单选题(每题1分,共9道题)

1、[单选]以下关于挣值分析表述正确的是:
Which of the following statements about earned value analysis is correct:
A:挣值也叫挣得值,是衡量项目实际挣得的利润;
EV means earned value, which is the actual profit earned by the project;
B:挣值分析是用于项目完成时对项目绩效的评估;
Earned value analysis is used to evaluate project performance when the project is completed;
C:挣值分析同时综合考虑进度和成本两个因素来评价项目绩效;
Earned value analysis is to evaluate project performance in combination with both schedule and cost.
D:挣值分析可以根据项目任何时间点的绩效精确预测项目完工时的绩效。
Earned value analysis can accurately predict project performance at completion based on performance at any time.

正确答案:C

解析:挣值分析的核心就是综合了成本和进度的数据来评价项目绩效和预测未来趋势,C 正确;挣 值EV 和 PV,AC 都是成本的范畴,不涉及利润,A 不对;挣值分析是项目过程中的绩效评估,主要不是用于项目完成时评估,B 不对;选项 D 错在“任何时间点“和”都可以精确预测 “,首先预测都是粗略的,不可能太精确,而且任何时间太绝对,项目刚开始的数据更无法再做到精确预测.

2、[单选]完工估算(EAC)是下面哪一项的定期评估:
Estimate at completion (EAC) is a periodic evaluation of:
A:已完成工作的成本;
The cost of the completed work;
B:已完成工作的价值;
The value of the work performed;
C:预测项目完成时的总成本;
Total cost estimates when the project is completed;
D:预测完成项目还将需要的成本;
Estimates of the costs that are still required from now to the completion of the project;

正确答案:C

解析:选项 A 已完成工作的成本是 AC;选项 B 已完成工作的价值是 EV;选项 D 预测完成项目还将需要的成本是完工尚需估算 ETC。

3、[单选]一个工期10周,价值200万美元的项目,现在已过去4周,只完成了三分之一的工作,成本已花掉一半,项目当前状态是?
A project of 10 weeks, worth $ 2 million. In the past four weeks, only one third of the work has been completed, and the cost has already been halved. What is the current state of the project?
A:进度超前,成本超支;
Ahead of schedule and cost overrun;
B:进度超前,成本节约;Ahead of schedule and cost saving;
C:进度落后,成本节约;
Behind schedule and cost saving;
D:进度落后,成本超支。
Behind schedule and cost overruns.

正确答案:D

解析:10 周计划已过去 4 周,假设是匀速完成工作的话,按计划应该完成 200 万美元的 40%,也就是 80 万美元(PV);只完成了 1/3 的工作, 200*(1/3)=66.7 万美元(EV);成本花掉一半, 200*50%=100 万美元(AC)。CV=EV-AC=66.7-100=-33.3 万 美 元 , 成 本 超 支 ; SV=EV-PV=66.7-80=-13.3 万美元,进度落后。

4、[单选]如果挣值(EV)350,实际成本(AC)400,计划值(PV)300,那么成本偏差(CV)是?
If earned value (EV) =350, actual cost (AC) =400, and planned value (PV) =300, what is cost variance (CV)?
A:100
100
B:-100
-100
C:50
50
D:-50
-50

正确答案:D

解析:CV=EV-AC=350-400=-50

5、[单选]项目阶段绩效评估,项目原计划到此时花费成本100万元,实际花掉的成本是110万元,你可以得出以下哪个结论?
The project stage performance review, the project was originally planned to cost $1 million at this time, the actual cost is $1.1 million, which of the following conclusions can you draw?
A:成本偏差为-10万元,项目成本处于超支状态;
The CV is - $100,000, and the project cost is overspent;
B:进度偏差为-10万元,项目进度处于落后状态;
The SV is - $100,000, and the project progress is in a backward state;
C:成本绩效指数小于1,照此趋势项目完成时会超出总预算;
The CPI is less than 1, according to the trend of development, the project will exceed the budget;
D:信息不足,得不出以上任何结论。
Insufficient information to make any conclusions above.

正确答案:D

解析:计划此时花掉 100 万元(PV),实际花掉 110 万元(AC)挣值分析中,这两个值并不相比较,没有 EV 的值,得不出 A,B,C 的结论。

6、[单选]某个预算为200万美元的项目计划在第一年花掉100万美元。经过一年,实际成本为 120万美元美元。进过评估,工作完成了总计划的40%。项目主要相关方讨论决定就按当前项目绩效水平预测,那么完成项目还需要多少成本?
A project with budget of $2 million planned to spend $1 million in the first year. After a year, the actual cost of the project is $1.2 million. After the assessment, they completed 40% work of the total plan. The key stakeholders of the project decide use current project performance level. How much will it cost to complete the project yet?
A:120万 美元
$1.2 million
B:180万 美元
$1.8 million
C:225万 美元
$2.25 million
D:300万 美元
$3 million

正确答案:C

解析:BAC=200,PV=100,AC=120,EV=200*40%=80,还需要多少成本是 ETC 完工尚需估算,就按当前绩效水平预测,也就是未来工作中,成本和进度的绩效水平都不修正,先求 EAC,那应该 用EAC=AC+[(BAC-EV)/(CPI*SPI)]这个公式, CPI=EV/AC=80/120=2/3; SPI=EV/PV=80/100=4/5; ETC=EAC-AC=(BAC-EV)/(CPI*SPI) = (200-80)/ [(2/3) *(4/5)] =225                                                   
7、[单选]你向项目发起人提供了一份项目成本估算。发起人不满意,认为总价应该低一些。他要求你把项目成本估算砍下去15%。你应该?
You provide a project cost estimate for the project to the project sponsor. He is unhappy with the estimate, because he thinks the price should be lower. He asks you to cut 15% off the project estimate. What should you do? You provide a project cost estimate for the project to the project sponsor. He is unhappy with the estimate, because he thinks the price should be lower. He asks you to cut 15% off the project estimate. What should you do?
A:开始项目并持续寻找节约成本的办法;
Start the project and constantly look for cost savings.
B:告诉你的团队让他们把各自的估算都砍掉百分之十五;
Tell all the team members to cut 15% from their estimates.
C:建议发起人有些活动得砍掉;
Suggest the sponsor that some activities should be cut.
D:什么都不用做,因为你预留了超过百分之十五的应急储备。
Don't do anything, because you've reserved more than 15 percent of emergency reserves.

正确答案:C

解析:你给发起人提供的成本估算应该是基于客观、严谨和诚信的前提,发起人要求砍 15%的成本估算,那只有缩小项目范围才是直接有效的措施。让团队成员都砍 15%说明你们的估算水分太大,B 不对;这种情况下开始项目风险太大, A不对;应急储备是用来应对已知-未知风险,风险没过去之前不能随便砍,D 不对。

8、[单选]一个项目的进度绩效指数SPI为0.89,成本绩效指数CPI为0.91,下面哪一个是出现这种情况的最合理解释?
A project has a schedule performance index (SPI) of 0.89 and a cost performance index (CPI) of 0.91. Generally, what is the BEST explanation for why this occurred?
A:范围发生了改变;
The scope was changed.
B:一个供应商歇业了,得寻找一家新的;
A supplier is out of business and must find a new one.
C:额外购买了需要的设备;
Additional purchase of required equipment;
D:关键路径上的活动延迟了,被迫投入更多人手去完成。
The activity on the critical path is delayed, and more resources must be put into it.

正确答案:D

解析:SPI 和 CPI 都小于 1,说明进度延误同时成本超支,只有关键路径上工作延误了,必须投入更多资源赶工,才能解释这个状况。选项 A 范围发了改变,也可能是范围缩小了呢;选项 B 供应商改变需要多花时间,不一定需要增加成本;选项 C 额外购买设备多花了钱,不一定多花时间,设备多了可能还能节省时间。

9、[单选]一个完工预算500万美元的项目,已经完成了40%的工作量,此时实际已花费250万美元成本。公司规定用完工预算和成本绩效指数的比值来预测完工估算,请问下面关于完工偏差和完工尚需绩效指数哪个是正确的?
A project with a budget at completion (BAC) of $5 million has already completed 40 percent of the work, and it has already cost $2.5 million. The company stipulates that the ratio of the budget at completion (BAC) and the cost performance index (CPI) is used to predict the estimate at completion (EAC). Which of the following are the correct variance at completion (VAC) To-complete performance index (TCPI)?
A:完工偏差125万美元,完工尚需绩效指数0.8
VAC $1.25 million, TCPI 0.8
B:完工偏差-125万美元,完工尚需绩效指数0.8
VAC -$1.25 million, TCPI 0.8
C:完工偏差125万美元,完工尚需绩效指数1.2
VAC $1.25 million, TCPI 1.2
D:完工偏差-150万美元,完工尚需绩效指数1.2
VAC -$1.5 million, TCPI 1.2

正确答案:B

解析:完工偏差 VAC=BAC-EAC, BAC=500,完成 了40%工作量,EV=500*40%=200 实际已花费 AC=250 万,先求 CPI=EV/AC=200/250=0.8, 再 求 EAC , 根 据 题 干 EAC=BAC/CPI=500/0.8=625, VAC=BAC-EAC=500-625=-125, 完工尚需绩效指数 TCPI=(BAC-EV)/(EAC-AC)=(500-200)/(625-250)=0.8, 即便 TCPI 用另一个公式 TCPI=(BAC-EV)/(BAC-AC)= (500-200)/(500-250)=300/250=1.2 唯一正确的组合就是 B。