(一)、容器的使用
1、docker客户端命令。输入docker查看docker用法的语法和相关的命令。

[root@localhost ~]# docker 
Usage:  docker [OPTIONS] COMMAND
A self-sufficient runtime for containers
Options:
      --config string      Location of client config files (default "/root/.docker")
  -D, --debug              Enable debug mode
  -H, --host list          Daemon socket(s) to connect to
  -l, --log-level string   Set the logging level ("debug"|"info"|"warn"|"error"|"fatal") (default "info")
      --tls                Use TLS; implied by --tlsverify
      --tlscacert string   Trust certs signed only by this CA (default "/root/.docker/ca.pem")
      --tlscert string     Path to TLS certificate file (default "/root/.docker/cert.pem")
      --tlskey string      Path to TLS key file (default "/root/.docker/key.pem")
      --tlsverify          Use TLS and verify the remote
  -v, --version            Print version information and quit
Management Commands:
  config      Manage Docker configs
  container   Manage containers
  image       Manage images
  network     Manage networks
  node        Manage Swarm nodes
  plugin      Manage plugins
  secret      Manage Docker secrets
  service     Manage services
  stack       Manage Docker stacks
  swarm       Manage Swarm
  system      Manage Docker
  trust       Manage trust on Docker images
  volume      Manage volumes

Commands:
  attach      Attach local standard input, output, and error streams to a running container
  build       Build an image from a Dockerfile
  commit      Create a new image from a container's changes
  cp          Copy files/folders between a container and the local filesystem
  create      Create a new container
  diff        Inspect changes to files or directories on a container's filesystem
  events      Get real time events from the server
  exec        Run a command in a running container
  export      Export a container's filesystem as a tar archive
  history     Show the history of an image
  images      List images
  import      Import the contents from a tarball to create a filesystem image
  info        Display system-wide information
  inspect     Return low-level information on Docker objects
  kill        Kill one or more running containers
  load        Load an image from a tar archive or STDIN
  login       Log in to a Docker registry
  logout      Log out from a Docker registry
  logs        Fetch the logs of a container
  pause       Pause all processes within one or more containers
  port        List port mappings or a specific mapping for the container
  ps          List containers
  pull        Pull an image or a repository from a registry
  push        Push an image or a repository to a registry
  rename      Rename a container
  restart     Restart one or more containers
  rm          Remove one or more containers
  rmi         Remove one or more images
  run         Run a command in a new container
  save        Save one or more images to a tar archive (streamed to STDOUT by default)
  search      Search the Docker Hub for images
  start       Start one or more stopped containers
  stats       Display a live stream of container(s) resource usage statistics
  stop        Stop one or more running containers
  tag         Create a tag TARGET_IMAGE that refers to SOURCE_IMAGE
  top         Display the running processes of a container
  unpause     Unpause all processes within one or more containers
  update      Update configuration of one or more containers
  version     Show the Docker version information
  wait        Block until one or more containers stop, then print their exit codes

Run 'docker COMMAND --help' for more information on a command.

2、启动docker。

[root@localhost ~]# docker run ubuntu /bin/echo "hello docker"    ###基本运行,打印后退出
hello docker
[root@localhost ~]# docker run -i -t -h centosv2 centos /bin/bash   ###交互式创建容器后进入容器并命名为centosv2
[root@localhost ~]# docker run -d ubuntu /bin/sh -c "while true; do echo hello world; sleep 1; done" ###后台运行
5011198d1704af7eac453f80e58fa4950e6455c4454b28fa8a877a5f69cdb8fc

3、docker端口的映射

[root@localhost ~]#docker run -t -P httpd                             ---指定容器绑定的网络地址,比如绑定 127.0.0.1。
[root@localhost ~]#docker run -t -p 8888:80  httpd                    ---指定容器80端口通过主机端口地址8888来进行访问
[root@localhost ~]#docker run -t -p 172.20.66.150:8888:80  httpd      ---指定容器绑定的网络地址默认tcp端口
[root@localhost ~]#docker run -t -p 172.20.66.150:8888:80/udp  httpd  ---指定udp端口
-P :是容器内部端口随机映射到主机的高端口。
-p : 是容器内部端口绑定到指定的主机端口。
8888:80(主机端口:容器的端口)

4、查看docker容器。

[root@localhost ~]# docker ps --help
Usage:  docker ps [OPTIONS]
List containers
Options:
  -a, --all             Show all containers (default shows just running)
  -f, --filter filter   Filter output based on conditions provided
      --format string   Pretty-print containers using a Go template
  -n, --last int        Show n last created containers (includes all states) (default -1)
  -l, --latest          Show the latest created container (includes all states)
      --no-trunc        Don't truncate output
  -q, --quiet           Only display numeric IDs
  -s, --size            Display total file sizes
[root@localhost ~]# docker ps 
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND                  CREATED             STATUS              PORTS               NAMES
5011198d1704        ubuntu              "/bin/sh -c 'while t…"   6 minutes ago       Up 6 minutes                            laughing_mirzakhani
5f55b9949e7b        centos              "/bin/bash"              18 minutes ago      Up 18 minutes                           centosv3

5、停止docker容器。docker stop CONTAINER或ID

[root@localhost ~]# docker stop --help
Usage:  docker stop [OPTIONS] CONTAINER [CONTAINER...]
Stop one or more running containers
Options:
  -t, --time int   Seconds to wait for stop before killing it (default 10)
[root@localhost ~]# docker stop centosv3
centosv3
[root@localhost ~]# docker ps 
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND                  CREATED             STATUS              PORTS               NAMES
5011198d1704        ubuntu              "/bin/sh -c 'while t…"   8 minutes ago       Up 8 minutes                            laughing_mirzakhani

6、启动docker.

[root@localhost ~]# docker start nginxv2
nginxv2

7、删除docker容器.删除容器时,容器必须是停止状态,否则会报如下错误

[root@localhost ~]# docker rm 2c1aed05442e
2c1aed05442e
[root@localhost ~]# docker rm --help
Usage:  docker rm [OPTIONS] CONTAINER [CONTAINER...]
Remove one or more containers
Options:
  -f, --force     Force the removal of a running container (uses SIGKILL)
  -l, --link      Remove the specified link
  -v, --volumes   Remove the volumes associated with the container

8、查看docker日志

[root@localhost ~]# docker logs --help
Usage:  docker logs [OPTIONS] CONTAINER
Fetch the logs of a container
Options:
      --details        Show extra details provided to logs
  -f, --follow         Follow log output
      --since string   Show logs since timestamp (e.g. 2013-01-02T13:23:37) or relative (e.g. 42m for 42 minutes)
      --tail string    Number of lines to show from the end of the logs (default "all")
  -t, --timestamps     Show timestamps
      --until string   Show logs before a timestamp (e.g. 2013-01-02T13:23:37) or relative (e.g. 42m for 42 minutes)
[root@localhost ~]# docker logs -f 5011198d1704
hello world

9、检查docker应用程序的进程
[root@localhost ~]# docker top nginxv2
UID PID PPID C STIME TTY TIME CMD
root 22446 22428 0 17:56 ? 00:00:00 nginx: master process nginx -g daemon off;
101 22490 22446 0 17:56 ? 00:00:00 nginx: worker process

10、查看docker底层信息,它会返回一个 JSON 文件记录着 Docker 容器的配置和状态信息。

[root@localhost ~]# docker inspect nginxv2
[
    {
        "Id": "51fa7e93382191d3d52dfd8231baa47438f30472a9ddb432cac95f2cab09c377",
        "Created": "2018-10-23T07:35:16.522767558Z",
        "Path": "nginx",
        "Args": [
            "-g",
            "daemon off;"
        ],
        "State": {
            "Status": "running",
            "Running": true,
            "Paused": false,
            "Restarting": false,
            "OOMKilled": false,
            "Dead": false,
            "Pid": 22446,
            "ExitCode": 0,
            "Error": "",
            "StartedAt": "2018-10-24T09:56:50.60288752Z",
            "FinishedAt": "2018-10-23T07:35:20.710607429Z"
        },
        "Image": "sha256:dbfc48660aeb7ef0ebd74b4a7e0822520aba5416556ee43acb9a6350372e516f",
        "ResolvConfPath": "/var/lib/docker/containers/51fa7e93382191d3d52dfd8231baa47438f30472a9ddb432cac95f2cab09c377/resolv.conf",
        "HostnamePath": "/var/lib/docker/containers/51fa7e93382191d3d52dfd8231baa47438f30472a9ddb432cac95f2cab09c377/hostname",
        "HostsPath": "/var/lib/docker/containers/51fa7e93382191d3d52dfd8231baa47438f30472a9ddb432cac95f2cab09c377/hosts",
        "LogPath": "/var/lib/docker/containers/51fa7e93382191d3d52dfd8231baa47438f30472a9ddb432cac95f2cab09c377/51fa7e93382191d3d52dfd8231baa47438f30472a9ddb432cac95f2cab09c377-json.log",
        "Name": "/nginxv2",
        "RestartCount": 0,
        "Driver": "overlay2",
        "Platform": "linux",
        "MountLabel": "",
        "ProcessLabel": "",
        "AppArmorProfile": "",
        "ExecIDs": null,
        "HostConfig": {
            "Binds": null,
            "ContainerIDFile": "",
            "LogConfig": {
                "Type": "json-file",
                "Config": {}
            },
            "NetworkMode": "default",
            "PortBindings": {},
            "RestartPolicy": {
                "Name": "no",
                "MaximumRetryCount": 0
            },
            "AutoRemove": false,
            "VolumeDriver": "",
            "VolumesFrom": null,
            "CapAdd": null,
            "CapDrop": null,
            "Dns": [],
            "DnsOptions": [],
            "DnsSearch": [],
            "ExtraHosts": null,
            "GroupAdd": null,
            "IpcMode": "shareable",
            "Cgroup": "",
            "Links": null,
            "OomScoreAdj": 0,
            "PidMode": "",
            "Privileged": false,
            "PublishAllPorts": false,
            "ReadonlyRootfs": false,
            "SecurityOpt": null,
            "UTSMode": "",
            "UsernsMode": "",
            "ShmSize": 67108864,
            "Runtime": "runc",
            "ConsoleSize": [
                0,
                0
            ],
            "Isolation": "",
            "CpuShares": 0,
            "Memory": 0,
            "NanoCpus": 0,
            "CgroupParent": "",
            "BlkioWeight": 0,
            "BlkioWeightDevice": [],
            "BlkioDeviceReadBps": null,
            "BlkioDeviceWriteBps": null,
            "BlkioDeviceReadIOps": null,
            "BlkioDeviceWriteIOps": null,
            "CpuPeriod": 0,
            "CpuQuota": 0,
            "CpuRealtimePeriod": 0,
            "CpuRealtimeRuntime": 0,
            "CpusetCpus": "",
            "CpusetMems": "",
            "Devices": [],
            "DeviceCgroupRules": null,
            "DiskQuota": 0,
            "KernelMemory": 0,
            "MemoryReservation": 0,
            "MemorySwap": 0,
            "MemorySwappiness": null,
            "OomKillDisable": false,
            "PidsLimit": 0,
            "Ulimits": null,
            "CpuCount": 0,
            "CpuPercent": 0,
            "IOMaximumIOps": 0,
            "IOMaximumBandwidth": 0,
            "MaskedPaths": [
                "/proc/acpi",
                "/proc/kcore",
                "/proc/keys",
                "/proc/latency_stats",
                "/proc/timer_list",
                "/proc/timer_stats",
                "/proc/sched_debug",
                "/proc/scsi",
                "/sys/firmware"
            ],
            "ReadonlyPaths": [
                "/proc/asound",
                "/proc/bus",
                "/proc/fs",
                "/proc/irq",
                "/proc/sys",
                "/proc/sysrq-trigger"
            ]
        },
        "GraphDriver": {
            "Data": {
                "LowerDir": "/var/lib/docker/overlay2/e5db810fb9cc01e72997ab28548f8c6afdf288ad68b67526b8a08db21f11cc4d-init/diff:/var/lib/docker/overlay2/9aa976c9f96e990dc230b219d4c004c40b83c018a2f4f5c7e8aeeddce78d56f9/diff:/var/lib/docker/overlay2/aeb079bd298ea309e97c1ca135f5cedb5832a4222477479f00c04e20eac5bda0/diff:/var/lib/docker/overlay2/a69b7899845f36bdc82307abbec8b0150892f4f30ba2f59fedd076b5ba84cd46/diff",
                "MergedDir": "/var/lib/docker/overlay2/e5db810fb9cc01e72997ab28548f8c6afdf288ad68b67526b8a08db21f11cc4d/merged",
                "UpperDir": "/var/lib/docker/overlay2/e5db810fb9cc01e72997ab28548f8c6afdf288ad68b67526b8a08db21f11cc4d/diff",
                "WorkDir": "/var/lib/docker/overlay2/e5db810fb9cc01e72997ab28548f8c6afdf288ad68b67526b8a08db21f11cc4d/work"
            },
            "Name": "overlay2"
        },
        "Mounts": [],
        "Config": {
            "Hostname": "51fa7e933821",
            "Domainname": "",
            "User": "",
            "AttachStdin": true,
            "AttachStdout": true,
            "AttachStderr": true,
            "ExposedPorts": {
                "80/tcp": {}
            },
            "Tty": true,
            "OpenStdin": true,
            "StdinOnce": true,
            "Env": [
                "PATH=/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin",
                "NGINX_VERSION=1.15.5-1~stretch",
                "NJS_VERSION=1.15.5.0.2.4-1~stretch"
            ],
            "Cmd": [
                "nginx",
                "-g",
                "daemon off;"
            ],
            "ArgsEscaped": true,
            "Image": "nginx",
            "Volumes": null,
            "WorkingDir": "",
            "Entrypoint": null,
            "OnBuild": null,
            "Labels": {
                "maintainer": "NGINX Docker Maintainers <docker-maint@nginx.com>"
            },
            "StopSignal": "SIGTERM"
        },
        "NetworkSettings": {
            "Bridge": "",
            "SandboxID": "8fb89b8da81ef113f293fff99eba54a8dddc8027a47ec5e3094b0c50023cb9c7",
            "HairpinMode": false,
            "LinkLocalIPv6Address": "",
            "LinkLocalIPv6PrefixLen": 0,
            "Ports": {
                "80/tcp": null
            },
            "SandboxKey": "/var/run/docker/netns/8fb89b8da81e",
            "SecondaryIPAddresses": null,
            "SecondaryIPv6Addresses": null,
            "EndpointID": "c6f8a321d3fb49fa82d27e1a430639fd1617df75b86641e8deb720c0ce57989b",
            "Gateway": "172.17.0.1",
            "GlobalIPv6Address": "",
            "GlobalIPv6PrefixLen": 0,
            "IPAddress": "172.17.0.2",
            "IPPrefixLen": 16,
            "IPv6Gateway": "",
            "MacAddress": "02:42:ac:11:00:02",
            "Networks": {
                "bridge": {
                    "IPAMConfig": null,
                    "Links": null,
                    "Aliases": null,
                    "NetworkID": "56fd3fad5cf9211915ead97854e1bf8ef6e061ea1409264cb92c78296cc92314",
                    "EndpointID": "c6f8a321d3fb49fa82d27e1a430639fd1617df75b86641e8deb720c0ce57989b",
                    "Gateway": "172.17.0.1",
                    "IPAddress": "172.17.0.2",
                    "IPPrefixLen": 16,
                    "IPv6Gateway": "",
                    "GlobalIPv6Address": "",
                    "GlobalIPv6PrefixLen": 0,
                    "MacAddress": "02:42:ac:11:00:02",
                    "DriverOpts": null
                }
            }
        }
    }
]

(11)连接到正在运行中的容器。docker exec|docker attach |nsenter

attach命令:docker attach name | id
docker exec :在运行的容器中执行命令(运行中容器启动新进程)
[root@localhost ~]# cat /home/docker_pid.sh 
#!/bin/bash
docker_in(){
    NAME_ID=$1
    PID=$(docker inspect -f "{{ .State.Pid }}" $NAME_ID)
    nsenter -t $PID -m -u -i -n -p
}
docker_in $1
[root@localhost ~]# docker attach nginxv2
[root@localhost ~]# docker exec -i -t nginxv2 /bin/bash
root@51fa7e933821:/# 
[root@localhost ~]# sh /home/docker_pid.sh nginxv2
root@51fa7e933821:/# 

(二)docker镜像的使用

1、docker镜像的使用

[root@localhost ~]# docker images --help
Usage:  docker images [OPTIONS] [REPOSITORY[:TAG]]
List images
Options:
  -a, --all             Show all images (default hides intermediate images)
      --digests         Show digests
  -f, --filter filter   Filter output based on conditions provided
      --format string   Pretty-print images using a Go template
      --no-trunc        Don't truncate output
  -q, --quiet           Only show numeric IDs
[root@localhost ~]# docker images
REPOSITORY          TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
ubuntu              latest              ea4c82dcd15a        6 days ago          85.8MB
grafana/grafana     latest              7038dbc9a50c        8 days ago          223MB
nginx               latest              dbfc48660aeb        8 days ago          109MB
centos              latest              75835a67d134        2 weeks ago         200MB

REPOSITORY:表示镜像的仓库源
TAG:镜像的标签
IMAGE ID:镜像ID
CREATED:镜像创建时间
SIZE:镜像大小 

2、搜索镜像

[root@localhost ~]# docker search zabbix
NAME                                       DESCRIPTION                                     STARS               OFFICIAL            AUTOMATED
zabbix/zabbix-server-mysql                 Zabbix Server with MySQL database support       136                                     [OK]
zabbix/zabbix-agent                        Zabbix agent with TLS encryption support        83                                      [OK]
monitoringartist/zabbix-3.0-xxl            Please use our better compatible Zabbix imag…   75                                      [OK]
zabbix/zabbix-web-nginx-mysql              Zabbix frontend based on Nginx web-server wi…   74                                      [OK]
berngp/docker-zabbix                       Runs Zabbix Server and Zabbix Web UI on a Ce…   72                                      [OK]
monitoringartist/zabbix-xxl                Zabbix 3.x - server, web, proxy, java gatewa…   67                                      [OK]
zabbix/zabbix-server-pgsql                 Zabbix server with PostgreSQL database suppo…   33                                      [OK]
zabbix/zabbix-web-nginx-pgsql              Zabbix frontend based on Nginx with PostgreS…   20                                      [OK]
zabbix/zabbix-appliance                    Zabbix appliance with MySQL database support…   18                                      [OK]
zabbix/zabbix-web-apache-mysql             Zabbix frontend based on Apache web-server w…   17                                      [OK]
zabbix/zabbix-proxy-mysql                  Zabbix proxy with MySQL database support        16                                      [OK]
zabbix/zabbix-proxy-sqlite3                Zabbix proxy with SQLite3 database support      15                                      [OK]
zabbix/zabbix-java-gateway                 Zabbix Java Gateway                             14                                      [OK]
bhuisgen/docker-zabbix-coreos              Zabbix agent for CoreOS server                  14                                      [OK]
monitoringartist/zabbix-db-mariadb         Docker image of MariaDB optimized for Zabbix    11                                      [OK]
million12/zabbix-agent                     Zabbix Agent - running in foreground.           7                                       [OK]
zabbix/zabbix-snmptraps                    Receiving SNMP traps to Zabbix server or Zab…   7                                       [OK]
zabbix/zabbix-web-apache-pgsql             Zabbix frontend based on Apache web-server w…   3                                       [OK]
digiapulssi/docker-zabbix-agent            Dockerized Zabbix agent for host and contain…   2                                       [OK]
openshifttools/oso-centos7-zabbix-server   Zabbix server container using external SQL d…   2                                       
blackcobra1973/zabbix-db-postgresql        PostgreSQL on CentOS 7.x with Zabbix 3.0 dat…   2                                       [OK]
monitoringartist/zabbix-2.4                Dockerized Zabbix 2.4 - server, web UI - dep…   1                                       [OK]
qk4l/zabbix-cachet                         Python script for Zabbix to Cachet integrati…   0                                       [OK]
signnow/zabbix-proxy-mysql                 Zabbix Proxy (MySQL version) with Python 3.5…   0                                       
openshifttools/oso-centos7-zabbix-web      Zabbix web container to handle web view into…   0       
NAME:镜像仓库源的名称
DESCRIPTION:镜像的描述
OFFICIAL:是否docker官方发布

3、获取镜像

[root@localhost ~]# docker pull zabbix/zabbix-server-mysql
Using default tag: latest
latest: Pulling from zabbix/zabbix-server-mysql
d6a5679aa3cf: Pull complete 
b5f72c9bbb93: Pull complete 
e901ef2029a4: Pull complete 
9ba83f201d25: Pull complete 
Digest: sha256:f385294e950ec855338df5e6bec41ed708cc6cbd00e1ba266d1c425d0ed9fd1e
Status: Downloaded newer image for zabbix/zabbix-server-mysql:latest

4、查看镜像

[root@localhost ~]# docker images
REPOSITORY                   TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
ubuntu                       latest              ea4c82dcd15a        6 days ago          85.8MB
grafana/grafana              latest              7038dbc9a50c        8 days ago          223MB
nginx                        latest              dbfc48660aeb        8 days ago          109MB
centos                       latest              75835a67d134        2 weeks ago         200MB
zabbix/zabbix-server-mysql   latest              efffb1148f04        2 weeks ago         62.6MB

5、更新镜像

[root@localhost ~]# docker run -t -i ubuntu /bin/bash
root@a9247c958d01:/# apt-get upgrade
Reading package lists... Done
Get:16 http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-backports/universe amd64 Packages [2975 B]
Fetched 15.0 MB in 6s (2714 kB/s)                           
Reading package lists... Done
root@a9247c958d01:/# apt-get install vim -y
Reading package lists... Done
update-alternatives: warning: skip creation of /usr/share/man/man1/editor.1.gz because associated file /usr/share/man/man1/vim.1.gz (of link group editor) doesn't exist
Processing triggers for libc-bin (2.27-3ubuntu1) ...
root@a9247c958d01:/# hostname
a9247c958d01
root@a9247c958d01:/# exit;
exit
[root@localhost ~]# docker commit -m="apt-get update" -a=lqb a9247c958d01  ubuntu/lqbv2
sha256:61e3695d2d9fd6c5800fba1119335c5f146bfa859a35591d29c725e6fdaafe07
[root@localhost ~]# docker images
REPOSITORY                   TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
ubuntu/lqbv2                 latest              61e3695d2d9f        4 minutes ago       169MB

各个参数说明:
-m:提交的描述信息
-a:指定镜像作者
a9247c958d01:容器ID
runoob/ubuntu:v2:指定要创建的目标镜像名

创建更新镜像的相关说明:
首先创建用ubuntu镜像创建容器。
运行的容器内使用 apt-get update 命令进行更新。
在完成操作之后,输入 exit命令来退出这个容器。
此时ID为a9247c958d01的容器,是按我们的需求更改的容器。我们可以通过命令 docker commit来提交容器副本

6、构建镜像。通过docker build从零开始来创建一个新的镜像。为此,我们需要创建一个 Dockerfile 文件,其中包含一组指令来告诉 Docker 如何构建我们的镜像。

[root@localhost ~]# mkdir /opt/dockerfile
[root@localhost dockerfile]# mkdir centos
[root@localhost dockerfile]# cd centos/
[root@localhost centos]# vim Dockfile
[root@localhost centos]# vim Dockerfile 
FROM centos
MAINTAINER lqb
RUN  yum install vim -y
RUN yum install tree  -y
RUN    /bin/echo 'root:123456' |chpasswd
RUN     useradd lqb
RUN     /bin/echo 'lqb:123456' |chpasswd
RUN     /bin/echo -e "LANG=\"en_US.UTF-8\"" >/etc/default/local
EXPOSE  22
EXPOSE  80
CMD     /usr/sbin/sshd -D
[root@localhost centos]# docker build -t centos/lqb:lqbv2  .
Sending build context to Docker daemon  2.048kB
Step 1/11 : FROM centos
 ---> 75835a67d134
Step 2/11 : MAINTAINER lqb
 ---> Using cache
 ---> 386b6f69c473
Step 3/11 : RUN  yum install vim -y
 ---> Using cache
 ---> 745792f01962
Step 4/11 : RUN yum install tree  -y
 ---> Using cache
 ---> 2bae22865096
Step 5/11 : RUN    /bin/echo 'root:123456' |chpasswd
 ---> Using cache
 ---> f554337a5fee
Step 6/11 : RUN     useradd lqb
 ---> Using cache
 ---> 7f08790bd10d
Step 7/11 : RUN     /bin/echo 'lqb:123456' |chpasswd
 ---> Using cache
 ---> 40a26046eb5a
Step 8/11 : RUN     /bin/echo -e "LANG=\"en_US.UTF-8\"" >/etc/default/local
 ---> Using cache
 ---> af9ca664315f
Step 9/11 : EXPOSE  22
 ---> Using cache
 ---> e24bed6f62fe
Step 10/11 : EXPOSE  80
 ---> Using cache
 ---> 938e49766589
Step 11/11 : CMD     /usr/sbin/sshd -D
 ---> Using cache
 ---> 466ccf2de68e
Successfully built 466ccf2de68e
Successfully tagged centos/lqb:lqbv2
[root@localhost centos]# docker images
REPOSITORY                   TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
centos/lqb                   lqbv2               466ccf2de68e        8 minutes ago       455MB
<none>                       <none>              9d09c724aa58        2 hours ago         200MB

每一个指令都会在镜像上创建一个新的层,每一个指令的前缀都必须是大写的。
第一条FROM,指定使用哪个镜像源
RUN 指令告诉docker 在镜像内执行命令,安装了什么。
ADD添加相应的文件,会自动解压
WORKDIR设置当前的工作目录
VOLUME设置卷,挂载主机目录
EXPOSE指定对外的端口
CMD指定容器启动后要干的事情

参数说明:
-t :指定要创建的目标镜像名
. :Dockerfile 文件所在目录,可以指定Dockerfile 的绝对路径

7、设置镜像标签

[root@localhost centos]# docker tag 9d09c724aa58  centoslqb1:lqbcentosv1
[root@localhost centos]# docker images
REPOSITORY                   TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
centos/lqb                   lqbv2               466ccf2de68e        23 minutes ago      455MB
centoslqb1                   lqbcentosv1         9d09c724aa58        3 hours ago         200MB

8、删除镜像。通过docker rmi来进行删除。

[root@localhost centos]# docker rmi 9d09c724aa58
Untagged: centoslqb1:lqbcentosv1
Deleted: sha256:9d09c724aa58ee7bf22e1b3ed7aaa53437c4e57eaa1ed47b66fbde62d3946a75
[root@localhost centos]# docker images
REPOSITORY                   TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
centos/lqb                   lqbv2               466ccf2de68e        28 minutes ago      455MB

(三)容器的连接
通过一个端口实现连接一个docker容器

1、网络端口的映射-----随机映射。docker run -P 。-P :是容器内部端口随机映射到主机的高端口。

[root@localhost centos]# docker run -t -i -d -P httpd /bin/bash
273c5df97d67e8bd256deb22b3b325f56a3c7b25cd113509cfffe3346ceaa285
[root@localhost centos]# docker ps 
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND                  CREATED             STATUS              PORTS                   NAMES
273c5df97d67        httpd               "/bin/bash"              4 seconds ago       Up 4 seconds        0.0.0.0:32773->80/tcp   quirky_stonebraker
51fa7e933821        nginx               "nginx -g 'daemon of…"   2 days ago          Up 21 hours         80/tcp                  nginxv2

2、网络端口的映射-----指定映射 docker run -d -p 。

[root@localhost centos]# docker run -t -p 8888:80 httpd 
AH00558: httpd: Could not reliably determine the server's fully qualified domain name, using 172.17.0.2. Set the 'ServerName' directive globally to suppress this message
AH00558: httpd: Could not reliably determine the server's fully qualified domain name, using 172.17.0.2. Set the 'ServerName' directive globally to suppress this message
[Thu Oct 25 08:02:42.006060 2018] [mpm_event:notice] [pid 1:tid 140406403273920] AH00489: Apache/2.4.37 (Unix) configured -- resuming normal operations
[Thu Oct 25 08:02:42.006225 2018] [core:notice] [pid 1:tid 140406403273920] AH00094: Command line: 'httpd -D FOREGROUND'
172.20.18.255 - - [25/Oct/2018:08:02:51 +0000] "GET / HTTP/1.1" 200 45

3、指定ip地址的映射

[root@localhost centos]# docker run -t -p 172.20.66.113:8888:80 httpd 
AH00558: httpd: Could not reliably determine the server's fully qualified domain name, using 172.17.0.2. Set the 'ServerName' directive globally to suppress this message
AH00558: httpd: Could not reliably determine the server's fully qualified domain name, using 172.17.0.2. Set the 'ServerName' directive globally to suppress this message
[Thu Oct 25 08:03:44.093560 2018] [mpm_event:notice] [pid 1:tid 140221092869312] AH00489: Apache/2.4.37 (Unix) configured -- resuming normal operations
[Thu Oct 25 08:03:44.093720 2018] [core:notice] [pid 1:tid 140221092869312] AH00094: Command line: 'httpd -D FOREGROUND'

4、指定相关的传输协议的映射

[root@localhost centos]# docker run -t -p 172.20.66.113:8000:80/udp httpd 
AH00558: httpd: Could not reliably determine the server's fully qualified domain name, using 172.17.0.3. Set the 'ServerName' directive globally to suppress this message
AH00558: httpd: Could not reliably determine the server's fully qualified domain name, using 172.17.0.3. Set the 'ServerName' directive globally to suppress this message
[Thu Oct 25 08:05:33.630321 2018] [mpm_event:notice] [pid 1:tid 139959673029824] AH00489: Apache/2.4.37 (Unix) configured -- resuming normal operations
[Thu Oct 25 08:05:33.630494 2018] [core:notice] [pid 1:tid 139959673029824] AH00094: Command line: 'httpd -D FOREGROUND'
[root@localhost ~]# docker ps 
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND              CREATED             STATUS              PORTS                                NAMES
433ec39bebfe        httpd               "httpd-foreground"   31 seconds ago      Up 31 seconds       80/tcp, 172.20.66.113:8000->80/udp   fervent_edison
27161fa1179a        httpd               "httpd-foreground"   2 minutes ago       Up 2 minutes        172.20.66.113:8888->80/tcp           vigilant_spence

备注:
-p hostPort:containerPort
-p ip:hostPort:containerPort 
-p ip::containerPort
-p hostPort:containerPort:udp
-p 81:80 –p 443:443

(四)、数据卷的挂载
1、挂载默认路径的卷

[root@localhost centos]# docker run -d --name nginx-volume -v /data nginx
36195574d6f468d008197c81066893b99e9459079ee6953c768a3dd2f2732b4c
[root@localhost centos]# docker ps 
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND                  CREATED             STATUS              PORTS                        NAMES
36195574d6f4        nginx               "nginx -g 'daemon of…"   9 seconds ago       Up 8 seconds        80/tcp                       nginx-volume
27161fa1179a        httpd               "httpd-foreground"       11 minutes ago      Up 11 minutes       172.20.66.113:8888->80/tcp   vigilant_spence
[root@localhost centos]# sh /home/docker_pid.sh 36195574d6f4
root@36195574d6f4:/# hostname
36195574d6f4
root@36195574d6f4:/# df -h
Filesystem               Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
overlay                   50G  8.4G   42G  17% /
tmpfs                     64M     0   64M   0% /dev
tmpfs                    1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/mapper/centos-root   50G  8.4G   42G  17% /data
shm                       64M     0   64M   0% /dev/shm
tmpfs                    1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /proc/acpi
tmpfs                    1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /proc/scsi
tmpfs                    1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /sys/firmware
root@36195574d6f4:/# touch /data/2.log
root@36195574d6f4:/# ls /data/ 
1.log  2.log  test
[root@localhost data]# docker inspect -f {{.Mounts}} nginx-volume
[{volume b989bef7efdc81fe63c76914f5f2e4621db327a5bf5136fab5b9dd09f994b23c /var/lib/docker/volumes/b989bef7efdc81fe63c76914f5f2e4621db327a
[root@localhost data]# cd /var/lib/docker/volumes/b989bef7efdc81fe63c76914f5f2e4621db327a5bf5136fab5b9dd09f994b23c/_data/
1.log  test/  
[root@localhost data]# cd /var/lib/docker/volumes/b989bef7efdc81fe63c76914f5f2e4621db327a5bf5136fab5b9dd09f994b23c/_data/
[root@localhost _data]# ls
[root@localhost _data]# ls
1.log  2.log  test

所有的文件都是挂载到主机var/lib/docker/volumes/b989bef7efdc81fe63c76914f5f2e4621db327a5bf5136fab5b9dd09f994b23c/_data /下

2、指定好相关路径的数据卷

[root@localhost _data]# mkdir /data/volumnes
[root@localhost _data]# docker run -d --name nginx-volumes2 -v /data/volumnes/:/data/ nginx
5a4e5e692732368888f3b9c4ce920b8281ca23b0eaf01f3ba93392d84e63c3ff
[root@localhost _data]# docekr ps 
-bash: docekr: command not found
[root@localhost _data]# docker ps
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND                  CREATED             STATUS              PORTS                        NAMES
5a4e5e692732        nginx               "nginx -g 'daemon of…"   19 seconds ago      Up 18 seconds       80/tcp                       nginx-volumes2
36195574d6f4        nginx               "nginx -g 'daemon of…"   15 minutes ago      Up 15 minutes       80/tcp                       nginx-volume
27161fa1179a        httpd               "httpd-foreground"       26 minutes ago      Up 26 minutes       172.20.66.113:8888->80/tcp   vigilant_spence
[root@localhost _data]# sh /home/docker_pid.sh 5a4e5e692732
mesg: ttyname failed: No such file or directory
root@5a4e5e692732:/# df -h
Filesystem               Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
overlay                   50G  8.4G   42G  17% /
tmpfs                     64M     0   64M   0% /dev
tmpfs                    1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/mapper/centos-root   50G  8.4G   42G  17% /data
shm                       64M     0   64M   0% /dev/shm
tmpfs                    1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /proc/acpi
tmpfs                    1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /proc/scsi
tmpfs                    1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /sys/firmware
root@5a4e5e692732:/# cd /data/
root@5a4e5e692732:/data# ls
root@5a4e5e692732:/data# touch lqb.log
## 2、在容器里进行查看
root@5a4e5e692732:/data# cat yz.txt 
11111111
2222222222
root@5a4e5e692732:/data# ls
lqb.log  yz.txt

## 1、在宿主机上创建文件
[root@localhost centos]# vim /data/volumnes/yz.txt

11111111
2222222222

3、挂载数据卷容器(一个容器可以挂载另一个容器所使用的卷共享存储)

[root@localhost centos]# docker run -it --name volumes3 --volumes-from nginx-volume centos /bin/bash
[root@0cee278bb97a /]# df -h
Filesystem               Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
overlay                   50G  8.4G   42G  17% /
tmpfs                     64M     0   64M   0% /dev
tmpfs                    1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/mapper/centos-root   50G  8.4G   42G  17% /data
shm                       64M     0   64M   0% /dev/shm
tmpfs                    1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /proc/acpi
tmpfs                    1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /proc/scsi
tmpfs                    1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /sys/firmware
[root@0cee278bb97a /]# cd /data/
[root@0cee278bb97a data]# ls
1.log  2.log  test
[root@0cee278bb97a data]# cat 1.log 
11112