在linux系统下有很多linux命令或者linux工具可以用来查看系统硬件的信息,包括cpu,内存,有些命令可以查询多个硬件信息。本文将会介绍7个常用的查看硬件信息的linux命令,比如:lscpu命令,hwinfo命令, lshw命令,lspci命令,lsblk 命令和lsusb命令。


1. lscpu-获取cpu命令的信息

[root@devops ~]# lscpu
Architecture:          x86_64
CPU op-mode(s):        32-bit, 64-bit
Byte Order:            Little Endian
CPU(s):                1
On-line CPU(s) list:   0
Thread(s) per core:    1
Core(s) per socket:    1
CPU socket(s):         1
NUMA node(s):          1
Vendor ID:             GenuineIntel
CPU family:            6
Model:                 45
Stepping:              7
CPU MHz:               2194.842
BogoMIPS:              4389.68
Hypervisor vendor:     Xen
Virtualization type:   full
L1d cache:             32K
L1i cache:             32K
L2 cache:              256K
L3 cache:              15360K
NUMA node0 CPU(s):     0


2.Lshw -显示硬件信息的列表
这个命令很常用,可以通过不同的选项来显示不同的硬件信息,包括:CPU, 内存,磁盘,USB控制器,硬件驱动器等,该命令主要从/proc目录下的不同文件中获取综合的硬件信息。

默认情况下,linux下是不安装这个工具的,所以你需要先安装,然后才能使用,安装方法如下:

wget http://ezix.org/software/files/lshw-B.02.14.tar.gz
tar -zxvf lshw-B.02.14.tar.gz
cd lshw-B.02.14
make && make install


[root@devops lshw-B.02.14]# lshw -short
H/W path          Device       Class      Description
=====================================================
                               system     HVM domU
/0                             bus        Motherboard
/0/0                           memory     96KiB BIOS
/0/1                           processor  Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2430 0 @ 2.20GHz
/0/2                           memory     System Memory
/0/2/0                         memory     512MiB DIMM RAM
/0/2/1                         memory     512MiB DIMM RAM
/0/3                           memory     96KiB BIOS
/0/4                           processor  CPU
/0/5                           memory     System Memory
/0/6                           memory    
/0/7                           memory    
/0/100                         bridge     440FX - 82441FX PMC [Natoma]
/0/100/1                       bridge     82371SB PIIX3 ISA [Natoma/Triton II]
/0/100/1.1        scsi1        storage    82371SB PIIX3 IDE [Natoma/Triton II]
/0/100/1.1/0.0.0  /dev/cdrom1  disk       SCSI CD-ROM
/0/100/1.2                     bus        82371SB PIIX3 USB [Natoma/Triton II]
/0/100/1.2/1      usb1         bus        UHCI Host Controller
/0/100/1.2/1/2                 input      QEMU USB Tablet
/0/100/1.3                     bridge     82371AB/EB/MB PIIX4 ACPI
/0/100/2                       display    GD 5446
/0/100/3                       generic    Xen Platform Device
/1                eth0         network    Ethernet interface
/2                eth1         network    Ethernet interface
[root@devops lshw-B.02.14]#


3. Hwinfo - 硬件信息

Hwinfo 命令也是一个用来查看硬件信息的工具,功能和lshw命令类似,但是能够获取到更多更详细的硬件信息。

按照下面的方法安装Hwinfo工具:

对于CentOS 6系统

#rpm -Uvh http://mirror.symnds.com/distributions/gf/el/6/gf/x86_64/gf-release-6-6.gf.el6.noarch.rpm
#yum list hwinfo
#yum install hwinfo


对于Centos5系统

#rpm -Uvh http://mirror.symnds.com/distributions/gf/el/5/gf/x86_64/gf-release-5-6.gf.el5.noarch.rpm
#yum list hwinfo
#yum install hwinfo


[root@devops tmp]# rpm -Uvh http://mirror.symnds.com/distributions/gf/el/6/gf/x86_64/gf-release-6-6.gf.el6.noarch.rpm
Retrieving http://mirror.symnds.com/distributions/gf/el/6/gf/x86_64/gf-release-6-6.gf.el6.noarch.rpm
warning: /var/tmp/rpm-tmp.m2mMAO: Header V4 RSA/SHA1 Signature, key ID 13a4d2a9: NOKEY
Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
   1:gf-release             ########################################### [100%]
[root@devops tmp]# yum list hwinfo
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: mirrors.aliyun.com
 * extras: mirrors.aliyun.com
 * updates: mirrors.aliyun.com
gf                                                                                                   | 2.9 kB     00:00    
gf/primary_db                                                                                        |  58 kB     00:00    
Available Packages
hwinfo.x86_64

         

[root@devops tmp]# yum list hwinfo
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: mirrors.aliyun.com
 * extras: mirrors.aliyun.com
 * updates: mirrors.aliyun.com
gf                                                                                                   | 2.9 kB     00:00    
gf/primary_db                                                                                        |  58 kB     00:00    
Available Packages
hwinfo.x86_64                                                20.2-1.gf.el6                                                gf
[root@devops tmp]# yum install hwinfo
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: mirrors.aliyun.com
 * extras: mirrors.aliyun.com
 * updates: mirrors.aliyun.com
Setting up Install Process
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package hwinfo.x86_64 0:20.2-1.gf.el6 will be installed
.....


[root@devops tmp]# hwinfo -short
oops: don't know what to do with "short"
[root@devops tmp]# hwinfo --short
cpu:                                                           
                       Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2430 0 @ 2.20GHz, 2194 MHz
keyboard:
  /dev/input/event3    AT Translated Set 2 keyboard
  /dev/ttyS0           serial console
mouse:
  /dev/input/mice      Adomax QEMU USB Tablet
  /dev/input/mice      Macintosh mouse button emulation
  /dev/input/mice      ImExPS/2 Generic Explorer Mouse
graphics card:
                       Cirrus Logic GD 5446
storage:
                       Intel 82371SB PIIX3 IDE [Natoma/Triton II]
                       Xen Virtual Storage 0
                       Xen Virtual Storage 1
                       Xen Virtual Storage 2
network:
  eth0                 Xen Virtual Ethernet Card 0
  eth1                 Xen Virtual Ethernet Card 1
network interface:
  lo                   Loopback network interface
  eth0                 Ethernet network interface
  eth1                 Ethernet network interface
disk:
  /dev/xvda            Disk
  /dev/xvdb            Disk
partition:
  /dev/xvda1           Partition
  /dev/xvdb1           Partition
cdrom:
  /dev/sr0             QEMU DVD-ROM
usb controller:
                       Qumranet Qemu virtual machine
bios:
                       BIOS
bridge:
                       Qumranet Qemu virtual machine
                       Qumranet Qemu virtual machine
                       Qumranet Qemu virtual machine
hub:
                       Linux 2.6.32-279.el6.x86_64 uhci_hcd UHCI Host Controller
memory:
                       Main Memory
unknown:
                       FPU
                       DMA controller
                       PIC
                       Timer
                       Keyboard controller
                       XenSource Xen Platform Device
[root@devops tmp]#


4. lspci

lscpi 命令可以列出PCI总线的相关信息,以及连接在PCI总线上的其它硬件设备的信息,比如VGA适配器,USB端口信息, SATA控制器信息等。

lspic命令是pciutils工具包的一部分,所以需要先安装pciutils工具包。

#yum install pciutils
[root@devops tmp]# yum install pciutils
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: mirrors.aliyun.com
 * extras: mirrors.aliyun.com
 * updates: mirrors.aliyun.com
Setting up Install Process
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package pciutils.x86_64 0:3.1.10-2.el6 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: pciutils-libs = 3.1.10-2.el6 for package: pciutils-3.1.10-2.el6.x86_64
--> Running transaction check
---> Package pciutils-libs.x86_64 0:3.1.4-11.el6 will be updated
---> Package pciutils-libs.x86_64 0:3.1.10-2.el6 will be an update
--> Finished Dependency Resolution
Dependencies Resolved
============================================================================================================================
 Package                          Arch                      Version                           Repository               Size
============================================================================================================================
Installing:
 pciutils                         x86_64                    3.1.10-2.el6                      base                     85 k
Updating for dependencies:
 pciutils-libs                    x86_64                    3.1.10-2.el6                      base                     34 k
Transaction Summary
============================================================================================================================
Install       1 Package(s)
Upgrade       1 Package(s)
Total download size: 119 k
Is this ok [y/N]: y
Downloading Packages:
(1/2): pciutils-3.1.10-2.el6.x86_64.rpm                                                              |  85 kB     00:00    
(2/2): pciutils-libs-3.1.10-2.el6.x86_64.rpm                                                         |  34 kB     00:00    
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total                                                                                       913 kB/s | 119 kB     00:00    
Running rpm_check_debug
Running Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
  Updating   : pciutils-libs-3.1.10-2.el6.x86_64                                                                        1/3
  Installing : pciutils-3.1.10-2.el6.x86_64                                                                             2/3
  Cleanup    : pciutils-libs-3.1.4-11.el6.x86_64                                                                        3/3
  Verifying  : pciutils-libs-3.1.10-2.el6.x86_64                                                                        1/3
  Verifying  : pciutils-3.1.10-2.el6.x86_64                                                                             2/3
  Verifying  : pciutils-libs-3.1.4-11.el6.x86_64                                                                        3/3
Installed:
  pciutils.x86_64 0:3.1.10-2.el6                                                                                           
Dependency Updated:
  pciutils-libs.x86_64 0:3.1.10-2.el6                                                                                      
Complete!



[root@devops tmp]# lspci
00:00.0 Host bridge: Intel Corporation 440FX - 82441FX PMC [Natoma] (rev 02)
00:01.0 ISA bridge: Intel Corporation 82371SB PIIX3 ISA [Natoma/Triton II]
00:01.1 IDE interface: Intel Corporation 82371SB PIIX3 IDE [Natoma/Triton II]
00:01.2 USB controller: Intel Corporation 82371SB PIIX3 USB [Natoma/Triton II] (rev 01)
00:01.3 Bridge: Intel Corporation 82371AB/EB/MB PIIX4 ACPI (rev 01)
00:02.0 VGA compatible controller: Cirrus Logic GD 5446
00:03.0 Unassigned class [ff80]: XenSource, Inc. Xen Platform Device (rev 01)
[root@devops tmp]#


5. lsusb- 显示USB总线的信息


lsusb 是 usbutils 工具包的一部分,所以需要先安装usbutils工具包:

#yum install usbutils
[root@devops tmp]# yum install usbutils
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: mirrors.aliyun.com
 * extras: mirrors.aliyun.com
 * updates: mirrors.aliyun.com
Setting up Install Process
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package usbutils.x86_64 0:003-4.el6 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: libusb-1.0.so.0()(64bit) for package: usbutils-003-4.el6.x86_64
--> Running transaction check
---> Package libusb1.x86_64 0:1.0.9-0.6.rc1.el6 will be installed
--> Finished Dependency Resolution
Dependencies Resolved
============================================================================================================================
 Package                     Arch                      Version                                Repository               Size
============================================================================================================================
Installing:
 usbutils                    x86_64                    003-4.el6                              base                     71 k
Installing for dependencies:
 libusb1                     x86_64                    1.0.9-0.6.rc1.el6                      base                     80 k
Transaction Summary
============================================================================================================================
Install       2 Package(s)
Total download size: 152 k
Installed size: 377 k
Is this ok [y/N]: y
Downloading Packages:
(1/2): libusb1-1.0.9-0.6.rc1.el6.x86_64.rpm                                                          |  80 kB     00:00    
(2/2): usbutils-003-4.el6.x86_64.rpm                                                                 |  71 kB     00:00    
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total                                                                                       3.0 MB/s | 152 kB     00:00    
Running rpm_check_debug
Running Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
  Installing : libusb1-1.0.9-0.6.rc1.el6.x86_64                                                                         1/2
  Installing : usbutils-003-4.el6.x86_64                                                                                2/2
  Verifying  : usbutils-003-4.el6.x86_64                                                                                1/2
  Verifying  : libusb1-1.0.9-0.6.rc1.el6.x86_64                                                                         2/2
Installed:
  usbutils.x86_64 0:003-4.el6                                                                                              
Dependency Installed:
  libusb1.x86_64 0:1.0.9-0.6.rc1.el6                                                                                       
Complete!


[root@devops tmp]# lsusb
Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0001 Linux Foundation 1.1 root hub
Bus 001 Device 002: ID 0627:0001 Adomax Technology Co., Ltd
[root@devops tmp]#



6. lsblk- 显示block设备的信息

[root@devops tmp]# lsblk
NAME    MAJ:MIN RM   SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
xvda    202:0    0    20G  0 disk
└─xvda1 202:1    0    20G  0 part /
xvdb    202:16   0    10G  0 disk
└─xvdb1 202:17   0    10G  0 part /alidata
sr0      11:0    1   362K  0 rom


7. lsscsi- List the SCSI device information

显示 scsi/sata设备信息,比如硬盘或者光磁盘信息。

[root@devops tmp]# lsscsi
[1:0:0:0]    cd/dvd  QEMU     QEMU DVD-ROM     0.10  /dev/sr0
[root@devops tmp]#