一 软件安装篇
1.rpm
rpm -ivh xxxxxxxx
2.*.tar.gz
# 1: Uncompress tarball
To uncompress them, execute the following command(s) depending on the extension:
$ tar zxf file.tar.gz
$ tar zxf file.tgz
$ tar jxf file.tar.bz2
$ tar jxf file.tbz2

Now change directory
$ ls
$ cd path-to-software/
# 2: Build and install software

Generally you need to type 3 commands as follows for building and compiling software:
# ./configure
# make
# make install

Where

    * ./configure will configure the software to ensure your system has the necessary functionality and libraries to successfully compile the package
    * make will compile all the source files into executable binaries.
    * Finally, make install will install the binaries and any supporting files into the appropriate locations.

# 3: Read INSTALL / README file

Each tarball comes with installation and build instructions. Open INSTALL or README file for more information:
$ vi INSTALL

二 系统篇
1.系统关机
# shutdown -k 2 Attention:System will shutdown soon!  //带参数k系统不会实际关机
# shutdown 2 Attention:System will shutdown soon!     //2分钟后实际执行shutdown命令

最快速关机命令     # shutdown -h now

定时关机命令
# shutdown 9:30
# shutdown +5
# shutdown now

取消关机命令,则只要按Ctrl+C键即可

2.系统重启
定时重启命令
# shutdown -r 9:30
# shutdown -r +5
# shutdown -r now

另外还有其他3个命令  1.halt  2.poweroff  3.reboot

注意:在实际执行关机前,最好先执行sync命令,因为它可以将内存缓冲区内的数据写回硬盘,以避免正在访问的数据丢失,最后执行shutdown命令。