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Docker概述

Docker学习链接

官网链接:Home - Docker

Docker与虚拟机比较

虚拟化技术

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容器技术不是模拟的一个完整的操作系统。

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比较Docker 和虚拟机技术不同

  • 传统虚拟机,虚拟出一台硬件,运行完整的操作系统。
  • 容器内的应用直接运行在宿主机的内容,容器是没有自己的内核的,也没有虚拟我们的听见
  • 每个容器间相互隔离,每个容器内都有一个属于自己的文件系统,互不影响。

使用Docker的好处

1、应用更快的交付和部署。

2、更便捷的升级和扩缩容

3、更简单的系统运维

4、更高效的计算资源利用。

Docker安装

Docker的基本名词

file

镜像(image):

一个模板,可以通过这个模板来创建容器服务。

容器(container):

独立运行一个或者一组应用,通过镜像来创建的。

启动、停止、删除

仓库(repository):

存放镜像的地方

仓库分为:公有、私有

安装Docker步骤

安装环境检查

# 系统内核是 3.10以上的
[root@localhost ~]# uname -r
3.10.0-1160.el7.x86_64
# 系统版本
[root@localhost ~]# uname -r
3.10.0-1160.el7.x86_64
[root@localhost ~]# cat /etc/os-release 
NAME="CentOS Linux"
VERSION="7 (Core)"
ID="centos"
ID_LIKE="rhel fedora"
VERSION_ID="7"
PRETTY_NAME="CentOS Linux 7 (Core)"
ANSI_COLOR="0;31"
CPE_NAME="cpe:/o:centos:centos:7"
HOME_URL="https://www.centos.org/"
BUG_REPORT_URL="https://bugs.centos.org/"

CENTOS_MANTISBT_PROJECT="CentOS-7"
CENTOS_MANTISBT_PROJECT_VERSION="7"
REDHAT_SUPPORT_PRODUCT="centos"
REDHAT_SUPPORT_PRODUCT_VERSION="7"

Docker安装

帮助文档:Docker Documentation

# 前期准备:
1、修改主机名
# hostnamectl set-hostname docker
# bash

# 2、关闭防火墙
# systemctl stop firewalld && systemctl disable firewalld
# systemctl status firewalld

# 3、关闭selinux
# setenforce 0
# getenforce 
# sed  -i "s/SELINUX=enforcing/SELINUX=permissive/g" /etc/selinux/config 
cat /etc/selinux/config

# 4、配置网卡联网
# cat /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-ens32 

# 5、配置阿里云镜像
# cd /etc/yum.repos.d/ && mkdir bak &&  mv CentOS-* bak/
# curl -o /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo https://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-7.repo

# sed -i -e '/mirrors.cloud.aliyuncs.com/d' -e '/mirrors.aliyuncs.com/d' /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo

# 6、生成本地缓存
# yum makecache fast

# 7、更新YUM源软件包
# yum update -y 
# yum安装gcc相关环境(需要确保虚拟机可以上外网。)
yum install -y gcc && yum install -y gcc-c++
# 本实验基于CentOS 7.9系统进行演示安装。
# 1、卸载旧版本docker
yum remove docker \
                  docker-client \
                  docker-client-latest \
                  docker-common \
                  docker-latest \
                  docker-latest-logrotate \
                  docker-logrotate \
                  docker-engine

# 2、安装需要的安装包
# yum install -y yum-utils

# 3、设置镜像
yum-config-manager \
    --add-repo \
    https://download.docker.com/linux/centos/docker-ce.repo  # 默认镜像源是国外的,不推荐使用

yum-config-manager \
    --add-repo \
     https://mirrors.aliyun.com/docker-ce/linux/centos/docker-ce.repo       # 推荐使用国内镜像

# 更新YUM源软件包索引
yum makecache fast

# 4、安装docker  docker-ce   ee企业版
yum install docker-ce docker-ce-cli containerd.io

# 5、启动Docker
systemctl start docker && systemctl enable docker
systemctl status docker

# 6、查看docker版本信息
docker version

# 7、测试,运行hello-world
docker run hello-world

# 8、查看hello-world镜像
# docker images
REPOSITORY    TAG       IMAGE ID       CREATED        SIZE
hello-world   latest    feb5d9fea6a5   5 months ago   13.3kB

安装完成。

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查看docker版本信息

file

运行hello-world结果

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卸载Docker

# 卸载docker
1、卸载依赖
yum remove docker-ce docker-ce-cli containerd.io

2、删除资源
rm -rf /var/lib/docker      # docker的默认工作路径
rm -rf /var/lib/containerd

配置阿里云镜像加速

1、登录阿里云平台

2、选择"容器镜像服务"

容器镜像服务 (aliyun.com)

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3、配置使用

sudo mkdir -p /etc/docker

sudo tee /etc/docker/daemon.json <<-'EOF'
{
  "registry-mirrors": ["https://w2kavmmf.mirror.aliyuncs.com"]
}
EOF

sudo systemctl daemon-reload

sudo systemctl restart docker

回顾hello-world运行流程

file
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Docker底层工作原理

docker是一个C/S结构的系统,Docker的守护进程运行在主机上。通过Socket从客户端访问。

Docker Server接收 Docker-Client的指令。就会执行这个命令。

Docker为什么比VM块

1、Docker有着比虚拟机更少的抽象层

2、docker利用的是宿主机的内核,vn需要时Guest OS

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所以说,创建一个容器的时候,docker不需要像虚拟机一样重新加载一个操作系统内核,避免引导。

虚拟机是加载Guest OS。分钟级别的,而Docker是利用宿主机的操作系统,省略了这个复杂的过程,秒级。

Docker常用命令

file

帮助命令

docker version      # 显示docker版本信息
docker info         # 显示docker系统信息
docker 命令 --help   # 帮助命令

镜像命令

docker images 查本地主机上的所有镜像

[root@docker ~]# docker images
REPOSITORY    TAG       IMAGE ID       CREATED        SIZE
hello-world   latest    feb5d9fea6a5   5 months ago   13.3kB

# 解释:
REPOSITORY:  镜像的仓库源
TAG:        镜像的标签
IMAGE ID :   镜像的ID
CREATED:    镜像的创建时间
SIZE:       镜像的大小

[root@docker ~]# docker images --help

Usage:  docker images [OPTIONS] [REPOSITORY[:TAG]]

List images

# 可选项
Options:
  -a, --all             # Show all images
  -q, --quiet           # Only show image IDs

docker search 搜索镜像

[root@docker ~]# docker search mysql
NAME                             DESCRIPTION                                     STARS     OFFICIAL   AUTOMATED
mysql                            MySQL is a widely used, open-source relation…   12283     [OK]       
mariadb                          MariaDB Server is a high performing open sou…   4723      [OK]       
mysql/mysql-server               Optimized MySQL Server Docker images. Create…   911                  [OK]

[root@docker ~]# docker search --help

Usage:  docker search [OPTIONS] TERM

Search the Docker Hub for images

Options:  
  -f, --filter filter   Filter output based on conditions provided
      --format string   Pretty-print search using a Go template
      --limit int       Max number of search results (default 25)
      --no-trunc        Don't truncate output

# 可选项,通过收藏来过滤
[root@docker ~]# docker search mysql --filter=STARS=5000
NAME      DESCRIPTION                                     STARS     OFFICIAL   AUTOMATED
mysql     MySQL is a widely used, open-source relation…   12283     [OK]
[root@docker ~]#

docker pull 下载镜像

[root@docker ~]# docker pull --help

Usage:  docker pull [OPTIONS] NAME[:TAG|@DIGEST]

Pull an image or a repository from a registry

Options:
  -a, --all-tags                Download all tagged images in the repository
      --disable-content-trust   Skip image verification (default true)
      --platform string         Set platform if server is multi-platform capable
  -q, --quiet                   Suppress verbose output
# 下载镜像 docker pull 镜像名[:tag]
[root@docker ~]# docker pull mysql
Using default tag: latest       #如果不写 tag,默认是latest
latest: Pulling from library/mysql
72a69066d2fe: Pull complete     # 分层下载,docker image的核心 联合文件系统
93619dbc5b36: Pull complete
99da31dd6142: Pull complete
626033c43d70: Pull complete
37d5d7efb64e: Pull complete
ac563158d721: Pull complete
d2ba16033dad: Pull complete
688ba7d5c01a: Pull complete
00e060b6d11d: Pull complete
1c04857f594f: Pull complete
4d7cfa90e6ea: Pull complete
e0431212d27d: Pull complete
Digest: sha256:e9027fe4d91c0153429607251656806cc784e914937271037f7738bd5b8e7709 #签名
Status: Downloaded newer image for mysql:latest  # 真实地址
docker.io/library/mysql:latest

#这两条命令等价
docker pull mysql
docker pull docker.io/library/mysql:latest

# 指定版本下载
[root@docker ~]# docker pull mysql:5.7
5.7: Pulling from library/mysql
72a69066d2fe: Already exists
93619dbc5b36: Already exists
99da31dd6142: Already exists
626033c43d70: Already exists
37d5d7efb64e: Already exists
ac563158d721: Already exists
d2ba16033dad: Already exists
0ceb82207cd7: Pull complete
37f2405cae96: Pull complete
e2482e017e53: Pull complete
70deed891d42: Pull complete
Digest: sha256:f2ad209efe9c67104167fc609cca6973c8422939491c9345270175a300419f94
Status: Downloaded newer image for mysql:5.7
docker.io/library/mysql:5.7

[root@docker ~]# docker images
REPOSITORY    TAG       IMAGE ID       CREATED        SIZE
mysql         5.7       c20987f18b13   3 months ago   448MB
mysql         latest    3218b38490ce   3 months ago   516MB
hello-world   latest    feb5d9fea6a5   5 months ago   13.3kB

docker rmi 删除镜像

[root@docker ~]# docker rmi --help

Usage:  docker rmi [OPTIONS] IMAGE [IMAGE...]

Remove one or more images

Options:
  -f, --force      Force removal of the image
      --no-prune   Do not delete untagged parents
# 查询镜像,使用IMAGE ID删除
[root@docker ~]# docker images
REPOSITORY    TAG       IMAGE ID       CREATED        SIZE
mysql         5.7       c20987f18b13   3 months ago   448MB
mysql         latest    3218b38490ce   3 months ago   516MB
hello-world   latest    feb5d9fea6a5   5 months ago   13.3kB
[root@docker ~]# docker rmi c20987f18b13
Untagged: mysql:5.7
Untagged: mysql@sha256:f2ad209efe9c67104167fc609cca6973c8422939491c9345270175a300419f94
Deleted: sha256:c20987f18b130f9d144c9828df630417e2a9523148930dc3963e9d0dab302a76
Deleted: sha256:6567396b065ee734fb2dbb80c8923324a778426dfd01969f091f1ab2d52c7989
Deleted: sha256:0910f12649d514b471f1583a16f672ab67e3d29d9833a15dc2df50dd5536e40f
Deleted: sha256:6682af2fb40555c448b84711c7302d0f86fc716bbe9c7dc7dbd739ef9d757150
Deleted: sha256:5c062c3ac20f576d24454e74781511a5f96739f289edaadf2de934d06e910b92
[root@docker ~]# docker images
REPOSITORY    TAG       IMAGE ID       CREATED        SIZE
mysql         latest    3218b38490ce   3 months ago   516MB
hello-world   latest    feb5d9fea6a5   5 months ago   13.3kB
[root@docker ~]#

# 删除多个容器
docker rmi 容器id 容器id 容器id 

# 删除所有镜像
[root@docker ~]# docker rmi -f $(docker images -aq)
Untagged: mysql:latest
Untagged: mysql@sha256:e9027fe4d91c0153429607251656806cc784e914937271037f7738bd5b8e7709
Deleted: sha256:3218b38490cec8d31976a40b92e09d61377359eab878db49f025e5d464367f3b
Deleted: sha256:aa81ca46575069829fe1b3c654d9e8feb43b4373932159fe2cad1ac13524a2f5
Deleted: sha256:0558823b9fbe967ea6d7174999be3cc9250b3423036370dc1a6888168cbd224d
Deleted: sha256:a46013db1d31231a0e1bac7eeda5ad4786dea0b1773927b45f92ea352a6d7ff9
Deleted: sha256:af161a47bb22852e9e3caf39f1dcd590b64bb8fae54315f9c2e7dc35b025e4e3
Deleted: sha256:feff1495e6982a7e91edc59b96ea74fd80e03674d92c7ec8a502b417268822ff
Deleted: sha256:8805862fcb6ef9deb32d4218e9e6377f35fb351a8be7abafdf1da358b2b287ba
Deleted: sha256:872d2f24c4c64a6795e86958fde075a273c35c82815f0a5025cce41edfef50c7
Deleted: sha256:6fdb3143b79e1be7181d32748dd9d4a845056dfe16ee4c827410e0edef5ad3da
Deleted: sha256:b0527c827c82a8f8f37f706fcb86c420819bb7d707a8de7b664b9ca491c96838
Deleted: sha256:75147f61f29796d6528486d8b1f9fb5d122709ea35620f8ffcea0e0ad2ab0cd0
Deleted: sha256:2938c71ddf01643685879bf182b626f0a53b1356138ef73c40496182e84548aa
Deleted: sha256:ad6b69b549193f81b039a1d478bc896f6e460c77c1849a4374ab95f9a3d2cea2
Untagged: hello-world:latest
Untagged: hello-world@sha256:6d60b42fdd5a0aa8a718b5f2eab139868bb4fa9a03c9fe1a59ed4946317c4318
Deleted: sha256:feb5d9fea6a5e9606aa995e879d862b825965ba48de054caab5ef356dc6b3412
[root@docker ~]# docker images
REPOSITORY   TAG       IMAGE ID   CREATED   SIZE

容器命令

说明: 有了镜像才可以创建容器,Linux,下载一个centos镜像来测试学习。

docker pull centos

[root@docker ~]# docker pull centos
Using default tag: latest
latest: Pulling from library/centos
a1d0c7532777: Pull complete
Digest: sha256:a27fd8080b517143cbbbab9dfb7c8571c40d67d534bbdee55bd6c473f432b177
Status: Downloaded newer image for centos:latest
docker.io/library/centos:latest

新建容器并启动

docker run [可选参数] image

# 参数说明
--name="Name"   # 容器名字,用来区分容器
-d              # 后台启动方式
-it             # 使用交互方式运行,进入容器查看内容
-p              # 指定容器的端口 -p 8080:8080
    -p ip:主机端口:容器端口
    -p 主机端口:容器端口(常用)
    -p 容器端口
    容器端口
-P              # 随机指定端口

# 测试
# 启动并进入容器
docker -it centos /bin/bash  

[root@docker ~]# docker run -it centos /bin/bash
[root@c7dfc970a91b /]# ls   #查看容器centos,基础版本,很多命令不完善
bin  etc   lib    lost+found  mnt  proc  run   srv  tmp  var
dev  home  lib64  media       opt  root  sbin  sys  usr
[root@c7dfc970a91b /]# exit #从容器中退回主机
exit

列出所有运行的容器

# docker ps 命令
    # 列出当前正在运行的容器
-a  # 列出当前正在运行的容器,带出历史运行过的容器
-n=?# 显示最近创建的容器
-q  # 只显示容器的编号

[root@docker ~]# docker ps
CONTAINER ID   IMAGE     COMMAND   CREATED   STATUS    PORTS     NAMES

[root@docker ~]# docker ps -a
CONTAINER ID   IMAGE          COMMAND       CREATED              STATUS                      PORTS     NAMES
c7dfc970a91b   centos         "/bin/bash"   About a minute ago   Exited (0) 46 seconds ago             frosty_swirles
3f4ea26f2030   feb5d9fea6a5   "/hello"      6 hours ago          Exited (0) 6 hours ago                flamboyant_zhukovsky

# 显示所有镜像编号
[root@docker ~]# docker ps -aq
c7dfc970a91b
3f4ea26f2030

退出容器

exit            #直接容器停止并退出
Ctrl + P + Q    #容器不停止退出

[root@docker ~]# docker run centos /bin/bash
[root@docker ~]# docker run -it centos /bin/bash
[root@e9e247efe0ac /]# 
[root@docker ~]# docker ps
CONTAINER ID   IMAGE     COMMAND       CREATED          STATUS          PORTS     NAMES
e9e247efe0ac   centos    "/bin/bash"   28 seconds ago   Up 27 seconds             priceless_merkle
[root@docker ~]#

删除容器

docker rm 容器id                   # 删除指定容器(不能删除正在运行的容器)
docker rm —f $(docker ps -aq)       # 删除所有容器
docker ps -a -q | xargs docker rm   # 删除所有的容器

# 删除正在运行的容器会报错
[root@docker ~]# docker rm e9e247efe0ac
Error response from daemon: You cannot remove a running container e9e247efe0ac9f13ebabf0fc8c10f1d770d8c08617ad870e5d16d20a763fa62f. Stop the container before attempting removal or force remove

[root@docker ~]# docker ps -aq
e9e247efe0ac
c7dfc970a91b
3f4ea26f2030
[root@docker ~]# docker rm -f $(docker ps -aq)
e9e247efe0ac
c7dfc970a91b
3f4ea26f2030
[root@docker ~]# docker ps -a
CONTAINER ID   IMAGE     COMMAND   CREATED   STATUS    PORTS     NAMES
[root@docker ~]# docker ps -aq
[root@docker ~]#

启动和停止容器的操作

docker start 容器id
docker restart 容器id
docker stop 容器id
docker kill 容器id

[root@docker ~]# docker ps -a
CONTAINER ID   IMAGE     COMMAND       CREATED          STATUS                     PORTS     NAMES
313175cf8109   centos    "/bin/bash"   44 seconds ago   Exited (0) 6 seconds ago             cool_kirch
[root@docker ~]# docker start 313175cf8109
313175cf8109
[root@docker ~]# docker ps
CONTAINER ID   IMAGE     COMMAND       CREATED          STATUS         PORTS     NAMES
313175cf8109   centos    "/bin/bash"   56 seconds ago   Up 5 seconds             cool_kirch
[root@docker ~]# docker stop 313175cf8109
313175cf8109
[root@docker ~]# docker ps
CONTAINER ID   IMAGE     COMMAND   CREATED   STATUS    PORTS     NAMES
[root@docker ~]#

常用其他命令

1、后台启动容器

# 命令docker run -d 镜像名
[root@docker ~]# docker run -d centos

# 问题docker ps。发现CentOS停止了

# 常见的坑:docker 容器使用是后台运行,就必须要有一个前台进程,docker发现没有应用,就会自动停止
# nginx,容器启动后,发现自己没有提供服务,就会立刻停止,就是没有程序了

2、查看日志

docker logs -f -t --tail 容器,没有日志

# 自己编写一段shell脚本
[root@docker ~]# docker run -d centos /bin/bash -c "while true;do echo xybdiy;sleep 1;done"
63334f8d0ac3e755a2f1948c0d6efe2fab6b09af468d4c8092b704786d05e21e

[root@docker ~]# docker ps
CONTAINER ID   IMAGE     COMMAND                  CREATED          STATUS          PORTS     NAMES
63334f8d0ac3   centos    "/bin/bash -c 'while…"   24 seconds ago   Up 24 seconds             ecstatic_albattani

# 显示日志
-tf   # 显示日志
--tail number #要显示日志条数

[root@docker ~]# docker logs -tf --tail 10 63334f8d0ac3
2022-03-21T13:45:24.983694039Z xybdiy
2022-03-21T13:45:25.986523455Z xybdiy
2022-03-21T13:45:26.990955021Z xybdiy
2022-03-21T13:45:27.993041663Z xybdiy
2022-03-21T13:45:28.995840669Z xybdiy
2022-03-21T13:45:30.000526171Z xybdiy
2022-03-21T13:45:31.006629083Z xybdiy
2022-03-21T13:45:32.015123258Z xybdiy
2022-03-21T13:45:33.018435524Z xybdiy
2022-03-21T13:45:34.021714677Z xybdiy
[root@docker ~]#

3、查看容器进程命令信息ps

#命令 docker top 容器id
[root@docker ~]# docker top 63334f8d0ac3
UID                 PID                 PPID                C                   STIME               TTY                 TIME                CMD
root                12114               12095               0                   21:44               ?                   00:00:00            /bin/bash -c while true;do echo xybdiy;sleep 1;done
root                12432               12114               0                   21:48               ?                   00:00:00            /usr/bin/coreutils --coreutils-prog-shebang=sleep /usr/bin/sleep 1
[root@docker ~]#

4、查看镜像的元数据

# 帮助命令
[root@docker ~]# docker inspect --help

Usage:  docker inspect [OPTIONS] NAME|ID [NAME|ID...]

Return low-level information on Docker objects

Options:
  -f, --format string   Format the output using the given Go template
  -s, --size            Display total file sizes if the type is container
      --type string     Return JSON for specified type
[root@docker ~]#

[root@docker ~]# docker ps -a
CONTAINER ID   IMAGE     COMMAND                  CREATED          STATUS                      PORTS     NAMES
63334f8d0ac3   centos    "/bin/bash -c 'while…"   6 minutes ago    Up 6 minutes                          ecstatic_albattani
d735fbaa4bc1   centos    "/bin/bash"              17 minutes ago   Exited (0) 17 minutes ago             intelligent_carver
313175cf8109   centos    "/bin/bash"              28 minutes ago   Exited (0) 18 minutes ago             cool_kirch

# 命令
docker inspect 容器id

# 测试
[root@docker ~]# docker inspect 63334f8d0ac3
[
    {
        "Id": "63334f8d0ac3e755a2f1948c0d6efe2fab6b09af468d4c8092b704786d05e21e",
        "Created": "2022-03-21T13:44:35.503041384Z",
        "Path": "/bin/bash",
        "Args": [
            "-c",
            "while true;do echo xybdiy;sleep 1;done"
        ],
        "State": {
            "Status": "running",
            "Running": true,
            "Paused": false,
            "Restarting": false,
            "OOMKilled": false,
            "Dead": false,
            "Pid": 12114,
            "ExitCode": 0,
            "Error": "",
            "StartedAt": "2022-03-21T13:44:35.767782143Z",
            "FinishedAt": "0001-01-01T00:00:00Z"
        },
        "Image": "sha256:5d0da3dc976460b72c77d94c8a1ad043720b0416bfc16c52c45d4847e53fadb6",
        "ResolvConfPath": "/var/lib/docker/containers/63334f8d0ac3e755a2f1948c0d6efe2fab6b09af468d4c8092b704786d05e21e/resolv.conf",
        "HostnamePath": "/var/lib/docker/containers/63334f8d0ac3e755a2f1948c0d6efe2fab6b09af468d4c8092b704786d05e21e/hostname",
        "HostsPath": "/var/lib/docker/containers/63334f8d0ac3e755a2f1948c0d6efe2fab6b09af468d4c8092b704786d05e21e/hosts",
        "LogPath": "/var/lib/docker/containers/63334f8d0ac3e755a2f1948c0d6efe2fab6b09af468d4c8092b704786d05e21e/63334f8d0ac3e755a2f1948c0d6efe2fab6b09af468d4c8092b704786d05e21e-json.log",
        "Name": "/ecstatic_albattani",
        "RestartCount": 0,
        "Driver": "overlay2",
        "Platform": "linux",
        "MountLabel": "",
        "ProcessLabel": "",
        "AppArmorProfile": "",
        "ExecIDs": null,
        "HostConfig": {
            "Binds": null,
            "ContainerIDFile": "",
            "LogConfig": {
                "Type": "json-file",
                "Config": {}
            },
            "NetworkMode": "default",
            "PortBindings": {},
            "RestartPolicy": {
                "Name": "no",
                "MaximumRetryCount": 0
            },
            "AutoRemove": false,
            "VolumeDriver": "",
            "VolumesFrom": null,
            "CapAdd": null,
            "CapDrop": null,
            "CgroupnsMode": "host",
            "Dns": [],
            "DnsOptions": [],
            "DnsSearch": [],
            "ExtraHosts": null,
            "GroupAdd": null,
            "IpcMode": "private",
            "Cgroup": "",
            "Links": null,
            "OomScoreAdj": 0,
            "PidMode": "",
            "Privileged": false,
            "PublishAllPorts": false,
            "ReadonlyRootfs": false,
            "SecurityOpt": null,
            "UTSMode": "",
            "UsernsMode": "",
            "ShmSize": 67108864,
            "Runtime": "runc",
            "ConsoleSize": [
                0,
                0
            ],
            "Isolation": "",
            "CpuShares": 0,
            "Memory": 0,
            "NanoCpus": 0,
            "CgroupParent": "",
            "BlkioWeight": 0,
            "BlkioWeightDevice": [],
            "BlkioDeviceReadBps": null,
            "BlkioDeviceWriteBps": null,
            "BlkioDeviceReadIOps": null,
            "BlkioDeviceWriteIOps": null,
            "CpuPeriod": 0,
            "CpuQuota": 0,
            "CpuRealtimePeriod": 0,
            "CpuRealtimeRuntime": 0,
            "CpusetCpus": "",
            "CpusetMems": "",
            "Devices": [],
            "DeviceCgroupRules": null,
            "DeviceRequests": null,
            "KernelMemory": 0,
            "KernelMemoryTCP": 0,
            "MemoryReservation": 0,
            "MemorySwap": 0,
            "MemorySwappiness": null,
            "OomKillDisable": false,
            "PidsLimit": null,
            "Ulimits": null,
            "CpuCount": 0,
            "CpuPercent": 0,
            "IOMaximumIOps": 0,
            "IOMaximumBandwidth": 0,
            "MaskedPaths": [
                "/proc/asound",
                "/proc/acpi",
                "/proc/kcore",
                "/proc/keys",
                "/proc/latency_stats",
                "/proc/timer_list",
                "/proc/timer_stats",
                "/proc/sched_debug",
                "/proc/scsi",
                "/sys/firmware"
            ],
            "ReadonlyPaths": [
                "/proc/bus",
                "/proc/fs",
                "/proc/irq",
                "/proc/sys",
                "/proc/sysrq-trigger"
            ]
        },
        "GraphDriver": {
            "Data": {
                "LowerDir": "/var/lib/docker/overlay2/50c20807b96cc41f57ab05f38d45f30f317437db22e2547af7edeb625f04db83-init/diff:/var/lib/docker/overlay2/ab65f0c4d3420c4a290a7d9956c96631e583ddb7102a700e94fe19b2b80893a0/diff",
                "MergedDir": "/var/lib/docker/overlay2/50c20807b96cc41f57ab05f38d45f30f317437db22e2547af7edeb625f04db83/merged",
                "UpperDir": "/var/lib/docker/overlay2/50c20807b96cc41f57ab05f38d45f30f317437db22e2547af7edeb625f04db83/diff",
                "WorkDir": "/var/lib/docker/overlay2/50c20807b96cc41f57ab05f38d45f30f317437db22e2547af7edeb625f04db83/work"
            },
            "Name": "overlay2"
        },
        "Mounts": [],
        "Config": {
            "Hostname": "63334f8d0ac3",
            "Domainname": "",
            "User": "",
            "AttachStdin": false,
            "AttachStdout": false,
            "AttachStderr": false,
            "Tty": false,
            "OpenStdin": false,
            "StdinOnce": false,
            "Env": [
                "PATH=/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin"
            ],
            "Cmd": [
                "/bin/bash",
                "-c",
                "while true;do echo xybdiy;sleep 1;done"
            ],
            "Image": "centos",
            "Volumes": null,
            "WorkingDir": "",
            "Entrypoint": null,
            "OnBuild": null,
            "Labels": {
                "org.label-schema.build-date": "20210915",
                "org.label-schema.license": "GPLv2",
                "org.label-schema.name": "CentOS Base Image",
                "org.label-schema.schema-version": "1.0",
                "org.label-schema.vendor": "CentOS"
            }
        },
        "NetworkSettings": {
            "Bridge": "",
            "SandboxID": "88a08479f6ec55f7df18c951d743189d245ff141fb0eab1800d0ed2485dd13f3",
            "HairpinMode": false,
            "LinkLocalIPv6Address": "",
            "LinkLocalIPv6PrefixLen": 0,
            "Ports": {},
            "SandboxKey": "/var/run/docker/netns/88a08479f6ec",
            "SecondaryIPAddresses": null,
            "SecondaryIPv6Addresses": null,
            "EndpointID": "33d8d755edf77fc0294cfef8c351e9ff6ace5aef4fdd0923ab0be0f59aaf2485",
            "Gateway": "172.17.0.1",
            "GlobalIPv6Address": "",
            "GlobalIPv6PrefixLen": 0,
            "IPAddress": "172.17.0.2",
            "IPPrefixLen": 16,
            "IPv6Gateway": "",
            "MacAddress": "02:42:ac:11:00:02",
            "Networks": {
                "bridge": {
                    "IPAMConfig": null,
                    "Links": null,
                    "Aliases": null,
                    "NetworkID": "48c02734d850fe7a67cefc00923e4e72d5adc1ef05cdb8aab68373e7289fe4a7",
                    "EndpointID": "33d8d755edf77fc0294cfef8c351e9ff6ace5aef4fdd0923ab0be0f59aaf2485",
                    "Gateway": "172.17.0.1",
                    "IPAddress": "172.17.0.2",
                    "IPPrefixLen": 16,
                    "IPv6Gateway": "",
                    "GlobalIPv6Address": "",
                    "GlobalIPv6PrefixLen": 0,
                    "MacAddress": "02:42:ac:11:00:02",
                    "DriverOpts": null
                }
            }
        }
    }
]
[root@docker ~]#

5、进入当前正在运行的容器

# 通常容器都是使用后台方式运行的,需要进入容器,需要进入容器,修改一些配置。

#命令
docker exec -it 容器id  bashShell

# 测试
[root@docker ~]# docker ps
CONTAINER ID   IMAGE     COMMAND                  CREATED          STATUS          PORTS     NAMES
63334f8d0ac3   centos    "/bin/bash -c 'while…"   22 minutes ago   Up 22 minutes             ecstatic_albattani
[root@docker ~]# docker exec -it 63334f8d0ac3 /bin/bash
[root@63334f8d0ac3 /]# ls
bin  dev  etc  home  lib  lib64  lost+found  media  mnt  opt  proc  root  run  sbin  srv  sys  tmp  usr  var
[root@63334f8d0ac3 /]# ps -ef
UID         PID   PPID  C STIME TTY          TIME CMD
root          1      0  0 13:44 ?        00:00:00 /bin/bash -c while true;do echo xybdiy;sleep 1;done
root       1362      0  0 14:07 pts/0    00:00:00 /bin/bash
root       1388      1  0 14:07 ?        00:00:00 /usr/bin/coreutils --coreutils-prog-shebang=sleep /usr/bin/sleep 1
root       1389   1362  0 14:07 pts/0    00:00:00 ps -ef
[root@63334f8d0ac3 /]#

#命令
docker attach  容器id

# 测试
[root@docker ~]# docker attach --help

Usage:  docker attach [OPTIONS] CONTAINER

Attach local standard input, output, and error streams to a running container

Options:
      --detach-keys string   Override the key sequence for detaching a container
      --no-stdin             Do not attach STDIN
      --sig-proxy            Proxy all received signals to the process (default true)

[root@docker ~]# docker ps
CONTAINER ID   IMAGE     COMMAND                  CREATED          STATUS          PORTS     NAMES
63334f8d0ac3   centos    "/bin/bash -c 'while…"   25 minutes ago   Up 25 minutes             ecstatic_albattani
[root@docker ~]# docker attach 63334f8d0ac3
正在执行当前的代码

# docker exec       # 进入容器后开启一个新的终端,可以在里面操作(常用操作)
# docker attach     # 进入容器正在执行的终端,不启动新的进程

6、从容器内拷贝文件到主机上

docker cp 容器id:容器内路径  目的主机路径

[root@docker ~]# docker images
REPOSITORY   TAG       IMAGE ID       CREATED        SIZE
centos       latest    5d0da3dc9764   6 months ago   231MB

[root@docker ~]# docker run -it centos /bin/bash
[root@76539a2682cc /]# 

[root@docker ~]# ls
anaconda-ks.cfg

[root@docker ~]# docker ps
CONTAINER ID   IMAGE     COMMAND       CREATED          STATUS          PORTS     NAMES
76539a2682cc   centos    "/bin/bash"   39 seconds ago   Up 39 seconds             laughing_morse

[root@docker ~]# docker attach 76539a2682cc
[root@76539a2682cc /]# cd home/
[root@76539a2682cc home]# ls

# 在容器内创建test.java镜像
[root@76539a2682cc home]# touch test.java
[root@76539a2682cc home]# ls
test.java
[root@76539a2682cc home]# exit
exit
[root@docker ~]# docker ps
CONTAINER ID   IMAGE     COMMAND   CREATED   STATUS    PORTS     NAMES
[root@docker ~]# docker ps -a
CONTAINER ID   IMAGE     COMMAND       CREATED              STATUS                      PORTS     NAMES
76539a2682cc   centos    "/bin/bash"   About a minute ago   Exited (0) 33 seconds ago             laughing_morse

# 将文件拷贝出来
[root@docker ~]# docker cp 76539a2682cc:/home/test.java /home/
[root@docker ~]# ll /home/
total 0
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 0 Mar 21 22:19 test.java

# 拷贝是一个手动的过程,以后使用 -v 卷的技术,可以实现,自动同步。

......

本文转自:https://blog.csdn.net/qq_45392321/article/details/123729513