文章结构:     
         Abstract
              Categories and Subject Descriptors
              General Terms
              Keywords

              1. INTRODUCTION
              2. CONTROL & MANAGEMENT TODAY
                 2.1 Reachability Control in Enterprises
                 2.2 Peering Policies in Transit Networks
                 2.3 Same Problems, Many Guises
                 2.4 Moving Forward
              3. THE 4D ARCHITECTURE
                 3.1 Design Principles
                 3.2 New 4D Network Architecture
                 3.3 Advantages of the 4D Architecture
                 3.4 Challenges for the 4D Architecture
                 3.5 Routing Control Platform
              4. RESEARCH AGENDA
                 4.1 Decision Plane
                     4.1.1 Algorithms Satisfying Network Level Objectives
                     4.1.2 Coordination Between Decision Elements
                     4.1.3 Introducing Hierarchy in the Decision Plane
                 4.2 Dissemination Plane
                 4.3 Discovery Plane
                 4.4 Data Plane
              5. EVALUATING NEW ARCHITECTURES
                 5.1 Experimental Platforms
                 5.2 Opportunities for Field Deployment
              6. RELATED WORK
              7. CONCLUDING REMARKS
================================================================================================
Outline:
The whole article can be divided into eight parts.
The first part is the content before INTRODUCTION, including Abstract, Categories and Subject Descriptors, General Terms, Keywords. The Abstract tell us the disadvantages of the current Internet architecture. In order to conquer the disadvantages, the authors propose the 4D architecture.
the second part:INTRODUCTION. This part tells us the IP networking is too old to satisfy new service request.
the third part:CONTROL & MANAGEMENT TODAY. this part tells us in real world, some kinds of problems make the networks hard to control, and radically the problems are similar.
the forth part:THE 4D ARCHITECTURE. This part tells us the work the authors did, including the design principles of the new architecture ,details and advantages of the new architecture, challenges for the new architecture.
the fifth part:RESEARCH AGENDA. This part tells us what we can do or what we will do. This part is divided into 4 parts, Decision Plane, Dissemination Plane, Discovery Plane, Data Plane respectively.
the sixth part: EVALUATING NEW ARCHITECTURES. this part tells us how we can evaluate the new architecture.
the seventh part: RELATED WORK.
the eighth part: CONCLUDING REMARKS. this part concludes the whole article.


每一段落的展开方法:
1:INTRODUCTION    
  (1): deduction
  (2): deduction
  (3): deduction
  (4): induction
  (5): generalization
 
2: CONTROL & MANAGEMENT TODAY
  (1): time
  (2): deduction
  (3): deduction
  (4): deduction
  (5): induction
  (6): generalization
  2.1:
     (1): time
     (2): example
     (3): example
     (4): induction
     (5): generalization
  2.2:
     (1): induction
     (2): example
     (3): example
     (4): induction
     (5): generalization
  2.3:
     (1): induction
     (2): induction
  2.4: generalization
3: THE 4D ARCHITECTURE
  (1): induction
  3.1:
      (1): induction
      (2): definition
      (3): definition
      (4): definition
      (5): generalization
  3.2:
      (1): induction
      (2): definition
      (3): definition
      (4): definition
      (5): definition
      (6): generalization
  3.3:
      (1): induction
      (2): definition
      (3): definition
      (4): definition
      (5): definition
      (6): definition
  3.4:
      (1): induction
      (2): definition
      (3): definition
      (4): definition
      (5): definition
      (6): definition
  3.5:
      (1): induction
      (2): generalization
4. RESEARCH AGENDA
      (1): induction
      (2): induction
      4.1: definition
          4.1.1: definition
          4.1.2: definition
          4.1.3: definition
      4.2: definition
      4.3: definition
      4.4: definition
5. EVALUATING NEW ARCHITECTURES
      (1): induction
      5.1 Experimental Platforms
        (1): induction
        (2): example
        (3): example
      5.2 Opportunities for Field Deployment
        (1): induction
        (2): time
        (3): generalization
        (4): generalization
6. RELATED WORK
        induction
7. CONCLUDING REMARKS
        induction


所有重要句型;
    1: 被动语态
    The AS-level objectives are specified in the decision plane, and enforced through direct configuration of the state that drives how the data plane forwards packets.
    2: 定语从句
A good example of this principle is the Ethernet technology, which has successfully evolved from a shared-medium network to a switched network with new control-plane protocols based on learning and spanning trees, all while leaving the packet format unchanged.
    3: 状语从句
    In this example, the problems arise because the ability of a network to carry packets depends on the routing protocols and the packet filtersworking in concert.


4)所有重要单词和对应中文;  
network management 网络管理
robustness         健壮性,鲁棒性
clean slate        零基础
reachability       可达性
configuration      配置
peering            对等的
autonomous systems 自治系统
architecture       体系结构
decision plane     决策层
dissemination plane分发层
discovery plane    发现层
data plane         数据层
routing control platform  路由控制平台
scalability        可扩展性
NAT(network address translation) 网络地址转换
××× (virtual private network) 虚拟专用网




5)所有的习惯用法,包括主谓搭配、动宾搭配、形容词与名词的搭配、副词与动词的搭配、介词与名词的搭配,以及短语动词等等;
we present ... that ...
in order to handle ...
It might be desirable to ...
... is based on ...
in addition to ...
it has since ...
Our notion of ... is ...
... means ...
Because of ..., ...
... is responsible for ...
... focus on ...


6)重点研究若干段落中的冠词用法和时态的用法;
INTRODUCTION中的第一段

Although IP networking has been wildly successful, there are serious problems lurking “under the hood.”
“under the hood.”在引擎盖下。

IP networks exhibit a defining characteristic of unstable complex systems—a small local event (e.g., misconfiguration of a routing protocol on a single interface) can have severe, global impact in the form of a cascading meltdown.
“a defining characteristic”,一项基本特征。泛指。
“a small local event”,一个小的局部事件。泛指。
“a routing protocol”,一种路由协议。泛指
“a single interface”,一个单一接口。泛指。
“in the form of”。以...的形式。固定用法。

In addition, individual Autonomous Systems (ASes) must devote significant resources to “working around” the constraints imposed by today’s protocols and mechanisms to achieve their goals for traffic engineering, survivability, security, and policy enforcement.
“the constraints”,限定用法。

 We believe the root cause of these problems lies in the control plane running on the network elements and the management plane that monitors and configures them.
“the root cause of these problems”,这些问题的根本原因。限定cause。
“the control plane ”,“the management plane”。表示特定称谓。

 In this paper, we argue for revisiting the division of functionality and advocate an extreme design point that completely separates a network’s decision logic from the the protocols that govern interaction of network elements
在本文中,我们主张重新划分功能,倡导一种新的的设计要点,将网络的决策逻辑与管理网络元件的协议完全分离开。
“the protocols that ...” ...的协议。表示限定。
“a network’s decision logic ”。网络的决策逻辑。泛指。
We initially focus our attention on the operation of a single Autonomous System (AS), though we also discuss how multiple ASes can coordinate their actions.
”a single Autonomous System “一个单一的自治系统。泛指。

时态。本文大部分句子用的是一般现在时。当介绍到旧的技术时,用的是过去时。


7)参考引用他人作品的方式;
如果引用的是网页,则附上网页中文章的标题和网址。
如:NSF CISE, “The GENI initiative.” http://www.nsf.gov/cise/geni/.
如果引用的是论文,则附上作者,文章标题,所发表的期刊或会议。
如:L. Peterson, Y. Gottlieb, M. Hibler, P. Tullmann, J. Lepreau,S. Schwab, H. Dandekar, A. Purtell, and J. Hartman, “A NodeOS interface for active networks,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Communications, March 2001.

8)全文的写作特点;
文章首先在摘要中为自己的文章中的观点做简要的说明。用现在的网络体系结构中的弱点引出作者所研究的网络体系结构的优点。循序渐进地讲述自己的研究。用了大量的实例来论证和支撑自己的观点。用了大量的图来说明自己想表达的意思,因为使用的大量的图,所以简化了说明,有利于读者理解。本文逻辑严谨,结构紧凑。归纳演绎综述得当。


9)从英语写作的角度出发,回答问题:通过认真的阅读和研究该文章,你有何收获?
通过阅读本文,我体会到英文写作的逻辑严密性。每一部分与每一部分之间,段落与段落之间,句子与句子之间,都有比较强的逻辑关系。结构紧凑。
阅读的过程中发现大部分的句子使用的是被动语态。使用被动语态可以使说理显得客观。
遇到了一些难懂的词汇和词组,用Google, StarDict, dict.cnki.net, translate.google.cn
查找合适的释义。所以在我以后的学习中,要注意词汇量的积累。
本文平均每句有23个词。难度为17。说明本文是偏难的。本文中有很多的句型我可能会在以后的学习和研究中用到,所以应该注意积累。