:resourcekey="key"。


示例
本地化测试
Localization/Test.aspx
<%@ Page Language="C#" MasterPageFile="~/Site.master" AutoEventWireup="true" CodeFile="Test.aspx.cs"
        Inherits="Localization_Test" Title="本地化测试" Culture="en-us" UICulture="en-us"
        meta:resourcekey="Title" %>

<asp:Content ID="Content1" ContentPlaceHolderID="ContentPlaceHolder1" runat="Server">
        <p>
                目前语言:
                <asp:Label ID="lblCurrentCulture" runat="Server" />
        </p>
        <p>
                当前时间:
                <%=DateTime.Now %>
        </p>
        <p>
                隐式:
                <asp:Label ID="lbl" runat="server" meta:resourcekey="lbl" /></p>
        <p>
                显式:
                <asp:Label ID="lbl2" runat="server" Text="<%$ Resources:lbl.Text %>" ToolTip="<%$ Resources:lbl.ToolTip %>" />
        </p>
        <p>
                全局:
                <asp:Label ID="lbl3" runat="Server" Text="<%$ Resources:MyGlobal,GlobalText %>" />
        </p>
        <p>
                编码方式(全局资源):
                <asp:Label ID="lbl4" runat="server" />
        </p>
        <p>
                编码方式(本地资源):
                <asp:Label ID="lbl5" runat="server" />
        </p>
        <p>
                Localize控件方式(Label控件到客户端会解析成<span>,而Localize到客户端后就是解析成其所包含的文字):
                <asp:Localize ID="AboutUs" runat="server" meta:resourcekey="AboutUs"></asp:Localize>
        </p>
        <p>
                <a href="?currentculture=zh-cn">中文</a>
                 
                <a href="?currentculture=en-us">英文</a>
        </p>
        <p>
                注:<br />
                Culture - 决定各种数据类型是如何组织,如数字与日期<br />
                UICulture - 决定了采用哪一种本地化资源,也就是使用哪种语言
        </p>
</asp:Content>
 
Localization/Test.aspx.cs
using System;
using System.Data;
using System.Configuration;
using System.Collections;
using System.Web;
using System.Web.Security;
using System.Web.UI;
using System.Web.UI.WebControls;
using System.Web.UI.WebControls.WebParts;
using System.Web.UI.HtmlControls;

public partial class Localization_Test : System.Web.UI.Page
{
        protected void Page_Load(object sender, EventArgs e)
        {
                // 以下一看就懂
                lbl4.Text = Resources.MyGlobal.GlobalText;
                // lbl4.Text = (string)GetGlobalResourceObject("MyGlobal", "GlobalText");

                lbl5.Text = (string)GetLocalResourceObject("lbl.Text");

                lblCurrentCulture.Text = System.Globalization.CultureInfo.CurrentCulture.Name;
        }

        protected override void InitializeCulture()
        {
                // 获取当前Culture的值
                string s = Request.QueryString["currentculture"];
                if (!String.IsNullOrEmpty(s))
                {
                        System.Threading.Thread.CurrentThread.CurrentUICulture = new System.Globalization.CultureInfo(s);
                        System.Threading.Thread.CurrentThread.CurrentCulture = System.Globalization.CultureInfo.CreateSpecificCulture(s);
                }
        }

}
 
从资源文件读图片
Localization/Image.aspx.cs
using System;
using System.Data;
using System.Configuration;
using System.Collections;
using System.Web;
using System.Web.Security;
using System.Web.UI;
using System.Web.UI.WebControls;
using System.Web.UI.WebControls.WebParts;
using System.Web.UI.HtmlControls;

public partial class Localization_Image : System.Web.UI.Page
{
        protected void Page_Load(object sender, EventArgs e)
        {
                // 一看就懂
                System.Drawing.Bitmap img = (System.Drawing.Bitmap)GetGlobalResourceObject(
                        "MyGlobal",    
                        System.Globalization.CultureInfo.CurrentCulture.Name.ToLower().Replace("-", "_")
                        );

                System.IO.MemoryStream ms = new System.IO.MemoryStream();
                img.Save(ms, System.Drawing.Imaging.ImageFormat.Jpeg);

                Response.ClearContent();
                Response.ContentType = "p_w_picpath/jpeg";
                Response.BinaryWrite(ms.ToArray());

                img.Dispose();
                ms.Dispose();
                ms.Flush();
        }
}

Web.sitemap本地化摘要
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<siteMap xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/AspNet/SiteMap-File-1.0" enableLocalization="true">
    <siteMapNode url="" title=""    description="">
        <siteMapNode url="~/Default.aspx" title=" $Resources: MyGlobal, home, 默认值" description="首页" />
        <siteMapNode url="" resourceKey="Localization" />
    </siteMapNode>
</siteMap>
 
资源文件的内容见源码


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