目录

  • 1、RabbitMQ介绍
  • 2、RabbitMQ的持久化和镜像队列
  • 3、RabbitMQ集群在k8s中的部署
    • 3.1 环境介绍
    • 3.2 创建configmap
    • 3.3 创建service
    • 3.4 创建rbac授权
    • 3.5 创建statefulset
    • 3.6 部署检查


1、RabbitMQ介绍

RabbitMQ是实现了高级消息队列协议AMQP的开源消息代理软件(亦称面向消息的中间件)。RabbitMQ服务器是用Erlang语言编写的,而集群和故障转移是构建在开放电信平台框架上的。AMQP:Advanced Message Queue,高级消息队列协议。它是应用层协议的一个开放标准,为面向消息的中间件设计,基于此协议的客户端与消息中间件可传递消息,并不受产品、开发语言灯条件的限制

AMQP具有如下的特性:

  • 可靠性Reliablity:使用了一些机制来保证可靠性,比如持久化、传输确认、发布确认
  • 灵活的路由Flexible Routing:在消息进入队列之前,通过Exchange来路由消息。对于典型的路由功能,Rabbit已经提供了一些内置的Exchange来实现。针对更复杂的路由功能,可以将多个Exchange绑定在一起,也通过插件机制实现自己的Exchange
  • 消息集群Clustering:多个RabbitMQ服务器可以组成一个集群,形成一个逻辑Broker
  • 高可用Highly Avaliable Queues:队列可以在集群中的机器上进行镜像,使得在部分节点出问题的情况下队列仍然可用
  • 多种协议Multi-protocol:支持多种消息队列协议,如STOMP、MQTT等
  • 多种语言客户端Many Clients:几乎支持所有常用语言,比如Java、.NET、Ruby等
  • 管理界面Management UI:提供了易用的用户界面,使得用户可以监控和管理消息Broker的许多方面
  • 跟踪机制Tracing:如果消息异常,RabbitMQ提供了消息的跟踪机制,使用者可以找出发生了什么
  • 插件机制Plugin System:提供了许多插件,来从多方面进行扩展,也可以编辑自己的插件

2、RabbitMQ的持久化和镜像队列

RabbitMQ持久化分为Exchange、Queue、Message

  • Exchange和Queue持久化:指持久化Exchange、Queue元数据,持久化的是自身,服务宕机Exchange和Queue自身就没有了
  • Message持久化:顾名思义就是把每一条消息体持久化,服务宕机,消息不丢失

RabbitMQ的队列Queue镜像,指master node在接受到请求后,会同步到其他节点上,以此来保证高可用。在confirm模式下,具体过程如下

clientpublisher发送消息 –> master node接到消息 –> master node将消息持久化到磁盘 –> 将消息异步发送给其他节点 –> master将ack返回给client publisher

3、RabbitMQ集群在k8s中的部署

将RabbitMQ以集群的方式部署在k8s中,前提是RabbitMQ的每个节点都能像传统方式一样进行相互的服务发现。因此RabbitMQ在k8s集群中通过rabbitmq_peer_discovery_k8s plugin与k8s apiserver进行交互,获取各个服务的URL,且RabbitMQ在k8s集群中必须用statefulset和headless service进行匹配

需要注意的是,rabbitmq_peer_discovery_k8s是RabbitMQ官方基于第三方开源项目rabbitmq-autocluster开发,对3.7.X及以上版本提供的Kubernetes下的对等发现插件,可实现rabbitmq集群在k8s中的自动化部署,因此低于3.7.X版本请使用rabbitmq-autocluster

3.1 环境介绍

本文部署的版本是3.8.3

默认部署在default命名空间下,

持久化存储为storageclass动态存储,底层为nfs提供

镜像地址rabbitmq:3.8.3-management

以下yaml参考自官方示例https://github.com/rabbitmq/diy-kubernetes-examples

3.2 创建configmap

01-rabbitmq-configmap.yaml

kind: ConfigMap
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  name: rabbitmq-cluster-config
  namespace: default
  labels:
    addonmanager.kubernetes.io/mode: Reconcile
data:
    enabled_plugins: |
      [rabbitmq_management,rabbitmq_peer_discovery_k8s].
    rabbitmq.conf: |
      default_user = admin
      default_pass = 123!@#
      ## Cluster formation. See https://www.rabbitmq.com/cluster-formation.html to learn more.
      cluster_formation.peer_discovery_backend = rabbit_peer_discovery_k8s
      cluster_formation.k8s.host = kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local
      ## Should RabbitMQ node name be computed from the pod's hostname or IP address?
      ## IP addresses are not stable, so using [stable] hostnames is recommended when possible.
      ## Set to "hostname" to use pod hostnames.
      ## When this value is changed, so should the variable used to set the RABBITMQ_NODENAME
      ## environment variable.
      cluster_formation.k8s.address_type = hostname
      ## How often should node cleanup checks run?
      cluster_formation.node_cleanup.interval = 30
      ## Set to false if automatic removal of unknown/absent nodes
      ## is desired. This can be dangerous, see
      ##  * https://www.rabbitmq.com/cluster-formation.html#node-health-checks-and-cleanup
      ##  * https://groups.google.com/forum/#!msg/rabbitmq-users/wuOfzEywHXo/k8z_HWIkBgAJ
      cluster_formation.node_cleanup.only_log_warning = true
      cluster_partition_handling = autoheal
      ## See https://www.rabbitmq.com/ha.html#master-migration-data-locality
      queue_master_locator=min-masters
      ## See https://www.rabbitmq.com/access-control.html#loopback-users
      loopback_users.guest = false
      cluster_formation.randomized_startup_delay_range.min = 0
      cluster_formation.randomized_startup_delay_range.max = 2
      # default is rabbitmq-cluster's namespace
      # hostname_suffix
      cluster_formation.k8s.hostname_suffix = .rabbitmq-cluster.default.svc.cluster.local
      # memory
      vm_memory_high_watermark.absolute = 1GB
      # disk
      disk_free_limit.absolute = 2GB

部分参数说明:

  • enabled_plugins:声明开启的插件名
  • default_pass/default_pass:声明用户名和密码(虽然有部分文章记录可以通过环境变量的方式声明,但是经测试,针对此版本如果指定了configmap即rabbitmq的配置文件,声明的环境变量是没有用的,都需要在配置文件中指定)
  • cluster_formation.k8s.address_type:从k8s返回的Pod容器列表中计算对等节点列表,这里只能使用主机名,官方示例中是ip,但是默认情况下在k8s中pod的ip都是不固定的,因此可能导致节点的配置和数据丢失,后面的yaml中会通过引用元数据的方式固定pod的主机名。

更多参数请参考官方文档,这里就不赘述了

3.3 创建service

02-rabbitmq-service.yaml

kind: Service
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  labels:
    app: rabbitmq-cluster
  name: rabbitmq-cluster
  namespace: default
spec:
  clusterIP: None
  ports:
  - name: rmqport
    port: 5672
    targetPort: 5672
  selector:
    app: rabbitmq-cluster

---
kind: Service
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  labels:
    app: rabbitmq-cluster
  name: rabbitmq-cluster-manage
  namespace: default
spec:
  ports:
  - name: http
    port: 15672
    protocol: TCP
    targetPort: 15672
  selector:
    app: rabbitmq-cluster
  type: NodePort

上面定义了两个Service,一个是rabbitmq的服务端口,一个是管理界面的端口,用户外部访问,这里通过NodePort方式进行暴露

3.4 创建rbac授权

前面的介绍中提到了RabbitMQ通过插件与k8s apiserver交互获得集群中节点相关信息,因此需要对其进行RBAC授权

03-rabbitmq-rbac.yaml

apiVersion: v1
kind: ServiceAccount
metadata:
  name: rabbitmq-cluster
  namespace: default
---
kind: Role
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1
metadata:
  name: rabbitmq-cluster
  namespace: default
rules:
- apiGroups: [""]
  resources: ["endpoints"]
  verbs: ["get"]
---
kind: RoleBinding
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1
metadata:
  name: rabbitmq-cluster
  namespace: default
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: Role
  name: rabbitmq-cluster
subjects:
- kind: ServiceAccount
  name: rabbitmq-cluster
  namespace: default

3.5 创建statefulset

RabbitMQ在k8s中作为一个有状态应用进行部署,因此控制器类型为StatefulSet,yaml中还定义了pvc相关内容

04-rabbitmq-cluster-sts.yaml

kind: StatefulSet
apiVersion: apps/v1
metadata:
  labels:
    app: rabbitmq-cluster
  name: rabbitmq-cluster
  namespace: default
spec:
  replicas: 3
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: rabbitmq-cluster
  serviceName: rabbitmq-cluster
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: rabbitmq-cluster
    spec:
      containers:
      - args:
        - -c
        - cp -v /etc/rabbitmq/rabbitmq.conf ${RABBITMQ_CONFIG_FILE}; exec docker-entrypoint.sh
          rabbitmq-server
        command:
        - sh
        env:
        - name: TZ
          value: 'Asia/Shanghai'
        - name: RABBITMQ_ERLANG_COOKIE
          value: 'SWvCP0Hrqv43NG7GybHC95ntCJKoW8UyNFWnBEWG8TY='
        - name: K8S_SERVICE_NAME
          value: rabbitmq-cluster
        - name: POD_IP
          valueFrom:
            fieldRef:
              fieldPath: status.podIP
        - name: POD_NAME
          valueFrom:
            fieldRef:
              fieldPath: metadata.name
        - name: POD_NAMESPACE
          valueFrom:
            fieldRef:
              fieldPath: metadata.namespace
        - name: RABBITMQ_USE_LONGNAME
          value: "true"
        - name: RABBITMQ_NODENAME
          value: rabbit@$(POD_NAME).$(K8S_SERVICE_NAME).$(POD_NAMESPACE).svc.cluster.local
        - name: RABBITMQ_CONFIG_FILE
          value: /var/lib/rabbitmq/rabbitmq.conf
        image: rabbitmq:3.8.3-management
        imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
        livenessProbe:
          exec:
            command:
            - rabbitmq-diagnostics
            - status
          # See https://www.rabbitmq.com/monitoring.html for monitoring frequency recommendations.
          initialDelaySeconds: 60
          periodSeconds: 60
          timeoutSeconds: 15
        name: rabbitmq
        ports:
        - containerPort: 15672
          name: http
          protocol: TCP
        - containerPort: 5672
          name: amqp
          protocol: TCP
        readinessProbe:
          exec:
            command:
            - rabbitmq-diagnostics
            - status
          initialDelaySeconds: 20
          periodSeconds: 60
          timeoutSeconds: 10
        volumeMounts:
        - mountPath: /etc/rabbitmq
          name: config-volume
          readOnly: false
        - mountPath: /var/lib/rabbitmq
          name: rabbitmq-storage
          readOnly: false
        - name: timezone
          mountPath: /etc/localtime
          readOnly: true
      serviceAccountName: rabbitmq-cluster
      terminationGracePeriodSeconds: 30
      volumes:
      - name: config-volume
        configMap:
          items:
          - key: rabbitmq.conf
            path: rabbitmq.conf
          - key: enabled_plugins
            path: enabled_plugins
          name: rabbitmq-cluster-config
      - name: timezone
        hostPath:
          path: /usr/share/zoneinfo/Asia/Shanghai
  volumeClaimTemplates:
  - metadata:
      name: rabbitmq-storage
    spec:
      accessModes:
      - ReadWriteMany
      storageClassName: "managed-nfs-storage"
      resources:
        requests:
          storage: 2Gi

3.6 部署检查

➜  rabbitmq-cluster pwd
/Users/ssgeek/Documents/k8s-manifests/rabbitmq-cluster
➜  rabbitmq-cluster ls
01-rabbitmq-configmap.yaml   02-rabbitmq-service.yaml     03-rabbitmq-rbac.yaml        04-rabbitmq-cluster-sts.yaml
➜  rabbitmq-cluster kubectl apply -f .
configmap/rabbitmq-cluster-config created
service/rabbitmq-cluster created
service/rabbitmq-cluster-manage created
serviceaccount/rabbitmq-cluster created
role.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/rabbitmq-cluster created
rolebinding.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/rabbitmq-cluster created
statefulset.apps/rabbitmq-cluster created

等待一段时间,查看创建的相关资源

➜  rabbitmq-cluster kubectl get po,sts -l app=rabbitmq-cluster
NAME                     READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
pod/rabbitmq-cluster-0   1/1     Running   0          3m22s
pod/rabbitmq-cluster-1   1/1     Running   0          2m18s
pod/rabbitmq-cluster-2   1/1     Running   0          2m23s

NAME                                READY   AGE
statefulset.apps/rabbitmq-cluster   3/3     3m25s

查看日志,从日志的最后部分观察集群建立的状态

➜  rabbitmq-cluster kubectl logs -f rabbitmq-cluster-0
'/etc/rabbitmq/rabbitmq.conf' -> '/var/lib/rabbitmq/rabbitmq.conf'
2021-02-17 03:30:39.445 [info] <0.9.0> Feature flags: list of feature flags found:
2021-02-17 03:30:39.445 [info] <0.9.0> Feature flags:   [ ] drop_unroutable_metric
2021-02-17 03:30:39.445 [info] <0.9.0> Feature flags:   [ ] empty_basic_get_metric
2021-02-17 03:30:39.445 [info] <0.9.0> Feature flags:   [ ] implicit_default_bindings
2021-02-17 03:30:39.445 [info] <0.9.0> Feature flags:   [ ] quorum_queue
2021-02-17 03:30:39.445 [info] <0.9.0> Feature flags:   [ ] virtual_host_metadata
2021-02-17 03:30:39.445 [info] <0.9.0> Feature flags: feature flag states written to disk: yes
2021-02-17 03:30:39.544 [info] <0.269.0> ra: meta data store initialised. 0 record(s) recovered
2021-02-17 03:30:39.547 [info] <0.274.0> WAL: recovering []
2021-02-17 03:31:10.676 [info] <0.313.0> 
 Starting RabbitMQ 3.8.3 on Erlang 22.3.4.1
 Copyright (c) 2007-2020 Pivotal Software, Inc.
 Licensed under the MPL 1.1. Website: https://rabbitmq.com

  ##  ##      RabbitMQ 3.8.3
  ##  ##
  ##########  Copyright (c) 2007-2020 Pivotal Software, Inc.
  ######  ##
  ##########  Licensed under the MPL 1.1. Website: https://rabbitmq.com

  Doc guides: https://rabbitmq.com/documentation.html
  Support:    https://rabbitmq.com/contact.html
  Tutorials:  https://rabbitmq.com/getstarted.html
  Monitoring: https://rabbitmq.com/monitoring.html

  Logs: <stdout>

  Config file(s): /var/lib/rabbitmq/rabbitmq.conf

  Starting broker...2021-02-17 03:31:10.678 [info] <0.313.0> 
 node           : rabbit@rabbitmq-cluster-0.rabbitmq-cluster.default.svc.cluster.local
 home dir       : /var/lib/rabbitmq
 config file(s) : /var/lib/rabbitmq/rabbitmq.conf
 cookie hash    : H+IQL2spD4MDV4jPi7mMAg==
 log(s)         : <stdout>
 database dir   : /var/lib/rabbitmq/mnesia/rabbit@rabbitmq-cluster-0.rabbitmq-cluster.default.svc.cluster.local
2021-02-17 03:31:10.695 [info] <0.313.0> Running boot step pre_boot defined by app rabbit

...省略中间内容

2021-02-17 03:31:13.273 [info] <0.824.0> Statistics database started.
2021-02-17 03:31:13.273 [info] <0.823.0> Starting worker pool 'management_worker_pool' with 3 processes in it
2021-02-17 03:31:13.467 [info] <0.9.0> Server startup complete; 5 plugins started.
 * rabbitmq_peer_discovery_k8s
 * rabbitmq_management
 * rabbitmq_web_dispatch
 * rabbitmq_management_agent
 * rabbitmq_peer_discovery_common
 completed with 5 plugins.
2021-02-17 03:32:30.060 [info] <0.566.0> node 'rabbit@rabbitmq-cluster-1.rabbitmq-cluster.default.svc.cluster.local' up
2021-02-17 03:32:31.264 [info] <0.566.0> rabbit on node 'rabbit@rabbitmq-cluster-1.rabbitmq-cluster.default.svc.cluster.local' up
2021-02-17 03:33:31.280 [info] <0.566.0> node 'rabbit@rabbitmq-cluster-2.rabbitmq-cluster.default.svc.cluster.local' up
2021-02-17 03:33:32.627 [info] <0.566.0> rabbit on node 'rabbit@rabbitmq-cluster-2.rabbitmq-cluster.default.svc.cluster.local' up

进入到pod中通过客户端查看集群状态

➜  rabbitmq-cluster kubectl exec -it rabbitmq-cluster-0 bash
root@rabbitmq-cluster-0:/# rabbitmqctl cluster_status
Cluster status of node rabbit@rabbitmq-cluster-0.rabbitmq-cluster.default.svc.cluster.local ...
Basics

Cluster name: rabbit@rabbitmq-cluster-0.rabbitmq-cluster.default.svc.cluster.local

Disk Nodes

rabbit@rabbitmq-cluster-0.rabbitmq-cluster.default.svc.cluster.local
rabbit@rabbitmq-cluster-1.rabbitmq-cluster.default.svc.cluster.local
rabbit@rabbitmq-cluster-2.rabbitmq-cluster.default.svc.cluster.local

Running Nodes

rabbit@rabbitmq-cluster-0.rabbitmq-cluster.default.svc.cluster.local
rabbit@rabbitmq-cluster-1.rabbitmq-cluster.default.svc.cluster.local
rabbit@rabbitmq-cluster-2.rabbitmq-cluster.default.svc.cluster.local

Versions

rabbit@rabbitmq-cluster-0.rabbitmq-cluster.default.svc.cluster.local: RabbitMQ 3.8.3 on Erlang 22.3.4.1
rabbit@rabbitmq-cluster-1.rabbitmq-cluster.default.svc.cluster.local: RabbitMQ 3.8.3 on Erlang 22.3.4.1
rabbit@rabbitmq-cluster-2.rabbitmq-cluster.default.svc.cluster.local: RabbitMQ 3.8.3 on Erlang 22.3.4.1

Alarms

(none)

Network Partitions

(none)

Listeners

Node: rabbit@rabbitmq-cluster-0.rabbitmq-cluster.default.svc.cluster.local, interface: [::], port: 25672, protocol: clustering, purpose: inter-node and CLI tool communication
Node: rabbit@rabbitmq-cluster-0.rabbitmq-cluster.default.svc.cluster.local, interface: [::], port: 5672, protocol: amqp, purpose: AMQP 0-9-1 and AMQP 1.0
Node: rabbit@rabbitmq-cluster-0.rabbitmq-cluster.default.svc.cluster.local, interface: [::], port: 15672, protocol: http, purpose: HTTP API
Node: rabbit@rabbitmq-cluster-1.rabbitmq-cluster.default.svc.cluster.local, interface: [::], port: 25672, protocol: clustering, purpose: inter-node and CLI tool communication
Node: rabbit@rabbitmq-cluster-1.rabbitmq-cluster.default.svc.cluster.local, interface: [::], port: 5672, protocol: amqp, purpose: AMQP 0-9-1 and AMQP 1.0
Node: rabbit@rabbitmq-cluster-1.rabbitmq-cluster.default.svc.cluster.local, interface: [::], port: 15672, protocol: http, purpose: HTTP API
Node: rabbit@rabbitmq-cluster-2.rabbitmq-cluster.default.svc.cluster.local, interface: [::], port: 25672, protocol: clustering, purpose: inter-node and CLI tool communication
Node: rabbit@rabbitmq-cluster-2.rabbitmq-cluster.default.svc.cluster.local, interface: [::], port: 5672, protocol: amqp, purpose: AMQP 0-9-1 and AMQP 1.0
Node: rabbit@rabbitmq-cluster-2.rabbitmq-cluster.default.svc.cluster.local, interface: [::], port: 15672, protocol: http, purpose: HTTP API

Feature flags

Flag: drop_unroutable_metric, state: enabled
Flag: empty_basic_get_metric, state: enabled
Flag: implicit_default_bindings, state: enabled
Flag: quorum_queue, state: enabled
Flag: virtual_host_metadata, state: enabled

通过NodePort访问管理界面

kubectl get svc -l app=rabbitmq-cluster
NAME                      TYPE        CLUSTER-IP     EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)           AGE
rabbitmq-cluster          ClusterIP   None           <none>        5672/TCP          8m47s
rabbitmq-cluster-manage   NodePort    10.1.239.191   <none>        15672:30888/TCP   8m47s

基于k8s手动部署rabbitmq集群_rabbitmq

到这里,在k8s中手动部署一个RabbitMQ集群就完成啦~