背景:

      在默认的主从复制过程或远程连接到MySQL/MariaDB所有的链接通信中的数据都是明文的,在局域网内连接倒问题不大;要是在外网里访问数据或则复制,则安全隐患会被放大很多。由于项目要求需要直接和外网的一台实例进行同步。所以本文介绍下通过SSL加密的方式进行复制的方法,来进一步提高数据的安全性。本文会一起介绍MySQL和MariaDB。

环境搭建:

默认情况下ssl都是关闭的,要是have_ssl显示NO,则表示数据库不支持SSL,需要重新编译安装来支持它,显示为DISABLED表示支持SSL,但没有开启。

>show variables like '%ssl%';                                                                                                  +---------------+----------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+---------------+----------+
| have_openssl | DISABLED |
| have_ssl | DISABLED |
| ssl_ca | |
| ssl_capath | |
| ssl_cert | |
| ssl_cipher | |
| ssl_key | |
+---------------+----------+

现在来开启SSL,在配置文件的mysqld选项组里面添加:

ssl

重启数据库,再次查看:

show variables like '%ssl%';
+---------------+-------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+---------------+-------+
| have_openssl | YES |
| have_ssl | YES |
| ssl_ca | |
| ssl_capath | |
| ssl_cert | |
| ssl_cipher | |
| ssl_key | |
+---------------+-------+

接着就是​配置SSL的重点​了:

1:在主服务器上创建CA证书:

openssl genrsa 2048 > ca-key.pem

openssl req -new -x509 -nodes -days 1000 -key ca-key.pem > ca-cert.pem

2:在主服务器上创建服务端的证书:

openssl req -newkey rsa:2048 -days 1000 -nodes -keyout server-key.pem > server-req.pem

openssl x509 -req -in server-req.pem -days 1000 -CA ca-cert.pem -CAkey ca-key.pem -set_serial 01 > server-cert.pem

3:在主服务器上创建客户端的证书:

openssl req -newkey rsa:2048 -days 1000 -nodes -keyout client-key.pem > client-req.pem

openssl x509 -req -in client-req.pem -days 1000 -CA ca-cert.pem -CAkey ca-key.pem -set_serial 01 > client-cert.pem

上面的操作都是在主上执行的,并且都在/etc/mysql/ 目录下执行的。这里需要注意的是MySQL和MariaDB不同:

MySQL在生成上面证书的时候需要输入大量用户信息,在CA上创建证书要注意所有的用户信息要和CA中的一致,从国家到部门都要相同,否则会造成证书无法使用,直接全部默认回车即可。要是用户信息一样则MariaDB会报错:

ERROR 2026 (HY000): SSL connection error: error:00000001:lib(0):func(0):reason(1)

[ERROR] Slave I/O: error connecting to master ... - retry-time: 60  retries: 86400  message: SSL connection error: error:14090086:SSL routines:SSL3_GET_SERVER_CERTIFICATE:certificate verify failed, Internal MariaDB error code: 2026

MariaDB在生成上面证书的时候也是需要输入大量用户信息,和MySQL不同的是输入的用户信息服务端和客户端不能一致。即服务端输入和客户端输入不一样。具体原因见​​这里​​,最后可以通过:

openssl verify -CAfile /etc/mysql/ca-cert.pem /etc/mysql/server-cert.pem /etc/mysql/client-cert.pem

 验证MariaDB证书的有效性。好了,所有的证书已经生成,那么在主上需要修改配置文件,把生成的证书配置起来:

ssl-ca=/etc/mysql/ca-cert.pem
ssl-cert=/etc/mysql/server-cert.pem
ssl-key=/etc/mysql/server-key.pem

并且把生成的证书:ca-cert.pem,client-cert.pem,client-key.pem 复制给从服务器。

重启主服务器,查看SSL的情况:

>show variables like '%ssl%';
+---------------+----------------------------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+---------------+----------------------------+
| have_openssl | DISABLED |
| have_ssl | DISABLED |
| ssl_ca | /etc/mysql/ca-cert.pem |
| ssl_capath | |
| ssl_cert | /etc/mysql/server-cert.pem |
| ssl_cipher | |
| ssl_key | /etc/mysql/server-key.pem |
+---------------+----------------------------+

发现have_ssl变成了DISABLED,查看错误日志:

SSL error: Unable to get private key from '/etc/mysql/server-key.pem'
141229 11:09:02 [Warning] Failed to setup SSL
141229 11:09:02 [Warning] SSL error: Unable to get private key

发现服务端的key不可用,在网上到了解决办法,大家可以自己看:​​http://askubuntu.com/questions/194074/enabling-ssl-in-mysql​​,概括的说就是openssl新版本的变化导致的,这里有2个解决办法来重新生成server-key.pem:

方法1:openssl rsa

openssl rsa -in server-key.pem -out server-key.pem

再次查看SSL情况:

>show variables like '%ssl%';
+---------------+----------------------------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+---------------+----------------------------+
| have_openssl | YES |
| have_ssl | YES |
| ssl_ca | /etc/mysql/ca-cert.pem |
| ssl_capath | |
| ssl_cert | /etc/mysql/server-cert.pem |
| ssl_cipher | |
| ssl_key | /etc/mysql/server-key.pem |
+---------------+----------------------------+

方法2:这里也可以直接安装openssl的0.9.8x版本进行证书生成。

wget http://www.openssl.org/source/openssl-0.9.8x.tar.gz 
tar xvfz openssl-0.9.8x.tar.gz
cd openssl-0.9.8x
./config --prefix=/usr/local/openssl-0.9.8
make
make install

本文是通过方法1来进行解决的。

到此在主上的操作完成,再生成一个复制帐号:REQUIRE SSL

GRANT REPLICATION SLAVE ON *.* TO 'rep'@'192.168.200.%' IDENTIFIED BY '123456' REQUIRE SSL;

接着就去从上配置。之前已经把生成的证书给了从服务器,那么在配置之前可以用SSL连接主服务器试试:

$mysql --ssl-ca=ca-cert.pem --ssl-cert=client-cert.pem --ssl-key=client-key.pem -h192.168.200.245 -urep -p
Enter password:
SSL error: Unable to get private key from 'client-key.pem'
ERROR 2026 (HY000): SSL connection error

同理,也是SSL的问题导致的,重新生成client-key.pem,方法同重新生成server-key.pem一样:

openssl rsa -in client-key.pem -out client-key.pem

继续用SSL测试连接:

$mysql --ssl-ca=ca-cert.pem --ssl-cert=client-cert.pem --ssl-key=client-key.pem -h192.168.200.245 -urep -p
Enter password:
Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 763
Server version: 5.5.35-0ubuntu0.12.04.2-log (Ubuntu)

Copyright (c) 2000, 2014, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> \s
--------------
mysql Ver 14.14 Distrib 5.5.37, for debian-linux-gnu (x86_64) using readline 6.2

Connection id: 763
Current database:
Current user: rep@192.168.200.212
SSL: Cipher in use is DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA
Current pager: stdout
Using outfile: ''
Using delimiter: ;
Server version: 5.5.35-0ubuntu0.12.04.2-log (Ubuntu)
Protocol version: 10
Connection: 192.168.200.245 via TCP/IP
Server characterset: utf8mb4
Db characterset: utf8mb4
Client characterset: utf8
Conn. characterset: utf8
TCP port: 3306
Uptime: 22 min 52 sec

Threads: 3 Questions: 2325 Slow queries: 1 Opens: 7483 Flush tables: 1 Open tables: 100 Queries per second avg: 1.694

SSL测试连接成功,并且登入的SSL协议是:Cipher in use is DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA

继续在从上配置SSL:

ssl
ssl-ca=/etc/mysql/ca-cert.pem
ssl-cert=/etc/mysql/client-cert.pem
ssl-key=/etc/mysql/client-key.pem

查看SSL是否被支持:

>show variables like '%ssl%';
+---------------+----------------------------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+---------------+----------------------------+
| have_openssl | YES |
| have_ssl | YES |
| ssl_ca | /etc/mysql/ca-cert.pem |
| ssl_capath | |
| ssl_cert | /etc/mysql/client-cert.pem |
| ssl_cipher | |
| ssl_key | /etc/mysql/client-key.pem |
+---------------+----------------------------+

从上SSL也被正确支持,那么最后开始配置主从replicate。在从上CHANGE:

CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_HOST='192.168.200.245', MASTER_USER='rep', MASTER_PASSWORD='123456', MASTER_LOG_FILE='mysql-bin.000042', MASTER_LOG_POS=521, MASTER_SSL=1, MASTER_SSL_CA = '/etc/mysql/ca-cert.pem', MASTER_SSL_CERT = '/etc/mysql/client-cert.pem', MASTER_SSL_KEY = '/etc/mysql/client-key.pem'

测试:

M:

>create table tmp_1229(id int,name varchar(100))default charset utf8;

>insert into tmp_1229 values(1,'a'),(2,'b'),(3,'c');

>select * from tmp_1229;
+------+------+
| id | name |
+------+------+
| 1 | a |
| 2 | b |
| 3 | c |
+------+------+

S:

>select * from tmp_1229;
+------+------+
| id | name |
+------+------+
| 1 | a |
| 2 | b |
| 3 | c |
+------+------+

以上同步成功。

总结:

      SSL(Secure Sockets Layer 安全套接层),及其继任者传输层安全(Transport Layer Security,TLS)是为网络通信提供安全及数据完整性的一种安全协议。复制默认是明文进行传输的,通过SSL加密可以大大提高数据的安全性。在上面的过程中,遇到一些问题:

1:openssl版本问题引起的证书不可用,文中已经说明解决办法。

2:MariaDB 证书的不可用,原因是生成服务端客户端证书的时候输入一致导致的,文中也说明了解决办法。

3:要是配置有问题,在用SSL登陆的时候,可以发现错误信息,可以直接定位到哪里出问题。

ssl登陆:
mysql --ssl-ca=ca-cert.pem --ssl-cert=client-cert.pem --ssl-key=client-key.pem -h192.168.200.245 -urep -p

4:在配置MariaDB的时候,在生成证书的时候可以直接先验证,查看是否有问题。

验证:
openssl verify -CAfile /etc/mysql/ca-cert.pem /etc/mysql/server-cert.pem /etc/mysql/client-cert.pem

/etc/mysql/server-cert.pem: OK
/etc/mysql/client-cert.pem: OK

5:要是openssl版本没有问题,不需要再次通过openssl rsa 再次生成,具体的安装配置方法参照本文章即可。

更新(2016.3.19):

今天做了MySQL5.7的SSL复制,5.7安装的时候就已经在数据目录下面生成了上面的这些pem文件,所以直接把client的pem复制到从上去就可以了(注意复制过去之后修改权限,属主改成mysql即可)。否则报错:

Failed to set up SSL because of the following SSL library error: Unable to get certificate ... server-cert.pem
Failed to set up SSL because of the following SSL library error: Unable to get private key ... server-cert.pem

 

更多信息:

​https://blog.marceloaltmann.com/en-mysql-replication-with-ssl-pt-replicacao-em-mysql-com-ssl/​

​http://www.zhengdazhi.com/?p=856​

​http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.5/en/replication-solutions-ssl.html​

​https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.7/en/replication-solutions-secure-connections.html​

 

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