1.8.1 File-System Management
--A file is a collection of relatedinformation defined by its creator.
--It is copied into a faster storagesystem, the cache, on a temporary basis.
--The movement of information between levelsof a storage hierarchy may be either explicit or implicit, depending on thehardware design and the controlling operating-system software.
--The value of A in one cache isimmediately reflected in all other caches where A resides. This situation iscalled cache coherency.
1.8.4 I/O Systems
--The I/O subsystem consists of severalcomponents:
A memory-management component that includes buffering, caching, and spooling
A general device-driver interface
Drivers for specific hardware devices