文章目录

  • ​​前言​​
  • ​​一、查看分区类型​​
  • ​​二、使用centos7软件恢复工具extundelete作为文件恢复​​
  • ​​1.安装extundelete​​
  • ​​2.上传extundelete安装包到自定义目录下面​​
  • ​​3.解压安装包​​
  • ​​4.进到解压后的安装包目录下面执行命令​​
  • ​​5.创建data目录和deletefile文件​​
  • ​​6.(xfs分区的)​​
  • ​​6.(ext4分区的)​​
  • ​​7.模拟误删文件​​
  • ​​8.(xfs分区的)​​
  • ​​8.(ext4分区的)​​
  • ​​9.查看恢复文件​​
  • ​​10.视频讲解演示流程(以xfs为例)​​
  • ​​总结​​

前言

提示:这里主要介绍centos误删文件如何恢复文件数据的情况,视频以xfs为例,博文会讲解xfs和ext4分区类型。


提示:以下是本篇文章正文内容,下面案例可供参考

一、查看分区类型

我们创建的centos对应的每个分区都有不同类型,可以通过以下命令进行查看,不同的分区类型恢复的命令也不相同,本文以xfs分区为例,作为演示,附带视频讲解。

df -T

xfs分区

Linux系统:第十三章:centos误删文件如何恢复文件数据_安装包

ext4分区

Linux系统:第十三章:centos误删文件如何恢复文件数据_安装包_02

二、使用centos7软件恢复工具extundelete作为文件恢复

1.安装extundelete

下载依赖包:

yum install e2fsprogs-devel e2fsprogs e2fsprogs-libs

2.上传extundelete安装包到自定义目录下面

百度网盘链接:​​https://pan.baidu.com/s/1UNS3TJxmnSuDWeI1sgarLQ​

提取码:d9sb

这里我是去到/usr/local目录下面创建了一个software的目录,将安装包通过WinSCP上传上去了


3.解压安装包

在/usr/local/software目录下解压安装包

tar -jxvf extundelete-0.2.4.tar.bz2

4.进到解压后的安装包目录下面执行命令

yum -y install gcc
yum -y install gcc-c++
cd extundelete-0.2.4
./configure
make
make install
which extundelete

5.创建data目录和deletefile文件

cd /
mkdir /data
cd /data
touch deletefile

6.(xfs分区的)

备份命令

xfsdump -f /tmp/dump_data /data

-> dump_data
-> media0

出现这个xfsdump: Dump Status: SUCCESS说明备份成功了

6.(ext4分区的)

查看删除目录

/usr/local/bin/extundelete --inode 2 /dev/sda2

NOTICE: Extended attributes are not restored.
WARNING: EXT3_FEATURE_INCOMPAT_RECOVER is set.
The partition should be unmounted to undelete any files without further data loss.
If the partition is not currently mounted, this message indicates
it was improperly unmounted, and you should run fsck before continuing.
If you decide to continue, extundelete may overwrite some of the deleted
files and make recovering those files impossible. You should unmount the
file system and check it with fsck before using extundelete.
Would you like to continue? (y/n)
y
Loading filesystem metadata ... 285 groups loaded.
Group: 0
Contents of inode 2:
0000 | 6d 41 00 00 00 10 00 00 e2 b2 6a 61 66 b2 6a 61 | mA........jaf.ja
0010 | 66 b2 6a 61 00 00 00 00 00 00 13 00 08 00 00 00 | f.ja............
0020 | 00 00 08 00 22 00 00 00 0a f3 01 00 04 00 00 00 | ...."...........
0030 | 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 26 24 00 00 | ............&$..
0040 | 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 | ................
0050 | 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 | ................
0060 | 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 | ................
0070 | 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 | ................
0080 | 1c 00 00 00 d0 7f eb 7d d0 7f eb 7d 00 53 f7 34 | .......}...}.S.4
0090 | a2 be 68 61 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 02 ea | ..ha............
00a0 | 07 06 44 00 00 00 00 00 1c 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 | ..D.............
00b0 | 73 65 6c 69 6e 75 78 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 | selinux.........
00c0 | 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 | ................
00d0 | 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 | ................
00e0 | 00 00 00 00 73 79 73 74 65 6d 5f 75 3a 6f 62 6a | ....system_u:obj
00f0 | 65 63 74 5f 72 3a 72 6f 6f 74 5f 74 3a 73 30 00 | ect_r:root_t:s0.

Inode is Allocated
File mode: 16749
Low 16 bits of Owner Uid: 0
Size in bytes: 4096
Access time: 1634382562
Creation time: 1634382438
Modification time: 1634382438
Deletion Time: 0
Low 16 bits of Group Id: 0
Links count: 19
Blocks count: 8
File flags: 524288
File version (for NFS): 0
File ACL: 0
Directory ACL: 0
Fragment address: 0
Direct blocks: 127754, 4, 0, 0, 1, 9254, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0
Indirect block: 0
Double indirect block: 0
Triple indirect block: 0

File name | Inode number | Deleted status
. 2
.. 2
lost+found 11
boot 2097153
dev 1179649
proc 1835009
run 1966081
sys 131073
etc 1310721
root 1441793
tmp 262145
var 393217
data 1048577
usr 1572865
bin 17
sbin 16
lib 13
lib64 15
home 524289
media 1703937
mnt 655361
opt 786433
srv 917505

可以找到data 1048577

/usr/local/bin/extundelete --inode 1048577 /dev/sda2

NOTICE: Extended attributes are not restored.
WARNING: EXT3_FEATURE_INCOMPAT_RECOVER is set.
The partition should be unmounted to undelete any files without further data loss.
If the partition is not currently mounted, this message indicates
it was improperly unmounted, and you should run fsck before continuing.
If you decide to continue, extundelete may overwrite some of the deleted
files and make recovering those files impossible. You should unmount the
file system and check it with fsck before using extundelete.
Would you like to continue? (y/n)
y
Loading filesystem metadata ... 285 groups loaded.
Group: 128
Contents of inode 1048577:
0000 | ed 41 00 00 00 10 00 00 98 b3 6a 61 88 b3 6a 61 | .A........ja..ja
0010 | 88 b3 6a 61 00 00 00 00 00 00 03 00 08 00 00 00 | ..ja............
0020 | 00 00 08 00 06 00 00 00 0a f3 01 00 04 00 00 00 | ................
0030 | 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 20 20 40 00 | ............ @.
0040 | 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 | ................
0050 | 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 | ................
0060 | 00 00 00 00 00 1c 85 44 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 | .......D........
0070 | 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 | ................
0080 | 1c 00 00 00 00 08 6b d0 00 08 6b d0 14 06 2c a7 | ......k...k...,.
0090 | 66 b2 6a 61 d0 76 ae 7d 00 00 00 00 00 00 02 ea | f.ja.v.}........
00a0 | 07 06 3c 00 00 00 00 00 23 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 | ..<.....#.......
00b0 | 73 65 6c 69 6e 75 78 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 | selinux.........
00c0 | 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 | ................
00d0 | 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 75 6e 63 6f | ............unco
00e0 | 6e 66 69 6e 65 64 5f 75 3a 6f 62 6a 65 63 74 5f | nfined_u:object_
00f0 | 72 3a 64 65 66 61 75 6c 74 5f 74 3a 73 30 00 00 | r:default_t:s0..

Inode is Allocated
File mode: 16877
Low 16 bits of Owner Uid: 0
Size in bytes: 4096
Access time: 1634382744
Creation time: 1634382728
Modification time: 1634382728
Deletion Time: 0
Low 16 bits of Group Id: 0
Links count: 3
Blocks count: 8
File flags: 524288
File version (for NFS): 1149574144
File ACL: 0
Directory ACL: 0
Fragment address: 0
Direct blocks: 127754, 4, 0, 0, 1, 4202528, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0
Indirect block: 0
Double indirect block: 0
Triple indirect block: 0

File name | Inode number | Deleted status
. 1048577
.. 2
deletefile 1048578 Deleted
delete 1048579 Deleted
RECOVERED_FILES 1048580

可以看到deletefile和delete这二个被我误删除文件的inode值列出来了


7.模拟误删文件

模拟删除/data目录内的所有内容

rm -rf /data/*

8.(xfs分区的)

恢复文件命令

xfsrestore -f /tmp/dump_data /data

8.(ext4分区的)

恢复data目录的命令:

/usr/local/bin/extundelete /dev/sda2 --restore-directory /data

如果出现以下情况:

NOTICE: Extended attributes are not restored.
WARNING: EXT3_FEATURE_INCOMPAT_RECOVER is set.
The partition should be unmounted to undelete any files without further data loss.
If the partition is not currently mounted, this message indicates
it was improperly unmounted, and you should run fsck before continuing.
If you decide to continue, extundelete may overwrite some of the deleted
files and make recovering those files impossible. You should unmount the
file system and check it with fsck before using extundelete.
Would you like to continue? (y/n)
//此处的信息是因为我在根目录下做实验,无法进行卸载导致的,这儿的大概意思是说 如果你要进行这个操作的话,最好吧分区卸载掉再进行恢复,否则如果不卸载的话,如果有写操作会吧原来的inode覆盖掉,如果你已经卸载了分区,还报这个错的话用fuser -k /PATH,之后再umount /PATH,请用这样的话会导致无法恢复,或者恢复不成功,笔者鉴于是测试服务器,并且是实验操作所以选Y,生产环境建议不要这么做。
y
Loading filesystem metadata ... 285 groups loaded.
Loading journal descriptors ... 25781 descriptors loaded.
Failed to restore file 1048579
Could not find correct inode number past inode 2.
Try altering the filename to one of the entries listed below.
File name | Inode number | Deleted status
/usr/local/bin/extundelete: Operation not permitted while restoring directory.
/usr/local/bin/extundelete: Operation not permitted when trying to examine filesystem

一般使用恢复所有删除的文件

sudo /usr/local/bin/extundelete /dev/sda2 --restore-all

9.查看恢复文件

cd /data
ls

10.视频讲解演示流程(以xfs为例)

B站地址:​​https://www.bilibili.com/video/BV1nq4y1d7KB?spm_id_from=333.999.0.0​

总结

提示:文章主要讲解centos误删文件怎么恢复(xfs类型的分区),起因是本人在测试环境误删了docker镜像文件,导致所有运行的镜像文件都没了,项目无法运行,所以才做了这期博文和视频,作为记录,分享给大家。

参考博文: