L1 A puma at large

新概念3册L1笔记(A puma at large)_A puma at large


1)Pumas are large, cat-like animals which are found in America.

  • 定语从句,which修饰前面 cat-like animals。关系代词充当主语打搭配be动词时,可以同时省略

2)When reports came into London Zoo that a wild puma had been spotted forty-five miles south of London, they were not taken seriously

  • 无灵主概念,又叫做物称主语,指的是使用没有生命的事物充当句子的主语成分。例句:I thought of a good idea.
  • A good idea came into my mind
  • A good idea flashed into my mind
  • He went to the town on business
  • Business took him to the town
  • A warm and sunny Sunday found my whole family going for an outing at the beach

  • that引导了同位语从句,没有充当任何成分。解释说明reports,后置同位语从句是因为保持句式平衡
  • in / on / to the south of …
  • Shanghai is in the south of China. #上海属于中国的一部分,用In
  • Vietnam is on the south of China. #越南与中国邻接,用On
  • Indonesia is to the south of China. #印度尼西亚与中国非邻接,用to
  • 100 kilometers south of Xi'an #to the是可以被省略的

3)However, as the evidence began to accumulate, experts from the Zoo felt obliged to investigate, for the descriptions given by people who claimed to have seen the puma were extraordinarily similar.

  • as引导时间状语从句
  • for引导原因状语从句,位于主句后面或中间,通过逗号与主句分隔形成喘气空间
  • the descroptions (which were) given by people,非谓语动词后置定语,关系代词充当主语打搭配be动词时,可以同时省略
  • 非谓语动词状态:过去分词(被动态)、现在分词(主动态)、不定式to do(计划做,还没做)

4)The hunt for the puma began in a small village where a woman picking blackberries saw 'a large cat' only five yards away from her.

  • 定语从句,where修饰和限定vilage
  • 'a large cat'打引号表示所谓,译为所谓的大猫

5)It immediately ran away when she saw it, and experts confimed that a puma will not attack a human being unless it is comered

  • that引导宾语从句,unless引导条件状语从句

6)The search proved difficult, for the puma was often observed at one place in the morning and at another place twenty miles away in the evening

  • prove(to be) + adj./n.被证明 #to be可以被省略,同义词turn out tobe +adj./n.

7)Wherever it went, it left behind it a trail of dead deer and small animals like rabbits

  • wherever引导让步状语从句,含义1表无论在哪里,同义词no matter where;含义2表到底。。。用于疑问句

8)Paw prints were seen in a number of places and puma fur was found clinging to bushes

  • Paw prints无灵主语,有灵主语和无灵主语交替使用,能够大大地丰富句式与表达;强调主语
  • 例句:人们对下岗工人的生活状况越来越关注了。
  • People have paid more and more attention to the condition of the laid-off workers. 有灵主语
  • Increasing attention has been paid to the condition of the laid-off workers. 无灵主语,突出的是增长、关注

9)Several people complained of ‘cat-like noises’ at night and a businessman on a fishing trip saw the puma up a tree

  • complain of/about sth,可以确认一般不接that的宾从或定从

10)The experts were now fully convinced that the animal was a puma, but where had it come from?

  • convince that 固定搭配,意味一般不接介词

11)As no pumas had been reported missing from any zoo in the country, this one must have been in the possession of a private collector and somehow managed to escape

  • must have been有把握的过去推断
  • manage to 涉法做某事

12)It is disturbing to think that a dangerous wild animal is still at large in the quiet countryside.



  • 从定义上看:同位语从句解释前面名词的具体内容;而定语从句仅起到后置定语的作用,常译为“……的”。
  • 从形式上看:同位语从句中的“that”仅起到连接符号的作用,不充当语法成分;而定语从句中的“that”是关系代词,在从句中充当主语、宾语或表语。

The proposal that John should be dismissed is unacceptable.   同位语从句,对这个提议进行解释,that起连接作用

The proposal that John put forward is unacceptable.   定语从句,修饰John的提议,且that关系词充当宾语,缺少后语法错误