GoAccess简介

GoAccess 是一款开源(MIT许可证)的且具有交互视图界面的实时 Web 日志分析工具,通过你的 Web 浏览器或者 *nix 系统下的终端程序即可访问。

能为系统管理员提供快速且有价值的 HTTP 统计,并以在线可视化服务器的方式呈现。 GoAccess 解析指定的 Web 日志文件并将统计结果输出到 X 终端。功能如下:

  • 通用统计: 此面板展示了几个主要指标,比如:有效和无效请求的数量,分析这些数据所花费的时间,独立访客的情况,请求的文件,静态文件(CSS, ICO, JPG 等)的完整URL,404错误,被解析的日志文件的大小以及消耗的带宽。
  • 独立访客: 此面板按照日期展示了访问次数,独立访客数,以及累计消耗的带宽等指标。具有相同IP,相同访问时间,相同的 UserAgent 的 HTTP 请求将会被识别为独立访客。默认情况下包含了网络爬虫。
    您也可以选择使用 --date-spec=hr 参数将按照日期分析修改为按照小时,例如:05/Jun/2016:16 。这对于希望在小时级别去跟踪每日流量非常有帮助。
  • 请求的文件: 此面板展示您服务器上被请求次数最多的文件。包含访问次数,独立访客数,百分比,累计消耗带宽,使用的协议,请求方式。
  • 请求的静态文件: 列出请求频率最高的静态文件类型,例如: JPG, CSS, SWF, JS, GIF, 和 PNG , 以及和上一个面板一样的其他指标。 另外静态文件可以被添加到配置文件中。
  • 404 或者文件未找到: 展示内容与之前的面板类似,但是其数据包含了所有未找到的页面,以及俗称的 404 状态码。
  • 主机: 此面板展示主机自身的详细信息。能够很好的发现不怀好意的爬虫以及识别出是谁吃掉了你的带宽。
    扩展面板将向您展示更多信息,比如主机的反向DNS解析结果,主机所在国家和城市。如果开启了 参数,选择想查看的 IP 地址并按回车,将会显示 UserAgent 列表。
  • 操作系统: 此面板将显示主机使用的操作系统的信息。GoAccess 将尽可能尝试为每一款操作系统提供详细的信息。
  • 浏览器: 此面板将显示来访主机使用的浏览器信息。GoAccess 将尽可能尝试为每一款浏览器提供详细的信息。
  • 访问次数: 此面板按小时报告。因此将显示24个数据点,每一个均对应每一天的某一个小时。
    使用 --hour-spec=min 参数可以设定为按每十分钟报告,并将以 16:4 的格式显示时间。这对发现服务器的峰值访问时段很有帮助。
  • 虚拟主机: 此面板将显示从访问日志中解析出来的不同的虚拟主机的情况。此面板仅在日志格式中启用了 %v 参数时显示。
  • 来路URL: 如果问题主机通过其他的资源访问了你的站点,以及通过从其他主机上的链接或者跳转到你的站点,则这些来路URL将会被显示在此面板。可以在配置文件中通过 --ignore-panel 开启此功能。(默认关闭)
  • 来路站点: 此面板将仅显示主机的部分,而不是完整的URL。
  • 关键字: 报告支持用在谷歌搜索,谷歌缓存,谷歌翻译上使用关键字。目前仅支持通过 HTTP 使用谷歌搜索。 可以在配置文件中通过 --ignore-panel 开启此功能。(默认关闭)
  • 地理位置: 根据 IP 地址判断地理位置。统计数据按照大洲和国家分组。需要地理位置模块的支持。
  • HTTP 状态码: 以数字表示的 HTTP 请求的状态编码。
  • 远程用户(HTTP验证) 通过 HTTP 验证来确定访问文档的权限。如果文档没有被密码保护起来,这部分将会显示为 “-”。此面板默认为开启,除非在日志格式变量中设置了参数 %e 。

GoAccess使用

安装goaccess

[root@VM_0_26_centos logs]# yum install goaccess
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, langpacks
Repository epel is listed more than once in the configuration
epel                                                                | 4.7 kB  00:00:00     
extras                                                              | 2.9 kB  00:00:00     
nux-dextop                                                          | 2.9 kB  00:00:00     
os                                                                  | 3.6 kB  00:00:00     
rpmfusion-free-updates                                              | 3.7 kB  00:00:00     
rpmfusion-nonfree-updates                                           | 3.7 kB  00:00:00     
updates                                                             | 2.9 kB  00:00:00     
zabbix                                                              | 2.9 kB  00:00:00     
zabbix-non-supported                                                |  951 B  00:00:00     
(1/2): epel/7/x86_64/updateinfo                                     | 1.0 MB  00:00:00     
(2/2): epel/7/x86_64/primary_db                                     | 6.9 MB  00:00:02     
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * nux-dextop: mirror.li.nux.ro
 * rpmfusion-free-updates: mirrors.ustc.edu.cn
 * rpmfusion-nonfree-updates: mirrors.ustc.edu.cn
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package goaccess.x86_64 0:1.3-1.el7 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: libtokyocabinet.so.9()(64bit) for package: goaccess-1.3-1.el7.x86_64
--> Running transaction check
---> Package tokyocabinet.x86_64 0:1.4.48-3.el7 will be installed
--> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved

===========================================================================================
 Package                 Arch              Version                   Repository       Size
===========================================================================================
Installing:
 goaccess                x86_64            1.3-1.el7                 epel            240 k
Installing for dependencies:
 tokyocabinet            x86_64            1.4.48-3.el7              os              459 k

Transaction Summary
===========================================================================================
Install  1 Package (+1 Dependent package)

Total download size: 699 k
Installed size: 2.0 M
Is this ok [y/d/N]: y
Downloading packages:
(1/2): goaccess-1.3-1.el7.x86_64.rpm                                | 240 kB  00:00:00     
(2/2): tokyocabinet-1.4.48-3.el7.x86_64.rpm                         | 459 kB  00:00:00     
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total                                                      1.3 MB/s | 699 kB  00:00:00     
Running transaction check
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded
Running transaction
  Installing : tokyocabinet-1.4.48-3.el7.x86_64                                        1/2 
  Installing : goaccess-1.3-1.el7.x86_64                                               2/2 
  Verifying  : tokyocabinet-1.4.48-3.el7.x86_64                                        1/2 
  Verifying  : goaccess-1.3-1.el7.x86_64                                               2/2 

Installed:
  goaccess.x86_64 0:1.3-1.el7                                                              

Dependency Installed:
  tokyocabinet.x86_64 0:1.4.48-3.el7 

查看使用方式

[root@VM_0_26_centos logs]# goaccess -help

GoAccess - 1.3

Usage: goaccess [filename] [ options ... ] [-c][-M][-H][-S][-q][-d][...]
The following options can also be supplied to the command:

Log & Date Format Options

  --date-format=<dateformat>      - Specify log date format. e.g., %d/%b/%Y
  --log-format=<logformat>        - Specify log format. Inner quotes need to be
                                    escaped, or use single quotes.
  --time-format=<timeformat>      - Specify log time format. e.g., %H:%M:%S

User Interface Options

  -c --config-dialog              - Prompt log/date/time configuration window.
  -i --hl-header                  - Color highlight active panel.
  -m --with-mouse                 - Enable mouse support on main dashboard.
  --color=<fg:bg[attrs, PANEL]>   - Specify custom colors. See manpage for more
                                    details and options.
  --color-scheme=<1|2|3>          - Schemes: 1 => Grey, 2 => Green, 3 => Monokai.
  --html-custom-css=<path.css>    - Specify a custom CSS file in the HTML report.
  --html-custom-js=<path.js>      - Specify a custom JS file in the HTML report.
  --html-prefs=<json_obj>         - Set default HTML report preferences.
  --html-report-title=<title>     - Set HTML report page title and header.
  --json-pretty-print             - Format JSON output w/ tabs & newlines.
  --max-items                     - Maximum number of items to show per panel.
                                    See man page for limits.
  --no-color                      - Disable colored output.
  --no-column-names               - Don't write column names in term output.
  --no-csv-summary                - Disable summary metrics on the CSV output.
  --no-html-last-updated          - Hide HTML last updated field.
  --no-parsing-spinner            - Disable progress metrics and parsing spinner.
  --no-progress                   - Disable progress metrics.
  --no-tab-scroll                 - Disable scrolling through panels on TAB.

Server Options

  --addr=<addr>                   - Specify IP address to bind server to.
  --daemonize                     - Run as daemon (if --real-time-html enabled).
  --fifo-in=<path>                - Path to read named pipe (FIFO).
  --fifo-out=<path>               - Path to write named pipe (FIFO).
  --origin=<addr>                 - Ensure clients send the specified origin header
                                    upon the WebSocket handshake.
  --pid-file=<path>               - Write PID to a file when --daemonize is used.
  --port=<port>                   - Specify the port to use.
  --real-time-html                - Enable real-time HTML output.
  --ssl-cert=<cert.crt>           - Path to TLS/SSL certificate.
  --ssl-key=<priv.key>            - Path to TLS/SSL private key.
  --ws-url=<url>                  - URL to which the WebSocket server responds.

File Options

  -                               - The log file to parse is read from stdin.
  -f --log-file=<filename>        - Path to input log file.
  -S --log-size=<number>          - Specify the log size, useful when piping in logs.
  -l --debug-file=<filename>      - Send all debug messages to the specified
                                    file.
  -p --config-file=<filename>     - Custom configuration file.
  --invalid-requests=<filename>   - Log invalid requests to the specified file.
  --no-global-config              - Don't load global configuration file.

Parse Options

  -a --agent-list                 - Enable a list of user-agents by host.
  -b --browsers-file=<path>       - Use additional custom list of browsers.
  -d --with-output-resolver       - Enable IP resolver on HTML|JSON output.
  -e --exclude-ip=<IP>            - Exclude one or multiple IPv4/6. Allows IP
                                    ranges e.g. 192.168.0.1-192.168.0.10
  -H --http-protocol=<yes|no>     - Set/unset HTTP request protocol if found.
  -M --http-method=<yes|no>       - Set/unset HTTP request method if found.
  -o --output=file.html|json|csv  - Output either an HTML, JSON or a CSV file.
  -q --no-query-string            - Ignore request's query string. Removing the
                                    query string can greatly decrease memory
                                    consumption.
  -r --no-term-resolver           - Disable IP resolver on terminal output.
  --444-as-404                    - Treat non-standard status code 444 as 404.
  --4xx-to-unique-count           - Add 4xx client errors to the unique visitors
                                    count.
  --anonymize-ip                  - Anonymize IP addresses before outputting to report.
  --all-static-files              - Include static files with a query string.
  --crawlers-only                 - Parse and display only crawlers.
  --date-spec=<date|hr>           - Date specificity. Possible values: `date`
                                    (default), or `hr`.
  --double-decode                 - Decode double-encoded values.
  --enable-panel=<PANEL>          - Enable parsing/displaying the given panel.
  --hide-referer=<NEEDLE>         - Hide a referer but still count it. Wild cards
                                    are allowed. i.e., *.bing.com
  --hour-spec=<hr|min>            - Hour specificity. Possible values: `hr`
                                    (default), or `min` (tenth of a min).
  --ignore-crawlers               - Ignore crawlers.
  --ignore-panel=<PANEL>          - Ignore parsing/displaying the given panel.
  --ignore-referer=<NEEDLE>       - Ignore a referer from being counted. Wild cards
                                    are allowed. i.e., *.bing.com
  --ignore-statics=<req|panel>    - Ignore static requests.
                                    req => Ignore from valid requests.
                                    panel => Ignore from valid requests and panels.
  --ignore-status=<CODE>          - Ignore parsing the given status code.
  --num-tests=<number>            - Number of lines to test. >= 0 (10 default)
  --process-and-exit              - Parse log and exit without outputting data.
  --real-os                       - Display real OS names. e.g, Windows XP, Snow
                                    Leopard.
  --sort-panel=PANEL,METRIC,ORDER - Sort panel on initial load. For example:
                                    --sort-panel=VISITORS,BY_HITS,ASC. See
                                    manpage for a list of panels/fields.
  --static-file=<extension>       - Add static file extension. e.g.: .mp3.
                                    Extensions are case sensitive.

GeoIP Options

  -g --std-geoip                  - Standard GeoIP database for less memory
                                    consumption.
  --geoip-database=<path>         - Specify path to GeoIP database file. i.e.,
                                    GeoLiteCity.dat, GeoIPv6.dat ...

Other Options

  -h --help                       - This help.
  -V --version                    - Display version information and exit.
  -s --storage                    - Display current storage method. e.g., B+
                                    Tree, Hash.
  --dcf                           - Display the path of the default config
                                    file when `-p` is not used.

Examples can be found by running `man goaccess`.

For more details visit: http://goaccess.io
GoAccess Copyright (C) 2009-2017 by Gerardo Orellana

获取Nginx日志格式
格式转换脚本在https://github.com/stockrt/nginx2goaccess/blob/master/nginx2goaccess.sh,具体内容如下

[root@VM_0_26_centos logs]# cat nginx2goaccess.sh 
#!/bin/bash
#
# Convert from this:
#   http://nginx.org/en/docs/http/ngx_http_log_module.html
# To this:
#   https://goaccess.io/man
#
# Conversion table:
#   $time_local         %d:%t %^
#   $host               %v
#   $http_host          %v
#   $remote_addr        %h
#   $request_time       %T
#   $request_method     %m
#   $request_uri        %U
#   $server_protocol    %H
#   $request            %r
#   $status             %s
#   $body_bytes_sent    %b
#   $bytes_sent         %b
#   $http_referer       %R
#   $http_user_agent    %u
#
# Samples:
#
# log_format combined '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] '
# '"$request" $status $body_bytes_sent '
# '"$http_referer" "$http_user_agent"';
#   ./nginx2goaccess.sh '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" $status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" "$http_user_agent"'
#
# log_format compression '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] '
# '"$request" $status $bytes_sent '
# '"$http_referer" "$http_user_agent" "$gzip_ratio"';
#   ./nginx2goaccess.sh '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" $status $bytes_sent "$http_referer" "$http_user_agent" "$gzip_ratio"'
#
# log_format main
# '$remote_addr\t$time_local\t$host\t$request\t$http_referer\t$http_x_mobile_group\t'
# 'Local:\t$status\t$body_bytes_sent\t$request_time\t'
# 'Proxy:\t$upstream_cache_status\t$upstream_status\t$upstream_response_length\t$upstream_response_time\t'
# 'Agent:\t$http_user_agent\t'
# 'Fwd:\t$http_x_forwarded_for';
#   ./nginx2goaccess.sh '$remote_addr\t$time_local\t$host\t$request\t$http_referer\t$http_x_mobile_group\tLocal:\t$status\t$body_bytes_sent\t$request_time\tProxy:\t$upstream_cache_status\t$upstream_status\t$upstream_response_length\t$upstream_response_time\tAgent:\t$http_user_agent\tFwd:\t$http_x_forwarded_for'
#
# log_format main
# '${time_local}\t${remote_addr}\t${host}\t${request_method}\t${request_uri}\t${server_protocol}\t'
# '${http_referer}\t${http_x_mobile_group}\t'
# 'Local:\t${status}\t*${connection}\t${body_bytes_sent}\t${request_time}\t'
# 'Proxy:\t${upstream_status}\t${upstream_cache_status}\t'
# '${upstream_response_length}\t${upstream_response_time}\t${uri}${log_args}\t'
# 'Agent:\t${http_user_agent}\t'
# 'Fwd:\t${http_x_forwarded_for}';
#   ./nginx2goaccess.sh '${time_local}\t${remote_addr}\t${host}\t${request_method}\t${request_uri}\t${server_protocol}\t${http_referer}\t${http_x_mobile_group}\tLocal:\t${status}\t*${connection}\t${body_bytes_sent}\t${request_time}\tProxy:\t${upstream_status}\t${upstream_cache_status}\t${upstream_response_length}\t${upstream_response_time}\t${uri}${log_args}\tAgent:\t${http_user_agent}\tFwd:\t${http_x_forwarded_for}'
#
# Author: Rogério Carvalho Schneider <stockrt@gmail.com>

# Params
log_format="$1"

# Usage
if [[ -z "$log_format" ]]; then
    echo "Usage: $0 '<log_format>'"
    exit 1
fi

# Variables map
conversion_table="time_local,%d:%t_%^
host,%v
http_host,%v
remote_addr,%h
request_time,%T
request_method,%m
request_uri,%U
server_protocol,%H
request,%r
status,%s
body_bytes_sent,%b
bytes_sent,%b
http_referer,%R
http_user_agent,%u"

# Conversion
for item in $conversion_table; do
    nginx_var=${item%%,*}
    goaccess_var=${item##*,}
    goaccess_var=${goaccess_var//_/ }
    log_format=${log_format//\$\{$nginx_var\}/$goaccess_var}
    log_format=${log_format//\$$nginx_var/$goaccess_var}
done
log_format=$(echo "$log_format" | sed 's/${[a-z_]*}/%^/g')
log_format=$(echo "$log_format" | sed 's/$[a-z_]*/%^/g')

# Config output
echo "
- Generated goaccess config:
time-format %T
date-format %d/%b/%Y
log_format $log_format
"

# EOF

注意,其中nginx配置文件的log_format如下,下面转换时需要与实际情况保持一致

      log_format  main  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
                        '$status $upstream_addr $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
                        '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"';

获取日志格式

[root@VM_0_26_centos logs]# sh nginx2goaccess.sh '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" $status $upstream_addr $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" "$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"'

- Generated goaccess config:
time-format %T
date-format %d/%b/%Y
log_format %h - %^ [%d:%t %^] "%r" %s %^ %b "%R" "%u" "%^"

设置日志格式

[root@VM_0_26_centos logs]# cat /etc/goaccess/goaccess.conf 
time-format %T
date-format %d/%b/%Y
log_format %h - %^ [%d:%t %^] "%r" %s %^ %b "%R" "%u" "%^"

生成分析报告

[root@VM_0_26_centos logs]# goaccess -f ./nginx_access.log -p ./nginxlog.conf -o day-report.html
[root@VM_0_26_centos logs]# ls
day-report.html      nginx_access.log             nginx2goaccess.sh           nginxlog.conf

查看报告效果
浏览器打开day-report.html,效果如下
使用goaccess分析nginx日志