数据块恢复总结


一、说明


1.1、坏块故障现象

ERROR at line 1:

ORA-01578: ORACLE data block corrupted (file # 7, block # 19846)

ORA-01110: data file 7: '+DATA/orcl/datafile/jxc1.270.1010446343’ 


1.2、坏块类型

  • 数据坏块   

  • 索引坏块   

  • 其它损坏   

 

1.3、检验坏块的方式


$dbv file=/opt/oracle/oradata/mycdb/system01.dbf

RMAN> validate database|datefile xx;


1.4、坏块处理

若有有效的rman备份则恢复语句如下:

   recover datafile 7 block 19846;

   recover corruption list; validate 检测后可用该语句进行恢复

若仅有数据泵备份,则从数据泵恢复该表数据到备份的状态。

   impdp  directory=dump dumpfile=bfapp20.dump SCHEMAS=BFAPP20 include=table:"\=\'T_OBJ\'"

   impdp  directory=dump dumpfile=bfapp20.dump tables=BFAPP20.T_OBJ

 无备份,屏蔽掉坏块,拯救部分数据。

   启用10231内部事件      alter system set events='10231 trace name context forever,level 10’;

   关闭10231内部事件      alter system set events='10231 trace name context off’;

    

二、实战演练


2.1、构造数据损坏坏块


 1、创建表插入数据

create table t as select object_id,object_name from dba_objects;

insert into t select * from t;

create index t_obj_id on t (object_id);

SQL> exec dbms_stats.gather_table_stats('ZX1','T',CASCADE=>TRUE);

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.


2.2、查询表占用块相关信息


SQL> select owner,segment_name,header_file,header_block,blocks from dba_segments where owner='ZX1' and segment_name='T';


OWNER       SEGMENT_NAME      HEADER_FILE HEADER_BLOCK   BLOCKS

--------------- -------------------- ----------- ------------ ----------

ZX1              T          54        130      1024


SQL> select rowid,

    dbms_rowid.rowid_relative_fno(rowid) rel_fno,

    dbms_rowid.rowid_block_number(rowid) blockno,

    dbms_rowid.rowid_row_number(rowid) rowno

    from T WHERE ROWNUM<=10; 


ROWID       REL_FNO BLOCKNO      ROWNO

------------------ ---------- ---------- ----------

AAAR88AA2AAAACDAAA    54      131   0

AAAR88AA2AAAACDAAB    54      131   1

AAAR88AA2AAAACDAAC    54      131   2

AAAR88AA2AAAACDAAD    54      131   3

AAAR88AA2AAAACDAAE    54      131   4

AAAR88AA2AAAACDAAF    54      131   5

AAAR88AA2AAAACDAAG    54      131   6

AAAR88AA2AAAACDAAH    54      131   7

AAAR88AA2AAAACDAAI    54      131   8

AAAR88AA2AAAACDAAJ    54      131   9


10 rows selected.


2.3、查询索引所在的块

SQL> select owner,segment_name,header_file,header_block,blocks from dba_segments where owner='ZX1' and segment_name='T_OBJ_ID';


OWNER         SEGMENT_NAME             HEADER_FILE  HEADER_BLOCK     BLOCKS

--------------- ------------------------------ -----------   ------------   ----------

ZX1            T_OBJ_ID              54        1154          384



2.4、创建数据坏块


[oracle@oracle18c1 ~]$ rman target sys/Pa44w0rd@192.168.5.40:1521/mypdb1

Recovery Manager: Release 18.0.0.0.0 - Production on Fri Jun 5 14:19:25 2020

Version 18.3.0.0.0

Copyright (c) 1982, 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.

connected to target database: MYCDB:MYPDB1 (DBID=2302914177)

RMAN> blockrecover datafile 54 block 131 clear;

Starting recover at 05-JUN-20

using target database control file instead of recovery catalog

allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1

channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=209 device type=DISK

allocated channel: ORA_DISK_2

channel ORA_DISK_2: SID=204 device type=DISK

Finished recover at 05-JUN-20


2.5、创建索引坏块


RMAN> blockrecover datafile 54 block 1159 clear;

Starting recover at 05-JUN-20

using target database control file instead of recovery catalog

allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1

channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=19 device type=DISK

allocated channel: ORA_DISK_2

channel ORA_DISK_2: SID=147 device type=DISK

Finished recover at 05-JUN-20


2.6、查询触发数据坏块

SQL> select count(*) from zx1.t;

select count(*) from zx1.t

       *

ERROR at line 1:

ORA-01578: ORACLE data block corrupted (file # 54, block # 131)

ORA-01110: data file 54: '/opt/oracle/oradata/mycdb/mypdb1/jxc.dbf'


2.7、查询触发索引坏块

SQL> select count(*) from zx1.t where object_id<=10000;

select count(*) from zx1.t where object_id<=10000

       *

ERROR at line 1:

ORA-01578: ORACLE data block corrupted (file # 54, block # 1159)

ORA-01110: data file 54: '/opt/oracle/oradata/mycdb/mypdb1/jxc.dbf'


2.8、使用dbv工具检验坏块信息

[oracle@oracle18c1 ~]$ dbv file=/opt/oracle/oradata/mycdb/mypdb1/jxc.dbf

DBVERIFY: Release 18.0.0.0.0 - Production on Fri Jun 5 15:48:49 2020

Copyright (c) 1982, 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.

DBVERIFY - Verification starting : FILE = /opt/oracle/oradata/mycdb/mypdb1/jxc.dbf

Page 131 is marked corrupt

Corrupt block relative dba: 0x0d800083 (file 54, block 131)

Bad check value found during dbv: 

Data in bad block:

 type: 6 format: 2 rdba: 0x0d800083

 last change scn: 0x0000.0000.003a64ed seq: 0x2 flg: 0x04

 spare3: 0x0

 consistency value in tail: 0x64ed0602

 check value in block header: 0xf584

 computed block checksum: 0x6100


Page 1159 is marked corrupt

Corrupt block relative dba: 0x0d800487 (file 54, block 1159)

Bad check value found during dbv: 

Data in bad block:

 type: 6 format: 2 rdba: 0x0d800487

 last change scn: 0x4700.0000.003a651a seq: 0x2 flg: 0x04

 spare3: 0x0

 consistency value in tail: 0x651a0602

 check value in block header: 0x2fe7

 computed block checksum: 0x4700


DBVERIFY - Verification complete

Total Pages Examined         : 128000

Total Pages Processed (Data) : 937

Total Pages Failing   (Data) : 0

Total Pages Processed (Index): 322

Total Pages Failing   (Index): 0

Total Pages Processed (Other): 165

Total Pages Processed (Seg)  : 0

Total Pages Failing   (Seg)  : 0

Total Pages Empty            : 126574

Total Pages Marked Corrupt   : 2

Total Pages Influx           : 0

Total Pages Encrypted        : 0

Highest block SCN            : 3827002 (0.3827002)


2.9 validate 命令验证

[oracle@oracle18c1 ~]$ rman target sys/Pa44w0rd@192.168.5.40/mypdb1


Recovery Manager: Release 18.0.0.0.0 - Production on Fri Jun 5 15:50:21 2020

Version 18.3.0.0.0

Copyright (c) 1982, 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.

connected to target database: MYCDB:MYPDB1 (DBID=2302914177)

RMAN> validate datafile 54;


Starting validate at 05-JUN-20

using target database control file instead of recovery catalog

allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1

channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=213 device type=DISK

allocated channel: ORA_DISK_2

channel ORA_DISK_2: SID=10 device type=DISK

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting validation of datafile

channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) for validation

input datafile file number=00054 name=/opt/oracle/oradata/mycdb/mypdb1/jxc.dbf

channel ORA_DISK_1: validation complete, elapsed time: 00:00:15

List of Datafiles

=================

File Status Marked Corrupt Empty Blocks Blocks Examined High SCN

---- ------ -------------- ------------ --------------- ----------

54   FAILED 0              126574       128000          3827002   

  File Name: /opt/oracle/oradata/mycdb/mypdb1/jxc.dbf

  Block Type Blocks Failing Blocks Processed

  ---------- -------------- ----------------

  Data        1               938             

  Index       1               323             

  Other       0               165             


validate found one or more corrupt blocks

See trace file /opt/oracle/diag/rdbms/mycdb/mycdb/trace/mycdb_ora_18140.trc for details

Finished validate at 05-JUN-20


注意:该视图的更新需要执行validate命令。

SQL> select * from V$DATABASE_BLOCK_CORRUPTION;


     FILE#     BLOCK#   BLOCKS CORRUPTION_CHANGE# CORRUPTIO   CON_ID

---------- ---------- ---------- ------------------ --------- ----------

54       131        1     3826925          CHECKSUM        3

54      1159        1   5.1161E+18         CHECKSUM        3


2.10、索引坏块修复

SQL> alter index ZX1.T_OBJ_ID rebuild online;


Index altered.


SQL> select * from V$DATABASE_BLOCK_CORRUPTION;


FILE#     BLOCK#   BLOCKS CORRUPTION_CHANGE#    CORRUPTIO    CON_ID

---------- ---------- ---------- ------------------  ---------    ----------

54        131        1      3826925      CHECKSUM      3

54       1159        1      5.1161E+18    CHECKSUM      3


SQL> select count(*) from ZX1.T where object_id<=20000;


  COUNT(*)

----------

  39534



2.11、数据坏块修复


1、无备份时处理


SQL> select count(*) from ZX1.T;

select count(*) from ZX1.T

                         *

ERROR at line 1:

ORA-01578: ORACLE data block corrupted (file # 54, block # 131)

ORA-01110: data file 54: '/opt/oracle/oradata/mycdb/mypdb1/jxc.dbf'


SQL> alter system set events='10231 trace name context forever,level 10';


System altered.


SQL> select count(*) from ZX1.T;


  COUNT(*)

----------

    145362



2、有rman备份时处理

[oracle@oracle18c1 ~]$ rman target sys/Pa44w0rd@192.168.5.40/mypdb1


Recovery Manager: Release 18.0.0.0.0 - Production on Fri Jun 5 16:19:30 2020

Version 18.3.0.0.0


Copyright (c) 1982, 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.


connected to target database: MYCDB:MYPDB1 (DBID=2302914177)


RMAN> recover datafile 54 block 131;


Starting recover at 05-JUN-20

using target database control file instead of recovery catalog

allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1

channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=84 device type=DISK

allocated channel: ORA_DISK_2

channel ORA_DISK_2: SID=152 device type=DISK


channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring block(s)

channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying block(s) to restore from backup set

restoring blocks of datafile 00054

channel ORA_DISK_1: reading from backup piece /backup/fullbk.1qv1vvtp_1_1

channel ORA_DISK_1: piece handle=/backup/fullbk.1qv1vvtp_1_1 tag=TAG20200605T112752

channel ORA_DISK_1: restored block(s) from backup piece 1

channel ORA_DISK_1: block restore complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01


starting media recovery

media recovery complete, elapsed time: 00:00:03


Finished recover at 05-JUN-20


RMAN> select count(*) from ZX1.T;


    COUNT(*)

  ----------

    145700


三、只有数据泵备份时处理方式


方式1

[oracle@oracle ~]$ impdp  directory=dump dumpfile=bfapp20.dump SCHEMAS=BFAPP20 include=table:"\=\'T_OBJ\'"


Import: Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production on Wed Mar 25 19:47:03 2020


Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.


Username: / as sysdba


Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.3.0 - 64bit Production

With the Partitioning, Automatic Storage Management, OLAP, Data Mining

and Real Application Testing options

Master table "SYS"."SYS_IMPORT_SCHEMA_01" successfully loaded/unloaded

Starting "SYS"."SYS_IMPORT_SCHEMA_01":  /******** AS SYSDBA directory=dump dumpfile=bfapp20.dump SCHEMAS=BFAPP20 include=table:\=\'T_OBJ\' 

Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLE

Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLE_DATA

. . imported "BFAPP20"."T_OBJ"                           2.385 MB   74914 rows

Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/INDEX/INDEX

Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/INDEX/STATISTICS/INDEX_STATISTICS

Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/STATISTICS/TABLE_STATISTICS

Job "SYS"."SYS_IMPORT_SCHEMA_01" successfully completed at 19:47:10


方式2

[oracle@oracle ~]$ impdp  directory=dump dumpfile=bfapp20.dump tables=BFAPP20.T_OBJ 


Import: Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production on Wed Mar 25 19:47:35 2020


Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.


Username: / as sysdba


Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.3.0 - 64bit Production

With the Partitioning, Automatic Storage Management, OLAP, Data Mining

and Real Application Testing options

Master table "SYS"."SYS_IMPORT_TABLE_01" successfully loaded/unloaded

Starting "SYS"."SYS_IMPORT_TABLE_01":  /******** AS SYSDBA directory=dump dumpfile=bfapp20.dump tables=BFAPP20.T_OBJ 

Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLE

Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLE_DATA

. . imported "BFAPP20"."T_OBJ"                           2.385 MB   74914 rows

Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/INDEX/INDEX

Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/INDEX/STATISTICS/INDEX_STATISTICS

Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/STATISTICS/TABLE_STATISTICS

Job "SYS"."SYS_IMPORT_TABLE_01" successfully completed at 19:47:42