考研英语中的长难句是考研英语中的重难点,为了帮助更多的同学们,特意将考研英语从句进行详细总结。希望能帮助上大家。其他内容如:考研思维方式分享、考研战略分析、考研各科题型分析、考研复习之记忆方法、初试所需资料和复习时间安排、考研复试之考前准备等内容可参考专栏:考名校研究生经验分享。


文章目录


0. 并列句

表示选择的并列连词

含义

… or …

…或者…

either … or …

…或者…

neither … nor …

既不…也不…

1. 名词性从句

1.1 宾语从句

Justice Anthony Kennedy wrote (that the previous decisions were flawed)(宾语从句).

宾语从

3种位置

动宾

介宾

形容词+宾语从句

动单宾:及物动词+从句

动双宾:及物动词+人+从句

1.1.1 陈述句变宾语从句

两句之间加that,如果that不在主句做成分,则可以省略,建议不省略:

考研英语从句详细总结_ide

考研真题中对that进行了省略:

  • We believe consumers should have more control. (2013, Reading Comprehension, Part A Text 2)

1.1.2 特殊疑问句变宾语从句

调整语序(从句变成陈述句):

  • We suddenly can’t remember + Where did we put the keys just a moment ago?

疑问句变为陈述句:

  • We suddenly can’t remember where we put(put的过去式还是put,did和put合并后变为put的过去式put) the keys just a moment ago. (2014, Use of English)

1.1.3 一般疑问句变宾语从句

  调整语序(从句变成陈述句),前加if

  一般疑问句指的是用Yes或者No来回答的疑问句。添加if/whether,推荐使用whether,如下所示:

考研英语从句详细总结_sed_02

  • Should advertisers assume that people are happy to be tracked and sent behavioural
    ads? (2013, Reading Comprehension, Part A Text 2)

1.1.4 宾语从句的位置

  • This may also explain why we are not usually sensitive to our own smells. (2005, Use of English)

tell sb sth,动双宾:

  • … users could tell advertisersthat they did not want to be followed. (2013, Reading Comprehension, Part A Text 2)

介宾:

  • This and other similar cases raise the question ofwhether there is still a line between the court and politics. (2012, Use of English)

形容词后跟宾语从句(原本是有个介词):

  • … he felt certainthat he never could have succeeded with mathematics. (2008, Reading Comprehension, Part C)

1.1.5 宾语从句的位置:非谓语动词+从句

  • You might even be tempted to assumethat humanity has little future to look forward to. (2013, Reading Comprehension, Part A Text 3)

  宾语从句后置, it 形式宾语(主谓宾补,如果宾语过长则使用形式宾语)

  • That kind of activity makesitless likelythat the court’ s decisions will be accepted as impartial judgments. (2012, Use of English)

1.2 表语从句

  表语从句中that不做成分:This kind of thinking is (why so many people try to avoid arguments)(表语从句).

  • Part of the issue is that airports have only so much room,

    for screening lanes. (2017, Reading Comprehension, Part A Text 1)

  • For Williams, these activities become what he calls “electronic heroin.”(2006, Reading Comprehension, Part B)

1.3 主语从句

that不做成分,也不能省略:

考研英语从句详细总结_ide_03

  • That the seas are being overfishedhas been known for years. (2006, Reading Comprehension, Part A Text 3)
  • What motivated him… was his zeal for “fundamental fairness”… (2014, Reading Comprehension, Part A Text 1)
  • Andwhether the community’s work contributes much to an overall accumulation of knowledgeis doubtful. (2013, Reading Comprehension, Part B)

1.3.1 主语从句的位置

句首:

  • And whether the community’s work contributes much to an overall accumulation
    of knowledge is doubtful.(2013, Reading Comprehension, Part B)

绝大多数放在句尾:

  • And It is doubtful whether the community’s work contributes much to an overall accumulation of knowledge .(2013, Reading Comprehension, Part B)

It is done + 主语从句 (表达人们对一件事的观点看法)

  • This year, it was proposed that the system be changed: … (2013, Reading Comprehension, Part B)

It is + adj./n. + 主语从句(表达对一件事的评价)

  • It is not yet clear how much more effective airline security has become… (2017, Reading Comprehension, Part A Text 1)
  • Second, it is surely a good thing that the money and attention come to science rather than go elsewhere. (2014, Reading Comprehension, Part A Text 3)

1.4 同位语从句

  同位语本质上是修饰名词的,that不做成分,也不能省略:

考研英语从句详细总结_ide_04

  • Evidence that the LoveLife program produces lasting changes is limited and mixed (2012, Reading Comprehension, Part A Text 1)
  • There is no reason why everyone cannot be welcomed on Mauna Kea to embrace their cultural heritage and to study the stars. (2017, Reading Comprehension, Part A Text 2)

1.4.1 同位语从句的位置

  同位语从句只能跟在抽象名词后:idea, opinion, fact, evidence, question, doubt, reason, theory, belief, possibility, chance, hope, contention, guarantee…

  • Part of the fame of Allen’ s book is its contention that “Circumstances do not make a person, they reveal him.” (2011, Reading Comprehension, Part C)

1.4.2 定语从句 vs. 同位语从句

  定语从句与同位语从句的区别之处在于,前者的关系词需要在从句中作为成分,而后者并不是。

1.4.3 such that

  such that这个词组表,如…以至于的意思。such that连在一起时,这里such是代词,不是形容词,that引导的是such的同位语从句。

2. 定语从句

  定语从句中的定语是修饰限定名词

  把两句话合成一句话,如下所示:

考研英语从句详细总结_英语_05

  在定语从句中,关系词是在从句中有成分的。比如如果先行词是人,而且在从句中可以充当宾语。The man whom you met yesterday is my father.

定语从句

限定性定语从句

非限定性定语从句

限定名词的作用

先行词提供一些补充的信息

无逗号隔开

有逗号隔开

区别

限定性定语从句

非限定性定语从句

逗号

无逗号

有逗号

先行词

范围不明确

范围明确

作用

修饰限定先行词,不能省略,影响表意

补充说明先行词,可以省略,不影响表意

翻译

往前翻译(译到先行词前,“…的名词” )

不用往前翻译

关系词

①关系词可以用that

②作宾语可以省略

③指人作宾语,用whom /who /that都行

①关系词不能用that

②不可以省略

③指人作宾语,只能用whom

2.1 限定性定语从句

  先行词范围不明确,则为限定性定语从句。

  • 限定性定语从句:He will callhis friendwho is working in London.
  • 非限定性定语从句:He will callhis mother, who is working in London.

2.2 非限定性定语从句

先行词范围明确,第一类为专用名词,第二类为相对明确(上下文只出现一次):

  • If it is trying to upset Google, which relies almost wholly on advertising, it has chosen an indirect method. (2013, Reading Comprehension, Part A Text 2)
  • This trend, which we believe is still in its infancy, effectively began with retailers and travel providers such as airlines and hotels and will no doubt go further (2011, Reading Comprehension, Part A Text 3)

2.3 限定性定语从句 vs. 同位语从句

做成分 or 省略:定语从句

定语从句的翻译是需要提前的:

n.+从句

n.+从句

同位语从句

限定性的定语从句

解释说明 n.

修饰限定 n.

抽象n.后

任意 n.后(抽象或不抽象的 n.后都行)

区别1:从句前若为不抽象的n,则可判断是定语从句

n.+ that从句 (that不作从句的成分)

区别2:n. +that从句( that作从句的成分)

同位语从句中

关系词都不能省略

区别3:n. +省略关系词的从句

2.4 特殊的非限定性定语从句(修饰整句话)

  • A few generative rules are then sufficient to unfold the entire fundamental structure of a language,which is why children can learn it so quickly.(2012, Translation)

as前置了(which是要放到后面的,as/which都是要做成分的),本质指代的是knows后面的一句话:

  • Nevertheless, as any biographer knows, a person’s early life and its conditions are often the greatest gift to an individual. (2011, Translation)

2.5 介词提前的定语从句

  • Furthermore, humans have the ability to modify the environmentwhich they live in.

正确的句子如下:

  • Furthermore, humans have the ability to modify the environmentin which they live.(2003, Translation)

… commercial genetic testing is only as good as the reference collections which a sample is compared to.

  • commercial genetic testing is only as good as the reference collectionsto which a sample is compared.(2009, Reading Comprehension, Part A Text 2)

3. 状语从句

  状语本质上指的是描述性信息,比如时间、地点、原因、结果、方式、目的等等。对主句进行额外的描述。个人理解,状语是可有可无的,也就是不影响句子已有成分的。

主句+从属连词(表达种类)+完整的陈述句

状语从句是围绕着主句,位置是可以放到主句的前、中、后。

3.1 时间状语从句

  • when / while/ as
  • before / after
  • since / until
  • as soon as
  • by the time
  • each time / every time
  • the next time

while除了“当……时还有和……同时”的意思,引导时间状语从句:

  • In vision, attention is either applied in conjunction with convolutional networks, or used to replace certain components of convolutional networks while keeping their overall structure in place

3.2 地点状语从句

  • where

3.3 原因状语从句

  • because
  • since
  • as
  • now that

3.4 结果状语从句

  • so… that…
  • such… that…
  • so that…
  • as a result of …

3.5 目的状语从句

  • so that…
  • in order that…

3.6 条件状语从句

  • if
  • once
  • as long as/ so long as

3.7 让步状语从句

明让步,暗转折(转折后的内容更为重要)

  • although / though
  • even if / even though
  • while
  • however

Although sadness also precedes tears, evidence suggests that emotions can flow from muscular responses. (2011, Use of English)

3.8 比较状语从句

  • than
  • as

3.9 方式状语从句

  • as
  • as if