部署一套完整的Kubernetes高可用集群(二进制,最新版v1.18)下

七、高可用架构(扩容多Master架构)

Kubernetes作为容器集群系统,通过健康检查+重启策略实现了Pod故障自我修复能力,通过调度算法实现将Pod分布式部署,并保持预期副本数,根据Node失效状态自动在其他Node拉起Pod,实现了应用层的高可用性。

针对Kubernetes集群,高可用性还应包含以下两个层面的考虑:Etcd数据库的高可用性和Kubernetes Master组件的高可用性。 而Etcd我们已经采用3个节点组建集群实现高可用,本节将对Master节点高可用进行说明和实施。

Master节点扮演着总控中心的角色,通过不断与工作节点上的Kubelet和kube-proxy进行通信来维护整个集群的健康工作状态。如果Master节点故障,将无法使用kubectl工具或者API做任何集群管理。

Master节点主要有三个服务kube-apiserver、kube-controller-manager和kube-scheduler,其中kube-controller-manager和kube-scheduler组件自身通过选择机制已经实现了高可用,所以Master高可用主要针对kube-apiserver组件,而该组件是以HTTP API提供服务,因此对他高可用与Web服务器类似,增加负载均衡器对其负载均衡即可,并且可水平扩容。

多Master架构图:

部署一套完整的Kubernetes高可用集群(二进制,最新版v1.18)下

7.1 安装Docker

同上,不再赘述。

7.2 部署Master2 Node(192.168.31.74)

Master2 与已部署的Master1所有操作一致。所以我们只需将Master1所有K8s文件拷贝过来,再修改下服务器IP和主机名启动即可。

1. 创建etcd证书目录

在Master2创建etcd证书目录:

mkdir -p /opt/etcd/ssl

2. 拷贝文件(Master1操作)

拷贝Master1上所有K8s文件和etcd证书到Master2:

scp -r /opt/kubernetes root@192.168.31.74:/opt
scp -r /opt/cni/ root@192.168.31.74:/opt
scp -r /opt/etcd/ssl root@192.168.31.74:/opt/etcd
scp /usr/lib/systemd/system/kube* root@192.168.31.74:/usr/lib/systemd/system
scp /usr/bin/kubectl  root@192.168.31.74:/usr/bin

3. 删除证书文件

删除kubelet证书和kubeconfig文件:

rm -f /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet.kubeconfig 
rm -f /opt/kubernetes/ssl/kubelet*

4. 修改配置文件IP和主机名

修改apiserver、kubelet和kube-proxy配置文件为本地IP:

vi /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-apiserver.conf 
...
--bind-address=192.168.31.74 \
--advertise-address=192.168.31.74 \
...

vi /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet.conf
--hostname-override=k8s-master2

vi /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy-config.yml
hostnameOverride: k8s-master2

5. 启动设置开机启动

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kube-apiserver
systemctl start kube-controller-manager
systemctl start kube-scheduler
systemctl start kubelet
systemctl start kube-proxy
systemctl enable kube-apiserver
systemctl enable kube-controller-manager
systemctl enable kube-scheduler
systemctl enable kubelet
systemctl enable kube-proxy

6. 查看集群状态

kubectl get cs
NAME                 STATUS    MESSAGE             ERROR
scheduler            Healthy   ok                  
controller-manager   Healthy   ok                  
etcd-1               Healthy   {"health":"true"}   
etcd-2               Healthy   {"health":"true"}   
etcd-0               Healthy   {"health":"true"}

7. 批准kubelet证书申请

kubectl get csr
NAME                                                   AGE   SIGNERNAME                                    REQUESTOR           CONDITION
node-csr-JYNknakEa_YpHz797oKaN-ZTk43nD51Zc9CJkBLcASU   85m   kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet   kubelet-bootstrap   Pending

kubectl certificate approve node-csr-JYNknakEa_YpHz797oKaN-ZTk43nD51Zc9CJkBLcASU

kubectl get node
NAME          STATUS   ROLES    AGE   VERSION
k8s-master    Ready    <none>   34h   v1.18.3
k8s-master2   Ready    <none>   83m   v1.18.3
k8s-node1     Ready    <none>   33h   v1.18.3
k8s-node2     Ready    <none>   33h   v1.18.3

如果你在学习中遇到问题或者文档有误可联系阿良~ 微信: init1024

7.3 部署Nginx负载均衡器

kube-apiserver高可用架构图:

部署一套完整的Kubernetes高可用集群(二进制,最新版v1.18)下

  • Nginx是一个主流Web服务和反向代理服务器,这里用四层实现对apiserver实现负载均衡。
  • Keepalived是一个主流高可用软件,基于VIP绑定实现服务器双机热备,在上述拓扑中,Keepalived主要根据Nginx运行状态判断是否需要故障转移(偏移VIP),例如当Nginx主节点挂掉,VIP会自动绑定在Nginx备节点,从而保证VIP一直可用,实现Nginx高可用。

1. 安装软件包(主/备)

 yum install epel-release -y
 yum install nginx keepalived -y

2. Nginx配置文件(主/备一样)

cat > /etc/nginx/nginx.conf << "EOF"
user nginx;
worker_processes auto;
error_log /var/log/nginx/error.log;
pid /run/nginx.pid;

include /usr/share/nginx/modules/*.conf;

events {
    worker_connections 1024;
}

# 四层负载均衡,为两台Master apiserver组件提供负载均衡
stream {

    log_format  main  '$remote_addr $upstream_addr - [$time_local] $status $upstream_bytes_sent';

    access_log  /var/log/nginx/k8s-access.log  main;

    upstream k8s-apiserver {
       server 192.168.31.71:6443;   # Master1 APISERVER IP:PORT
       server 192.168.31.74:6443;   # Master2 APISERVER IP:PORT
    }

    server {
       listen 6443;
       proxy_pass k8s-apiserver;
    }
}

http {
    log_format  main  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
                      '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
                      '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"';

    access_log  /var/log/nginx/access.log  main;

    sendfile            on;
    tcp_nopush          on;
    tcp_nodelay         on;
    keepalive_timeout   65;
    types_hash_max_size 2048;

    include             /etc/nginx/mime.types;
    default_type        application/octet-stream;

    server {
        listen       80 default_server;
        server_name  _;

        location / {
        }
    }
}
EOF

3. keepalived配置文件(Nginx Master)

cat > /etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf << EOF
global_defs { 
   notification_email { 
     acassen@firewall.loc 
     failover@firewall.loc 
     sysadmin@firewall.loc 
   } 
   notification_email_from Alexandre.Cassen@firewall.loc  
   smtp_server 127.0.0.1 
   smtp_connect_timeout 30 
   router_id NGINX_MASTER
} 

vrrp_script check_nginx {
    script "/etc/keepalived/check_nginx.sh"
}

vrrp_instance VI_1 { 
    state MASTER 
    interface ens33  # 修改为实际网卡名
    virtual_router_id 51 # VRRP 路由 ID实例,每个实例是唯一的 
    priority 100    # 优先级,备服务器设置 90 
    advert_int 1    # 指定VRRP 心跳包通告间隔时间,默认1秒 
    authentication { 
        auth_type PASS      
        auth_pass 1111 
    }  
    # 虚拟IP
    virtual_ipaddress { 
        192.168.31.88/24
    } 
    track_script {
        check_nginx
    } 
}
EOF
  • vrrp_script:指定检查nginx工作状态脚本(根据nginx状态判断是否故障转移)

  • virtual_ipaddress:虚拟IP(VIP)

检查nginx状态脚本:

cat > /etc/keepalived/check_nginx.sh  << "EOF"
#!/bin/bash
count=$(ps -ef |grep nginx |egrep -cv "grep|$$")

if [ "$count" -eq 0 ];then
    exit 1
else
    exit 0
fi
EOF
chmod +x /etc/keepalived/check_nginx.sh

4. keepalived配置文件(Nginx Backup)

cat > /etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf << EOF
global_defs { 
   notification_email { 
     acassen@firewall.loc 
     failover@firewall.loc 
     sysadmin@firewall.loc 
   } 
   notification_email_from Alexandre.Cassen@firewall.loc  
   smtp_server 127.0.0.1 
   smtp_connect_timeout 30 
   router_id NGINX_BACKUP
} 

vrrp_script check_nginx {
    script "/etc/keepalived/check_nginx.sh"
}

vrrp_instance VI_1 { 
    state BACKUP 
    interface ens33
    virtual_router_id 51 # VRRP 路由 ID实例,每个实例是唯一的 
    priority 90
    advert_int 1
    authentication { 
        auth_type PASS      
        auth_pass 1111 
    }  
    virtual_ipaddress { 
        192.168.31.88/24
    } 
    track_script {
        check_nginx
    } 
}
EOF

上述配置文件中检查nginx运行状态脚本:

cat > /etc/keepalived/check_nginx.sh  << "EOF"
#!/bin/bash
count=$(ps -ef |grep nginx |egrep -cv "grep|$$")

if [ "$count" -eq 0 ];then
    exit 1
else
    exit 0
fi
EOF
chmod +x /etc/keepalived/check_nginx.sh

注:keepalived根据脚本返回状态码(0为工作正常,非0不正常)判断是否故障转移。

5. 启动并设置开机启动

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start nginx
systemctl start keepalived
systemctl enable nginx
systemctl enable keepalived

6. 查看keepalived工作状态

ip a
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 ::1/128 scope host 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: ens33: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:0c:29:04:f7:2c brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.31.80/24 brd 192.168.31.255 scope global noprefixroute ens33
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet 192.168.31.88/24 scope global secondary ens33
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 fe80::20c:29ff:fe04:f72c/64 scope link 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

可以看到,在ens33网卡绑定了192.168.31.88 虚拟IP,说明工作正常。

7. Nginx+Keepalived高可用测试

关闭主节点Nginx,测试VIP是否漂移到备节点服务器。

在Nginx Master执行 pkill nginx
在Nginx Backup,ip addr命令查看已成功绑定VIP。

8. 访问负载均衡器测试

找K8s集群中任意一个节点,使用curl查看K8s版本测试,使用VIP访问:

curl -k https://192.168.31.88:6443/version
{
  "major": "1",
  "minor": "18",
  "gitVersion": "v1.18.3",
  "gitCommit": "2e7996e3e2712684bc73f0dec0200d64eec7fe40",
  "gitTreeState": "clean",
  "buildDate": "2020-05-20T12:43:34Z",
  "goVersion": "go1.13.9",
  "compiler": "gc",
  "platform": "linux/amd64"
}

可以正确获取到K8s版本信息,说明负载均衡器搭建正常。该请求数据流程:curl -> vip(nginx) -> apiserver

通过查看Nginx日志也可以看到转发apiserver IP:

tail /var/log/nginx/k8s-access.log -f
192.168.31.81 192.168.31.71:6443 - [30/May/2020:11:15:10 +0800] 200 422
192.168.31.81 192.168.31.74:6443 - [30/May/2020:11:15:26 +0800] 200 422

到此还没结束,还有下面最关键的一步。

7.4 修改所有Worker Node连接LB VIP

试想下,虽然我们增加了Master2和负载均衡器,但是我们是从单Master架构扩容的,也就是说目前所有的Node组件连接都还是Master1,如果不改为连接VIP走负载均衡器,那么Master还是单点故障。

因此接下来就是要改所有Node组件配置文件,由原来192.168.31.71修改为192.168.31.88(VIP):

角色 IP
k8s-master1 192.168.31.71
k8s-master2 192.168.31.74
k8s-node1 192.168.31.72
k8s-node2 192.168.31.73

也就是通过kubectl get node命令查看到的节点。

在上述所有Worker Node执行:

sed -i 's#192.168.31.71:6443#192.168.31.88:6443#' /opt/kubernetes/cfg/*
systemctl restart kubelet
systemctl restart kube-proxy

检查节点状态:

kubectl get node
NAME          STATUS   ROLES    AGE    VERSION
k8s-master    Ready    <none>   34h    v1.18.3
k8s-master2   Ready    <none>   101m   v1.18.3
k8s-node1     Ready    <none>   33h    v1.18.3
k8s-node2     Ready    <none>   33h    v1.18.3

至此,一套完整的 Kubernetes 高可用集群就部署完成了!

PS:如果你是在公有云上,一般都不支持keepalived,那么你可以直接用它们的负载均衡器产品(内网就行,还免费~),架构与上面一样,直接负载均衡多台Master kube-apiserver即可!