Java数据库连接(JDBC)由一组用 Java 编程语言编写的类和接口组成。JDBC 为工具/数据库开发人员提供了一个标准的 API,使他们能够用纯Java API 来编写数据库应用程序。然而各个开发商的接口并不完全相同,所以开发环境的变化会带来一定的配置变化。本文主要集合了不同数据库的连接方式。

  一、连接各种数据库方式速查表

  下面罗列了各种数据库使用JDBC连接的方式,可以作为一个手册使用。
1、Oracle8/8i/9i数据库(thin模式)    


Class.forName("oracle.jdbc.driver.OracleDriver").newInstance();    
String url="jdbc:oracle:thin:@localhost:1521:orcl"; //orcl为数据库的SID    
String user="test";    
String password="test";    
Connection conn= DriverManager.getConnection(url,user,password);    


  2、DB2数据库    


Class.forName("com.ibm.db2.jdbc.app.DB2Driver ").newInstance();    
String url="jdbc:db2://localhost:5000/sample"; //sample为你的数据库名    
String user="admin";    
String password="";    
Connection conn= DriverManager.getConnection(url,user,password);    


  3、Sql Server7.0/2000数据库    


Class.forName("com.microsoft.jdbc.sqlserver.SQLServerDriver").newInstance();    
String url="jdbc:microsoft:sqlserver://localhost:1433;DatabaseName=mydb";    
//mydb为数据库    
String user="sa";    
String password="";    
Connection conn= DriverManager.getConnection(url,user,password);    


  4、Sybase数据库    


Class.forName("com.sybase.jdbc.SybDriver").newInstance();    
String url =" jdbc:sybase:Tds:localhost:5007/myDB";//myDB为你的数据库名    
Properties sysProps = System.getProperties();    
SysProps.put("user","userid");    
SysProps.put("password","user_password");    
Connection conn= DriverManager.getConnection(url, SysProps);    


  5、Informix数据库    


Class.forName("com.informix.jdbc.IfxDriver").newInstance();    
String url = "jdbc:informix-sqli://123.45.67.89:1533/myDB:INFORMIXSERVER=myserver;    
user=testuser;password=testpassword"; //myDB为数据库名    
Connection conn= DriverManager.getConnection(url);    


  6、MySQL数据库    


Class.forName("org.gjt.mm.mysql.Driver").newInstance();    
String url ="jdbc:mysql://localhost/myDB?user=soft&password=soft1234&useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=8859_1"    
//myDB为数据库名    
Connection conn= DriverManager.getConnection(url);    


  7、PostgreSQL数据库    


Class.forName("org.postgresql.Driver").newInstance();    
String url ="jdbc:postgresql://localhost/myDB" //myDB为数据库名    
String user="myuser";    
String password="mypassword";    
Connection conn= DriverManager.getConnection(url,user,password);    


  8、access数据库直连用ODBC的


Class.forName("sun.jdbc.odbc.JdbcOdbcDriver") ;
String url="jdbc:odbc:Driver={MicroSoft Access Driver (*.mdb)};DBQ="+application.getRealPath("/Data/ReportDemo.mdb");
Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection(url,"","");
Statement stmtNew=conn.createStatement() ;    


  
二、JDBC连接MySql方式

  下面是使用JDBC连接MySql的一个小的教程

  1、查找驱动程序

  MySQL目前提供的java驱动程序为Connection/J,可以从MySQL官方网站下载,并找到mysql-connector-java-3.0.15-ga-bin.jar文件,此驱动程序为纯java驱动程序,不需做其他配置。

  2、动态指定classpath

  如果需要执行时动态指定classpath,就在执行时采用-cp方式。否则将上面的.jar文件加入到classpath环境变量中。

  3、加载驱动程序
try{
 Class.forName(com.mysql.jdbc.Driver);
 System.out.println(Success loading Mysql Driver!);
}catch(Exception e)
{
 System.out.println(Error loading Mysql Driver!);
 e.printStackTrace();
}
4、设置连接的url
jdbc:mysql://localhost/databasename[?pa=va][&pa=va]
用个例子来说明一下:
import java.sql.*;
import oracle.sql.*;
import oracle.jdbc.pool.OracleDataSource;

public class JdbcOracle {
    public static void main(String[] args) {

        /**URL格式:drivername:@driver_information
             1,drivername主要有以下两种
             jdbc:oracle:thin (thin驱动程序)
             jdbc:oracle:oci (oci驱动程序)
             2,driver_information
             host_nameort:database_sid
         */


        Connection conn = null;
        Statement stmt = null;
        ResultSet rs = null;
        String url = "jdbc:oracle:thin:@localhost:1521:ORADB";
        String username = "scott";
        String password = "tiger";
        try {

            /**一、注册驱动程序
                    方法一Class.forName("oracle.jdbc.OracleDriver";
             */


            DriverManager.registerDriver(new oracle.jdbc.OracleDriver());

            //二、打开数据库连接
            /**方法一,使用oracle数据源对象?
                     oracle.jdbc.pool.OracleDataSource ds=new oracle.jdbc.pool.OracleDataSource();
                    ds.setServerName("localhost";
                    ds.setDatabaseName("ORADB";     //数据库存名
                    ds.setDriverType("oci";    //要使用的JDBC驱动程序(OracleDatasore的扩展)
                    ds.setURL("jdbc:oracle:thin:@localhost:1521:ORADB"; //指定数据库的URL(OracleDataSource的扩展)
                    ds.setDataSourceName("";         //底层数据源的名称
                    ds.setNetworkProtocol("tcp";//用于数据库通信的协议
                    ds.setPortNumber(1521);//端口号
                    ds.setUser("scott";
                    ds.setPassword("tiger";
                    Connection conn=ds.getConnection();
             */

            //方法二、使用Drivermanger

            conn = DriverManager.getConnection(url, username, password);

            //设置事务提交模式
            //conn.setAutoCommit(true);
            //若禁止了自动提交模式,那么在关闭Connection对象时会执行一次自动隐式提交,以保证还没有提交的所有DML语句被自动提交

            conn.setAutoCommit(false);

            //三、创建JDBC Statement对象

            stmt = conn.createStatement();

            //PreparedStatement pstmt=conn.prepareStatement("带有参数的SQL语句";
            //CallableStatement cstmt=conn.prepareCall("调用存储过程的语句";
            //四、从数据库获取行
            /**select 语句用executeQuery()
                    insert,update,delete语句用executeUpdate()
                    若预先不知道要执行的SQL语句类型,那么用execute()
             */


            rs = stmt.executeQuery("select id,name,age,sex,birth from employee";

//五、从数据库获取行

            while (rs.next()) {
                int id = rs.getInt("id";
                String name = rs.getString("name";
                int age = rs.getInt("age";
                String sex = rs.getString("sex";
                Date birth = rs.getDate("birth";
            }
            //rs.close();
            //六、向数据库中添加行(注:月份的编码是从0开始的,因此月份1代表2月)

            java.sql.Date date = new java.sql.Date(82, 10, 05);
            int i = stmt.executeUpdate("insert into employee values" +
                                                                 "(1,'qds',22,'1',TO_DATE(date,'YYYY,MM,DD'))";
            //七、修改数据中的行

            int j = stmt.executeUpdate("update employee set age=21 where id=1";
            //八、从数据库中删除行

            int k = stmt.executeUpdate("delete from employee set id=1";
            //九、处理数据库的NULL值方法一:使用结果集对象的wasNull方法判断

            conn.commit();
            rs = stmt.executeQuery(
                    "select id,type_id,prod_name from product where id=1";

            //此次假设type_id列为Null值
            System.out.println("id=" + rs.getInt("id");
            System.out.println("type_id=" + rs.getInt("type_id");
            if (rs.wasNull()) {
                System.out.println("type_id was null!";
            }
            System.out.println("prod_name=" + rs.getString("prod_name");

            //九、处理数据库的NULL值方法二:使用JAVA包装器类.因为JAVA包装器类可以赋于NULL值
            //java.lang.Integer typeId=(java.lang.Integer)rs.getObject("type_id";
            //System.out.println(typeId);此时typeId的值为Null
            //在向数据库插入或更新某一行为NULL值时,也可以使用JAVA包装器对象
            //java.lang.Double price=null;
            //int ii=stmt.executeUpdate("update products set price="+price+" where id=12";

            rs.close();

            //十,执行数据定义语言语句(DDL:CREATE,ALTER,DROP)----采用execute()方法执行DDL语句
            //执行DDL语句会导致一次隐式提交,因此,如果你在发出DDL语句之前执行了一些未提交的DML语句,那么这些DML语句将被提交

            boolean result = stmt.execute("create table customers(" +
                    "id integer constraint customers_pK primary key," +
                    "first_name varchar2(10) not null," +
                    "last_name    varchar2(10) not null," +
                    "dob                date," +
                    "phone            varchar2(15)" +
                    ""
                    ;
            if (result == true) {
                System.out.println("The table has Created!";
            }
            else {
                System.out.println("The table hasn't Create";
            }
            //-------------------------------------------------------------------------        
        }
        catch (Exception e) {
            System.out.println("error: " + e);
            try {
                conn.rollback();
            }
            catch (SQLException sqle) {}
        }
        finally {

            try {
                if (rs != null)
                    rs.close();
            }
            catch (SQLException sqle) {
                System.out.println("SQLState: " + sqle.getSQLState());
                System.out.println("SQLErrorCode: 错误代码" + sqle.getErrorCode());
                System.out.println("SQLErrorMessage:错误情况的字符串 " + sqle.toString());
            }

            try {
                if (stmt != null)
                    stmt.close();
            }
            catch (SQLException sqle1) {
                System.out.println("SQLState: " + sqle1.getSQLState());
                System.out.println("SQLErrorCode: 错误代码" + sqle1.getErrorCode());
                System.out.println("SQLErrorMessage:错误情况的字符串 " + sqle1.toString());
            }

            try {
                if (conn != null)
                    conn.close();
            }
            catch (SQLException sqle2) {
                System.out.println(sqle2.toString());
                System.out.println(sqle2.getSQLState());
                System.out.println(sqle2.getErrorCode());
            }

        }

    }
}