1.8.1 File-System Management

--A file is a collection of relatedinformation defined by its creator.

1.8.3 Caching

--It is copied into a faster storagesystem, the cache, on a temporary basis.

--The movement of information between levelsof a storage hierarchy may be either explicit or implicit, depending on thehardware design and the controlling operating-system software.

--The value of A in one cache isimmediately reflected in all other caches where A resides. This situation iscalled cache coherency.

1.8.4 I/O Systems

--The I/O subsystem consists of severalcomponents:

A memory-management component that includes buffering, caching, and spooling

A general device-driver interface

Drivers for specific hardware devices