===6.3.2使用string对象===


string word="I love China"

*链接字符串*

string description=adjective  + " " + word;

_Note_: 不能连接两个字符串字面量,以下的语句是错误的

string test= "I have" + "a dream";


===6.3.3訪问字符串中的字符===

*读取字符串*

getline(cin, text);

getline(cin, text, '#')_;

word[index];


===6.3.4訪问子字符串===

* substr(index0, length);

string phrase = "the higher the fewer";

string wold= phrase.substr(4,6 );


===6.3.5比較字符串===

*操作符*

> >= < !=

*compare()*

world.compare("end");

word.compare(2, 4, "end");


===6.3.6搜索字符串:find===

string sentence = "Manners maketh man";

int a= sentence.find("man");

int b= sentence.find("man", index);//从index開始搜索

假设没有找到。返回~~string:npos~~

*搜索字符集*

string separeators= " ,.\"";

sentence.find_first_of(separeators);

sentence.find_last_of(separeators);

sentence.find_last_not_of(separeators);

sentence.find_first_not_of(separeators);

*逆向搜索*

sentence.rfind("man");


===6.3.7改动字符串:insert、replace、erase===

*1.insert*

_`mystring.insert(index, anotherstring)`

sentence.insert(13, world, 8, 5);//从index=8開始之后的5个字符

把几个同样字符串插入到string对象中:sentence.insert(index,times, string);

*2.replace*

将从index開始的num个字符,替换成新的string:sentence.replace(index, num, string);

*3.erase*

删除从index開始的num个字符:sentence.erase(index, num);


===6.3.8注意事项===


1) append函数与char 和char*

append函数的原型例如以下:

string& append (const string& str);

string& append (const string& str, size_t subpos, size_t sublen);

string& append (const char* s);

string& append (const char* s, size_t n);

string& append (size_t n, char c);

注意。char* 和char用作append的參数时候。比如,想在string尾部添加一个字符,须要用mystring.append(1, ch) 而不是mystring.apend(ch). 相同。想将chars的当中一部分插入string中。须要用mystring.append(s+a, b-a)


注意,假设只想添加一个字符。使用push_back就可以

string 具体解释

1.*string constructor*


default (1) string();

copy (2) string (const string& str);

substring (3) string (const string& str, size_t pos, size_t len = npos);

from c-string (4) string (const char* s);

from buffer (5) string (const char* s, size_t n);

fill (6) string (size_t n, char c);

range (7) template <class InputIterator>

  string  (InputIterator first, InputIterator last);


// string constructor
#include <iostream>
#include <string>

int main ()
{
std::string s0 ("Initial string");
// constructors used in the same order as described above:
std::string s1;
std::string s2 (s0);
std::string s3 (s0, 8, 3);
std::string s4 ("A character sequence", 6);
std::string s5 ("Another character sequence");
std::string s6 (10, 'x');
std::string s7a (10, 42); // 42 is the ASCII code for '*'
std::string s7b (s0.begin(), s0.begin()+7);
std::cout << "s1: " << s1 << "\ns2: " << s2 << "\ns3: " << s3;
std::cout << "\ns4: " << s4 << "\ns5: " << s5 << "\ns6: " << s6;
std::cout << "\ns7a: " << s7a << "\ns7b: " << s7b << '\n';
return 0;
}
**output**:
s1:
s2: Initial string
s3: str
s4: A char
s5: Another character sequence
s6: xxxxxxxxxx
s7a: **********
s7b: Initial


2.迭代器:

begin();

end();



3.capacity:

size();

length();

clear();

empty();



4.Element Access:

operator[]

at()

back();

front();


5.Modifier

operator+=

append()

push_back()

assign()

insert()

erase()

replcace();

swap();

pop_back();


6.String Operations:

copy();

find();

find_first_of();

find_last_of();

find_first_not_of();

find_last_not_of();

substr();

compare();


7.Member constants:

npos



8.Non-member function overloads:

getline();