网络编程NIO之Reactor线程模型


目录

  • 单Reactor线程模型
  • 基于工作线程的Reactor线程模型
  • 多Reactor线程模型
  • 多Reactor线程模型示例
  • 结束语


上篇文章中写了一些NIO相关的知识以及简单的NIO实现示例,但是示例中,客户端连接以及读取、写入、处理客户端数据时都是在一个线程中,单个线程处理客户端的数据,性能会很差,而且不能充分利用服务器的性能,这篇文章主要介绍Reactor线程模型,NIO的多路复用知识,用以提供服务端的性能。


单Reactor线程模型

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单Reactor线程模型,最终还是使用了一个线程,和上篇文章最后的示例基本上没啥差别,只是拆分了三个类来进行处理。

基于工作线程的Reactor线程模型

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这里的线程模型,是在客户端连接后,业务数据的部分抽出来,放到线程池中处理,这样做的好处是,如果处理业务数据时间很长,也不会影响客户端的读写操作。
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上面图示是简单的基于工作线程的工作模式,把业务数据处理单独抽出来,在线程池处理。

多Reactor线程模型

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最终的线程模型,是多Reactor线程模型。
客户端数据的读写也是在多个线程中进行处理,充分提高了性能。
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多Reactor线程模型示例

MainReactor-Thread和Acceptor代码:

   /**
    * mainReactor-Thread
    * 接收客户端连接,然后交给Acceptor处理
    */
    class MainReactor extends Thread {
        //创建一个Selector
        public Selector selector;

        AtomicInteger integer = new AtomicInteger(0);

        public MainReactor() throws IOException {
            selector = Selector.open();
        }

        @Override
        public void run() {
            while (true) {
                try {
                    //启动Selector
                    selector.select();
                    //获取事件
                    Set<SelectionKey> selectionKeys = selector.selectedKeys();
                    Iterator<SelectionKey> iterator = selectionKeys.iterator();
                    //遍历事件
                    while (iterator.hasNext()) {
                        SelectionKey selectionKey = iterator.next();
                        if (selectionKey.isAcceptable()) {
                            //获取客户端通道
                            SocketChannel socketChannel = ((ServerSocketChannel)selectionKey.channel()).accept();
                            Acceptor acceptor = new Acceptor();
                            //把客户端通道交给Acceptor去处理
                            acceptor.register(socketChannel);
                        }
                        //处理完之后要移除
                        iterator.remove();
                    }
                } catch (IOException e) {
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
            }
        }

        public void register(ServerSocketChannel serverSocketChannel) throws ClosedChannelException {
            //注册OP_ACCEPT事件
            serverSocketChannel.register(selector, SelectionKey.OP_ACCEPT);
        }

       /**
        *  处理客户端的连接
        *  给每个客户端连接分配一个subReactor-Thread
        */
       class Acceptor {

           public void register(SocketChannel socketChannel) throws IOException {
               //设置为非阻塞模式
               socketChannel.configureBlocking(false);
               int index = integer.getAndIncrement() % subReactors.length;
               SubReactor subReactor = subReactors[index];
               //给客户端连接分配一个subReactor线程
               subReactor.register(socketChannel);
               //启动subReactor线程
               subReactor.start();
               System.out.println("收到新连接:" + socketChannel.getRemoteAddress());

           }
       }
}

SubReactor-Threads代码:

    /**
     * 一个线程负责多个客户端连接
     * 从channel中读数据、写数据
     */
    class SubReactor extends Thread {

        //创建一个Selector
        public Selector selector;
        //用于判断SubReactor线程是否已经启动
        public volatile boolean isRunning = false;

        public SubReactor() throws IOException {
            selector = Selector.open();
        }

        @Override
        public void start() {
            //判断SubReactor线程是否已经启动
            //如果没有启动,就启动SubReactor线程
            if (!isRunning) {
                isRunning = true;
                super.start();
            }
        }

        @Override
        public void run() {
           while (isRunning) {
               try {
                   //启动Selector
                   selector.select();
                   //获取事件
                   Set<SelectionKey> selectionKeys = selector.selectedKeys();
                   Iterator<SelectionKey> iterator = selectionKeys.iterator();
                   //遍历事件
                   while (iterator.hasNext()) {
                       SelectionKey selectionKey = iterator.next();
                       if (selectionKey.isReadable()) {
                           try {
                               SocketChannel socketChannel = (SocketChannel)selectionKey.channel();
                               new Handler(socketChannel);
                           } catch (Exception e) {
                               e.printStackTrace();
                               selectionKey.cancel();
                           }
                       }
                       //处理完之后要移除
                       iterator.remove();
                   }
               } catch (IOException e) {
                   e.printStackTrace();
               }
           }
        }

        public void register(SocketChannel socketChannel) throws IOException {
            //注册OP_READ事件
            socketChannel.register(selector, SelectionKey.OP_READ);
        }

        /** 读取或者写入数据 */
        class Handler {
            //用来读取或者写入数据
            public Handler(SocketChannel socketChannel) throws IOException {
                ByteBuffer readBuffer = ByteBuffer.allocate(1024);
                while (socketChannel.isOpen() && socketChannel.read(readBuffer) != -1) {
                    //如果有数据可读,简单的判断一下大于0
                    if (readBuffer.position() > 0) {
                        break;
                    }
                }
                //没有数据可读,就直接返回
                if (readBuffer.position() == 0) {
                    return;
                }
                //转换为读取模式
                readBuffer.flip();
                byte[] bytes = new byte[readBuffer.limit()];
                readBuffer.get(bytes);
                System.out.println("获取到新的数据:" + new String(bytes));
                System.out.println("获取到新的数据,来自:" + socketChannel.getRemoteAddress());
                //线程池,用来处理业务数据
                threadPool.execute(new Runnable() {
                    @Override
                    public void run() {

                    }
                });

                //向客户端写数据
                String response = "HTTP/1.1 200 OK\r\n" +
                        "Content-Length: 11\r\n\r\n" +
                        "hello world";
                ByteBuffer writeBuffer = ByteBuffer.wrap(response.getBytes());
                while (writeBuffer.hasRemaining()) {
                    socketChannel.write(writeBuffer);
                }
            }
        }
 }

初始化代码:

    /** 服务端通道 */
    public ServerSocketChannel serverSocketChannel;
    /** 用来接收客户端连接 */
    public MainReactor mainReactor;
    /** 用来处理客户端连接的读取、写入 */
    public SubReactor[] subReactors = new SubReactor[10];
    /** 线程池,用来处理客户端连接后的业务逻辑 */
    public ExecutorService threadPool = Executors.newCachedThreadPool();

    public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {
        NioReactor nioReactor = new NioReactor();
        nioReactor.initAndRegister();
        nioReactor.init();
        nioReactor.bind();
    }

    /** 初始化服务端 */
    public void init() throws IOException {
        //创建一个服务端通道
        serverSocketChannel = ServerSocketChannel.open();
        //设置为非阻塞模式
        serverSocketChannel.configureBlocking(false);
        //注册到mainReactor-Thread
        mainReactor.register(serverSocketChannel);
        //启动mainReactor-Thread线程
        mainReactor.start();
    }

    /** 服务端绑定端口 */
    public void bind() throws IOException {
        serverSocketChannel.socket().bind(new InetSocketAddress(8056));
        System.out.println("服务端启动成功");
    }

    /** 初始化MainReactor和SubReactor */
    public void initAndRegister() throws IOException {
        mainReactor = new MainReactor();

        for (int i=0; i<subReactors.length; i++) {
           subReactors[i] = new SubReactor();
        }
    }

上面代码mainReactorThread和subReactorThread中有大量的重复代码,可以提取出来处理:

/** 多路复用,reactor线程模型 */
public class NioReactor2 {
    abstract class ReactorThread extends Thread {
        //创建一个Selector
        public Selector selector;
        //用于判断线程是否已经启动
        public volatile boolean isRunning = false;

        /** 有事件发生,就调用这个方法 */
        public abstract void handler(SelectableChannel channel) throws IOException;

        public ReactorThread() throws IOException {
            selector = Selector.open();
        }

        @Override
        public void run() {
            while (isRunning) {
                //启动Selector
                try {
                    selector.select();
                    //获取事件
                    Set<SelectionKey> selectionKeys = selector.selectedKeys();
                    Iterator<SelectionKey> iterator = selectionKeys.iterator();
                    //遍历事件
                    while (iterator.hasNext()) {
                        SelectionKey key = iterator.next();
                        int readyOps = key.readyOps();
                        //只关注是否有OP_ACCEPT和OP_READ事件
                        if ((readyOps & (SelectionKey.OP_ACCEPT | SelectionKey.OP_READ)) != 0 || readyOps == 0) {
                            try {
                                //获取channel
                                SelectableChannel channel = key.channel();
                                //设置为非阻塞模式
                                channel.configureBlocking(false);
                                //有事件,就调用handler方法
                                handler(channel);
                                if (!channel.isOpen()) {
                                    //如果channel关闭,就取消key
                                    key.cancel();
                                }
                            } catch (Exception e) {
                                e.printStackTrace();
                                //如果有异常,就取消key
                                key.cancel();
                            }
                        }
                        //处理完之后要移除
                        iterator.remove();
                    }
                    selector.selectNow();
                } catch (IOException e) {
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
            }
        }

        public SelectionKey register(SelectableChannel channel) throws ClosedChannelException {
            //先注册到Selector,并没有注册任何事件
            return channel.register(selector, 0);
        }

        @Override
        public void start() {
            //判断SubReactor线程是否已经启动
            //如果没有启动,就启动SubReactor线程
            if (!isRunning) {
                isRunning = true;
                super.start();
            }
        }
    }


    /** 服务端通道 */
    public ServerSocketChannel serverSocketChannel;
    /** 用来接收客户端连接 */
    public ReactorThread[] mainReactors = new ReactorThread[1];;
    /** 用来处理客户端连接的读取、写入 */
    public ReactorThread[] subReactors = new ReactorThread[10];
    /** 线程池,用来处理客户端连接后的业务逻辑 */
    public ExecutorService threadPool = Executors.newCachedThreadPool();

    /**
     * 初始化mainReactors和subReactors
     */
    public void initAndRegister() throws IOException {
        //subReactors线程,用来客户端连接后的读写
        for (int i=0; i<subReactors.length; i++) {
            subReactors[i] = new ReactorThread() {
                @Override
                public void handler(SelectableChannel channel) throws IOException {
                    SocketChannel socketChannel = (SocketChannel)channel;
                    ByteBuffer readBuffer = ByteBuffer.allocate(1024);
                    while (socketChannel.isOpen() && socketChannel.read(readBuffer) != -1) {
                        //如果有数据可读,简单的判断一下大于0
                        if (readBuffer.position() > 0) {
                            break;
                        }
                    }
                    //没有数据可读,就直接返回
                    if (readBuffer.position() == 0) {
                        return;
                    }
                    //转换为读取模式
                    readBuffer.flip();
                    byte[] bytes = new byte[readBuffer.limit()];
                    readBuffer.get(bytes);
                    System.out.println("获取到新的数据:" + new String(bytes));
                    System.out.println("获取到新的数据,来自:" + socketChannel.getRemoteAddress());
                    //线程池,用来处理业务数据
                    threadPool.execute(new Runnable() {
                        @Override
                        public void run() {

                        }
                    });

                    //向客户端写数据
                    String response = "HTTP/1.1 200 OK\r\n" +
                            "Content-Length: 11\r\n\r\n" +
                            "hello world";
                    ByteBuffer writeBuffer = ByteBuffer.wrap(response.getBytes());
                    while (writeBuffer.hasRemaining()) {
                        socketChannel.write(writeBuffer);
                    }
                }
            };
        }

        //mainReactors线程,用于客户端的连接
        for (int i=0; i<mainReactors.length; i++) {
            mainReactors[i] = new ReactorThread() {
                AtomicInteger integer = new AtomicInteger(0);

                @Override
                public void handler(SelectableChannel channel) throws IOException {
                    //获取客户端通道
                    SocketChannel socketChannel = ((ServerSocketChannel)channel).accept();
                    //设置为非阻塞模式
                    socketChannel.configureBlocking(false);
                    int index = integer.getAndIncrement() % subReactors.length;
                    ReactorThread subReactor = subReactors[index];
                    //启动线程
                    subReactor.start();
                    //注册事件
                    SelectionKey key = subReactor.register(socketChannel);
                    key.interestOps(SelectionKey.OP_READ);
                    System.out.println("收到新连接:" + socketChannel.getRemoteAddress());
                }
            };
        }
    }

    /** 初始化服务端 */
    public void init() throws IOException {
        //创建一个服务端通道
        serverSocketChannel = ServerSocketChannel.open();
        //设置为非阻塞模式
        serverSocketChannel.configureBlocking(false);
        //注册到mainReactor-Thread
        int index = new Random().nextInt(mainReactors.length);
        SelectionKey keys = mainReactors[index].register(serverSocketChannel);
        keys.interestOps(SelectionKey.OP_ACCEPT);
        //启动mainReactor-Thread线程
        mainReactors[index].start();
    }

    /** 服务端绑定端口 */
    public void bind() throws IOException {
        serverSocketChannel.socket().bind(new InetSocketAddress(8056));
        System.out.println("服务端启动成功");
    }

    public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {
        NioReactor2 nioReactor = new NioReactor2();
        nioReactor.initAndRegister();
        nioReactor.init();
        nioReactor.bind();
    }
}
结束语

到此,NIO中的Reactor线程模型就结束了,上面的示例可以拆分几个类进行处理,还可以根据HTTP协议的部分,解析请求,做一个简单的tomcat服务器。