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Nginx的Location可以有以下几个匹配:
1. =   严格匹配这个查询。如果找到,停止搜索。 
2. ^~ 匹配路径的前缀,如果找到,停止搜索。
3. ~   为区分大小写的正则匹配   
4. ~* 为不区分大小写匹配

例子:

location = / {
# matches the query / only.
# 只匹配 / 查询。
[ configuration A ]
}
location / {
# matches any query, since all queries begin with /, but regular
# expressions and any longer conventional blocks will be
# matched first.
# 匹配任何查询,因为所有请求都已 / 开头。但是正则表达式规则和长的块规则将被优先和查询匹配。
[ configuration B ]
}
location ^~ /p_w_picpaths/ {
# matches any query beginning with /p_w_picpaths/ and halts searching,
# so regular expressions will not be checked.
# 匹配任何已 /p_w_picpaths/ 开头的任何查询并且停止搜索。任何正则表达式将不会被测试。
[ configuration C ]
}
location ~* ".(gif|jpg|jpeg)$ {
# matches any request ending in gif, jpg, or jpeg. However, all
# requests to the /p_w_picpaths/ directory will be handled by
# Configuration C.
# 匹配任何已 gif、jpg 或 jpeg 结尾的请求。然而所有 /p_w_picpaths/ 目录的请求将使用 Configuration C。
[ configuration D ]
}

如果要定义多个location,则可以有2种方式:

  1. 使用/ :
    location / { client_max_body_size 200m; proxy_connect_timeout 30; proxy_set_header Host $http_host; proxy_set_header x-forwarded-for $remote_addr; proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:8008; } location /tmp/{ root /; internal; }
    采用这种方式,/tmp可以放在/的下面,因为“/是匹配任何查询,但是正则表达式规则和长的块规则将被优先和查询匹配”
  2. 使用~ /* :
    location ~ /tmp/ { root /tmp; internal; } location ~ /* { client_max_body_size 20m; proxy_connect_timeout 30; fastcgi_pass fpass; include fastcgi_params; }
    采用这种方式,/tmp则必须放在~ /*这个前面,因为~是正则匹配的,正则匹配是有顺序的,只要匹配上就不会再往下匹配了。除非在conf中有定义=或者^~,也就是说=和^~的优先级最高,如果匹配上,就不会再去匹配其它的规则了。

总之,引用Nginx的官方文档的匹配规则:

 

引用

 

  1. Directives with the = prefix that match the query exactly. If found, searching stops.
  2. All remaining directives with conventional strings, longest match first. If this match used the ^~ prefix, searching stops.
  3. Regular expressions, in order of definition in the configuration file.
  4. If #3 yielded a match, that result is used. Else the match from #2 is used.

注意:正则表达式的匹配是有顺序的,按顺序匹配。其它的匹配理论上讲是只有优先级,而没有顺序的。