1.cobbler简介

Cobbler是一个Linux服务器安装的服务,可以通过网络启动(PXE)的方式来快速安装、重装物理服务器和虚拟机,同时还可以管理DHCP,DNS等。
Cobbler可以使用命令行方式管理,也提供了基于Web的界面管理工具(cobbler-web),还提供了API接口,可以方便二次开发使用。
Cobbler是较早前的kickstart的升级版,优点是比较容易配置,还自带web界面比较易于管理。
Cobbler内置了一个轻量级配置管理系统,但它也支持和其它配置管理系统集成,如Puppet,暂时不支持SaltStack。
Cobbler官网http://cobbler.github.io

2.安装cobbler

环境说明

[root@CentOS7_1 09:43 ~]#cat /etc/redhat-release 
CentOS Linux release 7.6.1810 (Core) 
[root@CentOS7_1 09:43 ~]#uname -r
3.10.0-957.el7.x86_64
[root@CentOS7_1 09:43 ~]#systemctl status firewalld.service
● firewalld.service - firewalld - dynamic firewall daemon
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/firewalld.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
   Active: inactive (dead) since Sat 2019-06-29 09:42:51 CST; 21s ago
     Docs: man:firewalld(1)
  Process: 6801 ExecStart=/usr/sbin/firewalld --nofork --nopid $FIREWALLD_ARGS (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
 Main PID: 6801 (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)

Jun 29 09:24:35 CentOS7_1.localdomain systemd[1]: Starting firewalld - dynami...
Jun 29 09:24:53 CentOS7_1.localdomain systemd[1]: Started firewalld - dynamic...
Jun 29 09:42:50 CentOS7_1.localdomain systemd[1]: Stopping firewalld - dynami...
Jun 29 09:42:51 CentOS7_1.localdomain systemd[1]: Stopped firewalld - dynamic...
Hint: Some lines were ellipsized, use -l to show in full.
[root@CentOS7_1 09:43 ~]#hostname -I             
172.16.11.1 192.168.10.254 192.168.122.1 

使用yum安装cobbler和相关服务

#yum install cobbler httpd dhcp tftp -y

说明:cobbler是依赖与epel源下载
启动相关服务

#systemctl start tftp httpd cobbler

进行语法检查

#cobbler check
[root@CentOS7_1 09:47 ~]# cobbler check
The following are potential configuration items that you may want to fix:

1 : The 'server' field in /etc/cobbler/settings must be set to something other than localhost, or kickstarting features will not work.  This should be a resolvable hostname or IP for the boot server as reachable by all machines that will use it.

2 : For PXE to be functional, the 'next_server' field in /etc/cobbler/settings must be set to something other than 127.0.0.1, and should match the IP of the boot server on the PXE network.

3 : change 'disable' to 'no' in /etc/xinetd.d/tftp

4 : Some network boot-loaders are missing from /var/lib/cobbler/loaders, you may run 'cobbler get-loaders' to download them, or, if you only want to handle x86/x86_64 netbooting, you may ensure that you have installed a *recent* version of the syslinux package installed and can ignore this message entirely.  Files in this directory, should you want to support all architectures, should include pxelinux.0, menu.c32, elilo.efi, and yaboot. The 'cobbler get-loaders' command is the easiest way to resolve these requirements.

5 : enable and start rsyncd.service with systemctl

6 : debmirror package is not installed, it will be required to manage debian deployments and repositories

7 : The default password used by the sample templates for newly installed machines (default_password_crypted in /etc/cobbler/settings) is still set to 'cobbler' and should be changed, try: "openssl passwd -1 -salt 'random-phrase-here' 'your-password-here'" to generate new one

8 : fencing tools were not found, and are required to use the (optional) power management features. install cman or fence-agents to use them

Restart cobblerd and then run 'cobbler sync' to apply changes.

解决当中的报错

修改cobbler配置文件
#vim /etc/cobbler/settings
server: 192.168.10.254  修改127.0.0.1为本机ip地址
next_server: 192.168.10.254  修改127.0.0.1为本机ip地址
default_password_crypted: "$1$mF86/UHC$WvcIcX2t6crBz2onWxyac."  修改默认密码,通过openssl password -1生成密码
manage_dhcp: 1 设置为1以启用Cobbler的DHCP管理功能
下载相关文件 
#cobbler  get-loaders
重启服务
#systemctl restart cobblerd
配置dhcp
#vim /etc/cobbler/dhcp.template 
subnet 192.168.10.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
     option routers             192.168.10.2;
     option domain-name-servers 192.168.10.2;
     option subnet-mask         255.255.255.0;
     range dynamic-bootp        192.168.10.100 192.168.10.200;
     default-lease-time         21600;
     max-lease-time             43200;
     next-server                $next_server;
启动dhcp
#systemctl start dhcpd
#systemctl enable dhcpd
同步
#cobbler sync 

导入光盘,创建yum 源

#cobbler import --path=/mnt/centos7 --name=Centos7.6-x86_64 --arch=x86_64
#cobbler profile list
#cobbler distro list

准备ks文件
#vim ks.cfg

#platform=x86, AMD64, or Intel EM64T
#version=DEVEL
#Install OS instead of upgrade
install
 Keyboard layouts
keyboard 'us'
#Root password
rootpw --iscrypted $1$c9qLrVc2$E8ZT3uRc4ut7gBaYSQ44Z.
#Use network installation
url --url=$tree
#System language
lang en_US
#System authorization information
auth  --useshadow  --passalgo=sha512
#Use text mode install
text
firstboot --disable
#SELinux configuration
selinux --disabled

#Firewall configuration
firewall --disabled
#Network information
network  --bootproto=dhcp --device=eth0
#Reboot after installation
reboot
#System timezone
timezone Asia/Shanghai 
#System bootloader configuration
bootloader --append="net.ifnames=0" --location=mbr
#Clear the Master Boot Record
zerombr
#Partition clearing information
clearpart --all --initlabel
#Disk partitioning information
part / --fstype="xfs" --size=102400
part /boot --fstype="xfs" --size=2048
part swap --fstype="swap" --size=4096

%packages
@^minimal
autofs
%end
#cp ks7.cfg /var/lib/cobbler/kickstarts/
#vim /var/lib/cobbler/kickstarts/ks7_mini.cfg
#url --url=$tree
#cobbler profile edit --name Centos7.6-x86_64 --distro=Centos7.6-x86_64 --kickstart=/var/lib/cobbler/kickstarts/ks7_.cfg

测试安装
创建一台空白虚拟机,进行测试网路安装
注意:虚拟机的内存不能小于2G,网卡的配置要保证网络互通
启动虚拟机
启动虚拟机即可发现会有cobbler的选择界面
使用cobbler批量安装操作系统

安装web版cobbler
需要使用sohu的yum源,因为要使用低版本的python2-django

[root@CentOS7_1 10:03 /etc/yum.repos.d]#cat epel.repo 
[epel]
name=sohu-epel
baseurl=http://mirrors.sohu.com/fedora-epel/7/x86_64/
enabled=1
gpgcheck=1
#yum install cobbler-web  
#systemctl restart httpd

访问
https://192.168.10.254/cobbler_web
使用cobbler批量安装操作系统
实现web cobbler管理
使用authn_pam模块认证cobbler_web用户

#vim /etc/cobbler/modules.conf
[authentication]
module = authn_pam
创建cobbler用户:useradd cobbler
vim /etc/cobbler/users.conf
[admins]
admin = "cobbler“
Web访问cobbler
重启cobblerd服务
使用authn_configfile模块认证cobbler_web用户
创建其认证文件/etc/cobbler/users.digest,并添加所需的用户
#htdigest -c /etc/cobbler/users.digest Cobbler admin
注意:添加第一个用户时,使用“-c”