1.在python2:

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#-*- coding:utf-8 -*-
import sys
print(sys.getdefaultencoding())             #获取系统默认编码

#1.utf-8转gbk
s = "你好"
s_to_unicode = s.decode("utf-8")            #将utf-8类型转换为unicode
print(s_to_unicode)
print(type(s_to_unicode))

s_to_gbk = s.decode("utf-8").encode("gbk")  #utf-8转gbk:将utf-8先decode成unicode,在encode成gbk
print(s_to_gbk)
#注:unicode可以直接打印utf-8编码字符

#2.gbk转utf-8
gbk_to_utf8 = s_to_gbk.decode("gbk").encode("utf-8")
print(gbk_to_utf8)

2.在python:

import sys
print(sys.getdefaultencoding())                 #获取系统默认编码utf-8(忽略)

msg = "你好"                                    #默认就是unicode,不用再decode
print(msg)
msg_gb2312 = msg.encode("gb2312")               #unicode转成gb2312,转成gb2312的同时会转成bytes类型
print(msg_gb2312)

gb2312_to_unicode = msg_gb2312.decode("gb2312")    #gb2312转unicode
print(gb2312_to_unicode)

gb2312_to_utf8 = msg_gb2312.decode("gb2312").encode("utf-8")        #gb2312转utf-8,转成utf-8的同时会转成bytes类型
print(gb2312_to_utf8)