Oracle常用命令

第一章:日志管理

  1.forcing log switches

  sql> alter system switch logfile;

  2.forcing checkpoints

  sql> alter system checkpoint;

  3.adding online redo log groups

  sql> alter database add logfile [group 4]

  sql> ('/disk3/log4a.rdo','/disk4/log4b.rdo') size 1m;

  4.adding online redo log members

  sql> alter database add logfile member

  sql> '/disk3/log1b.rdo' to group 1,

  sql> '/disk4/log2b.rdo' to group 2;

  5.changes the name of the online redo logfile

  sql> alter database rename file 'c:/oracle/oradata/oradb/redo01.log'

  sql> to 'c:/oracle/oradata/redo01.log';

  6.drop online redo log groups

  sql> alter database drop logfile group 3;

  7.drop online redo log members

  sql> alter database drop logfile member 'c:/oracle/oradata/redo01.log';

  8.clearing online redo log files

  sql> alter database clear [unarchived] logfile 'c:/oracle/log2a.rdo';

  9.using logminer analyzing redo logfiles

  a. in the init.ora specify utl_file_dir = ' '

  b. sql> execute dbms_logmnr_d.build('oradb.ora','c:\oracle\oradb\log');

  c. sql> execute dbms_logmnr_add_logfile('c:\oracle\oradata\oradb\redo01.log',

  sql> dbms_logmnr.new);

  d. sql> execute dbms_logmnr.add_logfile('c:\oracle\oradata\oradb\redo02.log',

  sql> dbms_logmnr.addfile);

  e. sql> execute dbms_logmnr.start_logmnr(dictfilename=>'c:\oracle\oradb\log\oradb.ora');

  f. sql> select * from v$logmnr_contents(v$logmnr_dictionary,v$logmnr_parameters

  sql> v$logmnr_logs);

  g. sql> execute dbms_logmnr.end_logmnr;

  第二章:表空间管理

  1.create tablespaces

  sql> create tablespace tablespace_name datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\file1.dbf' size 100m,

  sql> 'c:\oracle\oradata\file2.dbf' size 100m minimum extent 550k [logging/nologging]

  sql> default storage (initial 500k next 500k maxextents 500 pctinccease 0)

  sql> [online/offline] [permanent/temporary] [extent_management_clause]

  2.locally managed tablespace

  sql> create tablespace user_data datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\user_data01.dbf'

  sql> size 500m extent management local uniform size 10m;

  3.temporary tablespace

  sql> create temporary tablespace temp tempfile 'c:\oracle\oradata\temp01.dbf'

  sql> size 500m extent management local uniform size 10m;

  4.change the storage setting

  sql> alter tablespace app_data minimum extent 2m;

  sql> alter tablespace app_data default storage(initial 2m next 2m maxextents 999);

  5.taking tablespace offline or online

  sql> alter tablespace app_data offline;

  sql> alter tablespace app_data online;

  6.read_only tablespace

  sql> alter tablespace app_data read only|write;

  7.droping tablespace

  sql> drop tablespace app_data including contents;

  8.enableing automatic extension of data files

  sql> alter tablespace app_data add datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\app_data01.dbf' size 200m

  sql> autoextend on next 10m maxsize 500m;

  9.change the size fo data files manually

  sql> alter database datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\app_data.dbf' resize 200m;

  10.Moving data files: alter tablespace

  sql> alter tablespace app_data rename datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\app_data.dbf'

  sql> to 'c:\oracle\app_data.dbf';

  11.moving data files:alter database

  sql> alter database rename file 'c:\oracle\oradata\app_data.dbf'

  sql> to 'c:\oracle\app_data.dbf';

  第三章:表

  1.create a table

  sql> create table table_name (column datatype,column datatype]....)

  sql> tablespace tablespace_name [pctfree integer] [pctused integer]

  sql> [initrans integer] [maxtrans integer]

  sql> storage(initial 200k next 200k pctincrease 0 maxextents 50)

  sql> [logging|nologging] [cache|nocache]

  2.copy an existing table

  sql> create table table_name [logging|nologging] as subquery

  3.create temporary table

  sql> create global temporary table xay_temp as select * from xay;

  on commit preserve rows/on commit delete rows

  4.pctfree = (average row size - initial row size) *100 /average row size

  pctused = 100-pctfree- (average row size*100/available data space)

  5.change storage and block utilization parameter

  sql> alter table table_name pctfree=30 pctused=50 storage(next 500k

  sql> minextents 2 maxextents 100);

  6.manually allocating extents

  sql> alter table table_name allocate extent(size 500k datafile 'c:/oracle/data.dbf');

  7.move tablespace

  sql> alter table employee move tablespace users;

  8.deallocate of unused space

  sql> alter table table_name deallocate unused [keep integer]

  9.truncate a table

  sql> truncate table table_name;

  10.drop a table

  sql> drop table table_name [cascade constraints];

  11.drop a column

  sql> alter table table_name drop column comments cascade constraints checkpoint 1000;

  alter table table_name drop columns continue;

  12.mark a column as unused

  sql> alter table table_name set unused column comments cascade constraints;

  alter table table_name drop unused columns checkpoint 1000;

  alter table orders drop columns continue checkpoint 1000

  data_dictionary : dba_unused_col_tabs

  第四章:索引

  1.creating -based indexes

  sql> create index summit.item_quantity on summit.item(quantity-quantity_shipped);

  2.create a B-tree index

  sql> create [unique] index index_name on table_name(column,.. asc/desc) tablespace

  sql> tablespace_name [pctfree integer] [initrans integer] [maxtrans integer]

  sql> [logging | nologging] [nosort] storage(initial 200k next 200k pctincrease 0

  sql> maxextents 50);

  3.pctfree(index)=(maximum number of rows-initial number of rows)*100/maximum number of rows

  4.creating reverse key indexes

  sql> create unique index xay_id on xay(a) reverse pctfree 30 storage(initial 200k

  sql> next 200k pctincrease 0 maxextents 50) tablespace indx;

  5.create bitmap index

  sql> create bitmap index xay_id on xay(a) pctfree 30 storage( initial 200k next 200k

  sql> pctincrease 0 maxextents 50) tablespace indx;

  6.change storage parameter of index

  sql> alter index xay_id storage (next 400k maxextents 100);

  7.allocating index space

  sql> alter index xay_id allocate extent(size 200k datafile 'c:/oracle/index.dbf');

  8.alter index xay_id deallocate unused;

  第五章:约束

  1.define constraints as immediate or deferred

  sql> alter session set constraint[s] = immediate/deferred/default;

  set constraint[s] constraint_name/all immediate/deferred;

  2. sql> drop table table_name cascade constraints

  sql> drop tablespace tablespace_name including contents cascade constraints

  3. define constraints while create a table

  sql> create table xay(id number(7) constraint xay_id primary key deferrable

  sql> using index storage(initial 100k next 100k) tablespace indx);

  primary key/unique/references table(column)/check

  4.enable constraints

  sql> alter table xay enable novalidate constraint xay_id;

  5.enable constraints

  sql> alter table xay enable validate constraint xay_id;

  第六章:LOAD数据

  1.loading data using direct_load insert

  sql> insert /*+append */ into emp nologging

  sql> select * from emp_old;

  2.parallel direct-load insert

  sql> alter session enable parallel dml;

  sql> insert /*+parallel(emp,2) */ into emp nologging

  sql> select * from emp_old;

  3.using sql*loader

  sql> sqlldr scott/tiger \

  sql> control = ulcase6.ctl \

  sql> log = ulcase6.log direct=true

  第七章:数据整理

  1.using expoty

  $exp scott/tiger tables(dept,emp) file=c:\emp.dmp log=exp.log compress=n direct=y

  2.using import

  $imp scott/tiger tables(dept,emp) file=emp.dmp log=imp.log ignore=y

  3.transporting a tablespace

  sql>alter tablespace sales_ts read only;

  $exp sys/.. file=xay.dmp transport_tablespace=y tablespace=sales_ts

  triggers=n constraints=n

  $copy datafile

  $imp sys/.. file=xay.dmp transport_tablespace=y datafiles=(/disk1/sles01.dbf,/disk2

  /sles02.dbf)

  sql> alter tablespace sales_ts read write;

  4.checking transport set

  sql> DBMS_tts.transport_set_check(ts_list =>'sales_ts' ..,incl_constraints=>true);

  在表transport_set_violations 中查看

  sql> dbms_tts.isselfcontained 为true 是, 表示自包含

一、ORACLE的启动和关闭
1、在单机环境下
要想启动或关闭ORACLE系统必须首先切换到ORACLE用户,如下
su - oracle

a、启动ORACLE系统
oracle>svrmgrl
SVRMGR>connect internal
SVRMGR>startup
SVRMGR>quit

b、关闭ORACLE系统
oracle>svrmgrl
SVRMGR>connect internal
SVRMGR>shutdown
SVRMGR>quit

启动oracle9i数据库命令:
$ sqlplus /nolog

SQL*Plus: Release 9.2.0.1.0 - Production on Fri Oct 31 13:53:53 2003

Copyright (c) 1982, 2002, Oracle Corporation.  All rights reserved.

SQL> connect / as sysdba  
Connected to an idle instance.
SQL> startup^C

SQL> startup
ORACLE instance started.


2、在双机环境下
要想启动或关闭ORACLE系统必须首先切换到root用户,如下
su - root

a、启动ORACLE系统
hareg -y oracle

b、关闭ORACLE系统
hareg -n oracle

Oracle数据库有哪几种启动方式


说明:

有以下几种启动方式:
1、startup nomount
非安装启动,这种方式启动下可执行:重建控制文件、重建数据库

读取init.ora文件,启动instance,即启动SGA和后台进程,这种启动只需要init.ora文件。


2、startup mount dbname
安装启动,这种方式启动下可执行:
数据库日志归档、
数据库介质恢复、
使数据文件联机或脱机,
重新定位数据文件、重做日志文件。

执行“nomount”,然后打开控制文件,确认数据文件和联机日志文件的位置,
但此时不对数据文件和日志文件进行校验检查。


3、startup open dbname
先执行“nomount”,然后执行“mount”,再打开包括Redo log文件在内的所有数据库文件,
这种方式下可访问数据库中的数据。


4、startup,等于以下三个命令
startup nomount
alter database mount
alter database open


5、startup restrict
约束方式启动
这种方式能够启动数据库,但只允许具有一定特权的用户访问
非特权用户访问时,会出现以下提示:
ERROR:
ORA-01035: ORACLE 只允许具有 RESTRICTED SESSION 权限的用户使用


6、startup force
强制启动方式
当不能关闭数据库时,可以用startup force来完成数据库的关闭
先关闭数据库,再执行正常启动数据库命令


7、startup pfile=参数文件名
带初始化参数文件的启动方式
先读取参数文件,再按参数文件中的设置启动数据库
例:startup pfile=E:Oracleadminoradbpfileinit.ora


8、startup EXCLUSIVE