Liunx下修改MySQL字符集:
1.查找MySQL的cnf文件的位置
find/-iname'*.cnf'-print

/usr/share/mysql/my-innodb-heavy-4G.cnf
/usr/share/mysql/my-large.cnf
/usr/share/mysql/my-small.cnf
/usr/share/mysql/my-medium.cnf
/usr/share/mysql/my-huge.cnf
/usr/share/texmf/web2c/texmf.cnf
/usr/share/texmf/web2c/mktex.cnf
/usr/share/texmf/web2c/fmtutil.cnf
/usr/share/texmf/tex/xmltex/xmltexfmtutil.cnf
/usr/share/texmf/tex/jadetex/jadefmtutil.cnf
/usr/share/doc/MySQL-server-community-5.1.22/my-innodb-heavy-4G.cnf
/usr/share/doc/MySQL-server-community-5.1.22/my-large.cnf
/usr/share/doc/MySQL-server-community-5.1.22/my-small.cnf
/usr/share/doc/MySQL-server-community-5.1.22/my-medium.cnf
/usr/share/doc/MySQL-server-community-5.1.22/my-huge.cnf

2.拷贝small.cnf、my-medium.cnf、my-huge.cnf、my-innodb-heavy-4G.cnf其中的一个到/etc下,命名为my.cnf
cp/usr/share/mysql/my-medium.cnf/etc/my.cnf

3.修改my.cnf
vi/etc/my.cnf
在[client]下添加
default-character-set=utf8
在[mysqld]下添加
default-character-set=utf8

4.重新启动MySQL
[root@bogon~]#/etc/rc.d/init.d/mysqlrestart
ShuttingdownMySQL[确定]
StartingMySQL.[确定]
[root@bogon~]#mysql-uroot-p
Enterpassword:
WelcometotheMySQLmonitor.Commandsendwith;or\g.
YourMySQLconnectionidis1
Serverversion:5.1.22-rc-community-logMySQLCommunityEdition(GPL)
Type'help;'or'\h'forhelp.Type'\c'toclearthebuffer.

5.查看字符集设置
mysql>showvariableslike'collation_%';
+----------------------+-----------------+
|Variable_name|Value|
+----------------------+-----------------+
|collation_connection|utf8_general_ci|
|collation_database|utf8_general_ci|
|collation_server|utf8_general_ci|
+----------------------+-----------------+
3rowsinset(0.02sec)
mysql>showvariableslike'character_set_%';
+--------------------------+----------------------------+
|Variable_name|Value|
+--------------------------+----------------------------+
|character_set_client|utf8|
|character_set_connection|utf8|
|character_set_database|utf8|
|character_set_filesystem|binary|
|character_set_results|utf8|
|character_set_server|utf8|
|character_set_system|utf8|
|character_sets_dir|/usr/share/mysql/charsets/|
+--------------------------+----------------------------+
8rowsinset(0.02sec)
mysql>


其他的一些设置方法:

修改数据库的字符集
mysql>usemydb
mysql>alterdatabasemydbcharactersetutf-8;
创建数据库指定数据库的字符集
mysql>createdatabasemydbcharactersetutf-8;

通过配置文件修改:
修改/var/lib/mysql/mydb/db.opt
default-character-set=latin1
default-collation=latin1_swedish_ci

default-character-set=utf8
default-collation=utf8_general_ci
重起MySQL:
[root@bogon~]#/etc/rc.d/init.d/mysqlrestart

通过MySQL命令行修改:
mysql>setcharacter_set_client=utf8;
QueryOK,0rowsaffected(0.00sec)
mysql>setcharacter_set_connection=utf8;
QueryOK,0rowsaffected(0.00sec)
mysql>setcharacter_set_database=utf8;
QueryOK,0rowsaffected(0.00sec)
mysql>setcharacter_set_results=utf8;
QueryOK,0rowsaffected(0.00sec)
mysql>setcharacter_set_server=utf8;
QueryOK,0rowsaffected(0.00sec)
mysql>setcharacter_set_system=utf8;
QueryOK,0rowsaffected(0.01sec)
mysql>setcollation_connection=utf8;
QueryOK,0rowsaffected(0.01sec)
mysql>setcollation_database=utf8;
QueryOK,0rowsaffected(0.01sec)
mysql>setcollation_server=utf8;
QueryOK,0rowsaffected(0.01sec)
查看:
mysql>showvariableslike'character_set_%';
+--------------------------+----------------------------+
|Variable_name|Value|
+--------------------------+----------------------------+
|character_set_client|utf8|
|character_set_connection|utf8|
|character_set_database|utf8|
|character_set_filesystem|binary|
|character_set_results|utf8|
|character_set_server|utf8|
|character_set_system|utf8|
|character_sets_dir|/usr/share/mysql/charsets/|
+--------------------------+----------------------------+
8rowsinset(0.03sec)
mysql>showvariableslike'collation_%';
+----------------------+-----------------+
|Variable_name|Value|
+----------------------+-----------------+
|collation_connection|utf8_general_ci|
|collation_database|utf8_general_ci|
|collation_server|utf8_general_ci|
+----------------------+-----------------+
3rowsinset(0.04sec)



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【知识性文章转载】
MYSQL字符集问题


MySQL的字符集支持(CharacterSetSupport)有两个方面:
字符集(Characterset)和排序方式(Collation)。
对于字符集的支持细化到四个层次:
服务器(server),数据库(database),数据表(table)和连接(connection)。
1.MySQL默认字符集
MySQL对于字符集的指定可以细化到一个数据库,一张表,一列,应该用什么字符集。
但是,传统的程序在创建数据库和数据表时并没有使用那么复杂的配置,它们用的是默认的配置,那么,默认的配置从何而来呢?(1)编译MySQL时,指定了一个默认的字符集,这个字符集是latin1;
(2)安装MySQL时,可以在配置文件(my.ini)中指定一个默认的的字符集,如果没指定,这个值继承自编译时指定的;
(3)启动mysqld时,可以在命令行参数中指定一个默认的的字符集,如果没指定,这个值继承自配置文件中的配置,此时character_set_server被设定为这个默认的字符集;
(4)当创建一个新的数据库时,除非明确指定,这个数据库的字符集被缺省设定为character_set_server;
(5)当选定了一个数据库时,character_set_database被设定为这个数据库默认的字符集;
(6)在这个数据库里创建一张表时,表默认的字符集被设定为character_set_database,也就是这个数据库默认的字符集;
(7)当在表内设置一栏时,除非明确指定,否则此栏缺省的字符集就是表默认的字符集;
简单的总结一下,如果什么地方都不修改,那么所有的数据库的所有表的所有栏位的都用
latin1存储,不过我们如果安装MySQL,一般都会选择多语言支持,也就是说,安装程序会自动在配置文件中把
default_character_set设置为UTF-8,这保证了缺省情况下,所有的数据库的所有表的所有栏位的都用UTF-8存储。
2.查看默认字符集(默认情况下,mysql的字符集是latin1(ISO_8859_1)
通常,查看系统的字符集和排序方式的设定可以通过下面的两条命令:
mysql>SHOWVARIABLESLIKE'character%';
+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
|Variable_name|Value|
+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
|character_set_client|latin1|
|character_set_connection|latin1|
|character_set_database|latin1|
|character_set_filesystem|binary|
|character_set_results|latin1|
|character_set_server|latin1|
|character_set_system|utf8|
|character_sets_dir|D:"mysql-5.0.37"share"charsets"|
+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
mysql>SHOWVARIABLESLIKE'collation_%';
+----------------------+-----------------+
|Variable_name|Value|
+----------------------+-----------------+
|collation_connection|utf8_general_ci|
|collation_database|utf8_general_ci|
|collation_server|utf8_general_ci|
+----------------------+-----------------+
3.修改默认字符集
(1)最简单的修改方法,就是修改mysql的my.ini文件中的字符集键值,
如default-character-set=utf8
character_set_server=utf8
修改完后,重启mysql的服务,servicemysqlrestart
使用mysql>SHOWVARIABLESLIKE'character%';查看,发现数据库编码均已改成utf8
+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
|Variable_name|Value|
+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
|character_set_client|utf8|
|character_set_connection|utf8|
|character_set_database|utf8|
|character_set_filesystem|binary|
|character_set_results|utf8|
|character_set_server|utf8|
|character_set_system|utf8|
|character_sets_dir|D:"mysql-5.0.37"share"charsets"|
+--------------------------+---------------------------------+
(2)还有一种修改字符集的方法,就是使用mysql的命令
mysql>SETcharacter_set_client=utf8;