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如果急需使用的话,直接用目录调到后面即可;如果不是急需使用的话,可以看看基础。



目录


一、基础

User - Agent,简称 UA,中文名为用户代理,是 Http 协议中的一部分,属于头域的组成部分。

它是一个特殊字符串头,是一种向访问网站提供你所使用的浏览器类型及版本、操作系统及版本、浏览器内核等信息标识。通过这个标识,用户所访问的网站可以显示不同的排版从而为用户提供更好的体验或者进行信息统计。

例如用手机访问谷歌和电脑访问是不一样的,这些是谷歌根据访问者的 UA 来判断的,所以 UA 可以进行伪装。

浏览器的 UA 字串的标准格式:​​浏览器标识 + (操作系统标识;加密等级标识;浏览器语言) + 渲染引擎标识 + 版本信息​​,但各个浏览器有所不同。

  1. 浏览器标识

出于兼容及推广等目的,很多浏览器的标识相同,因此浏览器标识并不能说明浏览器的真实版本,真实版本信息在 UA 字串尾部可以找到。

  1. 操作系统标识

操作系统

标识

备注

FreeBSD

X11;FreeBSD(version no.)i386


FreeBSD

X11;FreeBSD(version no.)AMD64


Linux

X11;Linux ppc


Linux

X11;Linux ppc64


Linux

X11;Linux i686


Linux

X11;Linux x86_64


Mac

Macintosh;PPC Mac OS X


Mac

Macintosh;Intel Mac OS X


Solaris

X11;SunOS i86pc


Solaris

X11;SunOs sun4u


Windows

Windows NT 6.1

对应windows7

Windows

Windows NT 6.0

对应windows Vista

Windows

Windows NT 5.2

对应windows 2003

Windows

Windows NT 5.1

对应windows xp

Windows

Windows NT 5.0

对应windows 2000

Windows

Windows ME


Windows

Windows 98


  1. 加密等级标识

标识

加密等级

N

无安全加密

I

弱安全加密

U

强安全加密

  1. 浏览器语言

以 Google 浏览器 Chrome 为例。

杂谈——常用的浏览器请求头User - Agent大全_.net

下拉找到高级。

杂谈——常用的浏览器请求头User - Agent大全_safari_02

找到语言,点击右侧的箭头,选择添加语言即可。

杂谈——常用的浏览器请求头User - Agent大全_.net_03

  1. 渲染引擎

显示浏览器使用的主流渲染引擎有:Gecko、WebKit、KHTML、Presto、Trident、Tasman等,格式为:​​渲染引擎/版本信息​

  1. 版本信息

显示浏览器的真实版本信息,格式为:​​浏览器/版本信息​

举例:

# Chrome 17.0 – MAC 
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_7_0) AppleWebKit/535.11 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/17.0.963.56 Safari/535.11


二、代码

这里有很多个 User - Agent ,包含PC和移动端。

import random

# 返回一个随机的请求头 headers
def get_user_agent():
# PC
user_agent_list_PC = [
# Opera
"Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/39.0.2171.95 Safari/537.36 OPR/26.0.1656.60",
"Opera/8.0 (Windows NT 5.1; U; en)",
"Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 5.1; U; en; rv:1.8.1) Gecko/20061208 Firefox/2.0.0 Opera 9.50",
"Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 6.0; Windows NT 5.1; en) Opera 9.50",

# Firefox
"Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64; rv:34.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/34.0",
"Mozilla/5.0 (X11; U; Linux x86_64; zh-CN; rv:1.9.2.10) Gecko/20100922 Ubuntu/10.10 (maverick) Firefox/3.6.10",

# Safari
"Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/534.57.2 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/5.1.7 Safari/534.57.2",

# Chrome
"Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/39.0.2171.71 Safari/537.36",
"Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64) AppleWebKit/537.11 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/23.0.1271.64 Safari/537.11",
"Mozilla/5.0 (Windows; U; Windows NT 6.1; en-US) AppleWebKit/534.16 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/10.0.648.133 Safari/534.16",
"Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.1 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/22.0.1207.1 Safari/537.1",
"Mozilla/5.0 (X11; CrOS i686 2268.111.0) AppleWebKit/536.11 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/20.0.1132.57 Safari/536.11",
"Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/536.6 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/20.0.1092.0 Safari/536.6",
"Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2) AppleWebKit/536.6 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/20.0.1090.0 Safari/536.6",
"Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.1 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.77.34.5 Safari/537.1",
"Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64) AppleWebKit/536.5 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1084.9 Safari/536.5",
"Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.0) AppleWebKit/536.5 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1084.36 Safari/536.5",
"Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1063.0 Safari/536.3",
"Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 5.1) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1063.0 Safari/536.3",
"Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_8_0) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1063.0 Safari/536.3",
"Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1062.0 Safari/536.3",
"Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1062.0 Safari/536.3",
"Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1061.1 Safari/536.3",
"Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1061.1 Safari/536.3",
"Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1061.1 Safari/536.3",
"Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2) AppleWebKit/536.3 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1061.0 Safari/536.3",
"Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64) AppleWebKit/535.24 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1055.1 Safari/535.24",
"Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2; WOW64) AppleWebKit/535.24 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/19.0.1055.1 Safari/535.24",

# 360
"Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/30.0.1599.101 Safari/537.36",
"Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64; Trident/7.0; rv:11.0) like Gecko",

# 淘宝浏览器
"Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/536.11 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/20.0.1132.11 TaoBrowser/2.0 Safari/536.11",

# 猎豹浏览器
"Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.1 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/21.0.1180.71 Safari/537.1 LBBROWSER",
"Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MSIE 9.0; Windows NT 6.1; WOW64; Trident/5.0; SLCC2; .NET CLR 2.0.50727; .NET CLR 3.5.30729; .NET CLR 3.0.30729; Media Center PC 6.0; .NET4.0C; .NET4.0E; LBBROWSER)",
"Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 6.0; Windows NT 5.1; SV1; QQDownload 732; .NET4.0C; .NET4.0E; LBBROWSER)",

# QQ浏览器
"Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MSIE 9.0; Windows NT 6.1; WOW64; Trident/5.0; SLCC2; .NET CLR 2.0.50727; .NET CLR 3.5.30729; .NET CLR 3.0.30729; Media Center PC 6.0; .NET4.0C; .NET4.0E; QQBrowser/7.0.3698.400)",
"Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 6.0; Windows NT 5.1; SV1; QQDownload 732; .NET4.0C; .NET4.0E)",

# sogou浏览器
"Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 5.1) AppleWebKit/535.11 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/17.0.963.84 Safari/535.11 SE 2.X MetaSr 1.0",
"Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 7.0; Windows NT 5.1; Trident/4.0; SV1; QQDownload 732; .NET4.0C; .NET4.0E; SE 2.X MetaSr 1.0)",

# maxthon浏览器
"Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Maxthon/4.4.3.4000 Chrome/30.0.1599.101 Safari/537.36",

# UC浏览器
"Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/38.0.2125.122 UBrowser/4.0.3214.0 Safari/537.36",
]

# 移动端
user_agent_list_MB = [
# IPhone
"Mozilla/5.0 (iPhone; U; CPU iPhone OS 4_3_3 like Mac OS X; en-us) AppleWebKit/533.17.9 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/5.0.2 Mobile/8J2 Safari/6533.18.5",

# IPod
"Mozilla/5.0 (iPod; U; CPU iPhone OS 4_3_3 like Mac OS X; en-us) AppleWebKit/533.17.9 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/5.0.2 Mobile/8J2 Safari/6533.18.5",

# IPAD
"Mozilla/5.0 (iPad; U; CPU OS 4_2_1 like Mac OS X; zh-cn) AppleWebKit/533.17.9 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/5.0.2 Mobile/8C148 Safari/6533.18.5",
"Mozilla/5.0 (iPad; U; CPU OS 4_3_3 like Mac OS X; en-us) AppleWebKit/533.17.9 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/5.0.2 Mobile/8J2 Safari/6533.18.5",

# Android
"Mozilla/5.0 (Linux; U; Android 2.2.1; zh-cn; HTC_Wildfire_A3333 Build/FRG83D) AppleWebKit/533.1 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/4.0 Mobile Safari/533.1",
"Mozilla/5.0 (Linux; U; Android 2.3.7; en-us; Nexus One Build/FRF91) AppleWebKit/533.1 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/4.0 Mobile Safari/533.1",

# QQ浏览器 Android版本
"MQQBrowser/26 Mozilla/5.0 (Linux; U; Android 2.3.7; zh-cn; MB200 Build/GRJ22; CyanogenMod-7) AppleWebKit/533.1 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/4.0 Mobile Safari/533.1",

# Android Opera Mobile
"Opera/9.80 (Android 2.3.4; Linux; Opera Mobi/build-1107180945; U; en-GB) Presto/2.8.149 Version/11.10",

# Android Pad Moto Xoom
"Mozilla/5.0 (Linux; U; Android 3.0; en-us; Xoom Build/HRI39) AppleWebKit/534.13 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/4.0 Safari/534.13",

# BlackBerry
"Mozilla/5.0 (BlackBerry; U; BlackBerry 9800; en) AppleWebKit/534.1+ (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/6.0.0.337 Mobile Safari/534.1+",

# WebOS HP Touchpad
"Mozilla/5.0 (hp-tablet; Linux; hpwOS/3.0.0; U; en-US) AppleWebKit/534.6 (KHTML, like Gecko) wOSBrowser/233.70 Safari/534.6 TouchPad/1.0",

# Nokia N97
"Mozilla/5.0 (SymbianOS/9.4; Series60/5.0 NokiaN97-1/20.0.019; Profile/MIDP-2.1 Configuration/CLDC-1.1) AppleWebKit/525 (KHTML, like Gecko) BrowserNG/7.1.18124",

# Windows Phone Mango
"Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MSIE 9.0; Windows Phone OS 7.5; Trident/5.0; IEMobile/9.0; HTC; Titan)",

# UC浏览器
"UCWEB7.0.2.37/28/999",
"NOKIA5700/ UCWEB7.0.2.37/28/999",

# UCOpenwave
"Openwave/ UCWEB7.0.2.37/28/999",

# UC Opera
"Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 6.0; ) Opera/UCWEB7.0.2.37/28/999"
]

user_agent_list = user_agent_list_PC + user_agent_list_MB
UserAgent = random.choice(user_agent_list)

headers = {
'Referer': 'https://www.baidu.com/',
'User-Agent': UserAgent
}

return headers


三、第三方库

最新的、简单的 user - agent 虚假与真实世界的数据库

https://github.com/hellysmile/fake-useragent

pip install fake-useragent
from fake_useragent import UserAgent
ua = UserAgent()

ua.ie
# Mozilla/5.0 (Windows; U; MSIE 9.0; Windows NT 9.0; en-US);
ua.msie
# Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MSIE 10.0; Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_7_3; Trident/6.0)'
ua['Internet Explorer']
# Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MSIE 8.0; Windows NT 6.1; Trident/4.0; GTB7.4; InfoPath.2; SV1; .NET CLR 3.3.69573; WOW64; en-US)
ua.opera
# Opera/9.80 (X11; Linux i686; U; ru) Presto/2.8.131 Version/11.11
ua.chrome
# Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1) AppleWebKit/537.2 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/22.0.1216.0 Safari/537.2'
ua.google
# Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_7_4) AppleWebKit/537.13 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/24.0.1290.1 Safari/537.13
ua['google chrome']
# Mozilla/5.0 (X11; CrOS i686 2268.111.0) AppleWebKit/536.11 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/20.0.1132.57 Safari/536.11
ua.firefox
# Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2; Win64; x64; rv:16.0.1) Gecko/20121011 Firefox/16.0.1
ua.ff
# Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Ubuntu; Linux i686; rv:15.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/15.0.1
ua.safari
# Mozilla/5.0 (iPad; CPU OS 6_0 like Mac OS X) AppleWebKit/536.26 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/6.0 Mobile/10A5355d Safari/8536.25

# and the best one, random via real world browser usage statistic
ua.random


但是有时候会出现错误的情况,所以还是建议自备几个好用的 user - agent。

参考文章