ubuntu各版本阿里云iso镜像下载地址

ubuntu 14.04:
http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu-releases/14.04/
ubuntu 16.04:
http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu-releases/16.04/
ubuntu 18.04:
http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu-releases/18.04/

1.配置网卡ip

1)配置网卡eth0,本地内网网卡无需指定网关和域名服务器

root@ubuntu1804:~# vim /etc/netplan/01-netcfg.yaml
network:
    version: 2
    renderer: networkd
    ethernets:
        eth0:
            dhcp4: no
            addresses: [192.168.1.30/24]

2)配置网卡eth1,要保持严格缩进,否则会导致网卡起不来

root@ubuntu1804:~# vim /etc/netplan/02-netcfg.yaml 
network:
    version: 2
    renderer: networkd
    ethernets:
        eth1:
            dhcp4: yes
            addresses: [192.168.10.107/24]
            gateway4: 192.168.10.1
            nameservers:
                addresses: [223.6.6.6]

2.修改网卡名为eth*

1)编辑grub文件

root@ubuntu1804:~#vim /etc/default/grub
    ……
    GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX="net.ifnames=0 biosdevname=0"
    ……

2)加载更新grub文件

root@ubuntu1804:~#update-grub

3)重启机器实现网卡名更改

root@ubuntu1804:~#reboot

4)启动机器实现网卡名的修改

ubuntu-18.04的环境初始化安装
若要再次修改网卡ip,修改完后需重启网络
root@ubuntu1804:~#netplan apply #重启网卡命令

3.配置为国内阿里云仓库源

1)配置ubuntu仓库源

    root@ubuntu1804:~# vim /etc/apt/sources.list
    deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic main restricted universe multiverse
    deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic main restricted universe multiverse

    deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-security main restricted universe multiverse
    deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-security main restricted universe multiverse

    deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-updates main restricted universe multiverse
    deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-updates main restricted universe multiverse

    deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
    deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-proposed main restricted universe multiverse

    deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-backports main restricted universe multiverse
    deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-backports main restricted universe multiverse

2)更新仓库

    root@ubuntu1804:~# apt update
    Get:1 http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu bionic InRelease [242 kB]
    Get:2 http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu bionic-security InRelease [88.7 kB]                                  
    Get:3 http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu bionic-updates InRelease [88.7 kB]                                   
    Get:4 http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu bionic-proposed InRelease [242 kB] 
    ……

3)升级本机所有已安装的软件包

    root@ubuntu1804:~# apt upgrade

4.安装初始化常用的软件包

1)在ubuntu18.04中常用的初始化安装包

root@ubuntu1804:~# apt-get install iproute2  ntpdate  tcpdump telnet traceroute nfs-kernel-server nfs-common  lrzsz tree  openssl libssl-dev libpcre3 libpcre3-dev zlib1g-dev gcc openssh-server iotop unzip zip ipmitool -y   

2)在centos7的初始化最小化安装常用软件包

[root@centos7 ~]# yum install  vim iotop bc gcc gcc-c++ glibc glibc-devel pcre pcre-devel openssl  openssl-devel zip unzip zlib-devel  net-tools lrzsz tree ntpdate telnet lsof tcpdump wget libevent libevent-devel bc  systemd-devel bash-completion traceroute -y

5.开启远程连接并允许root账户直接登录

1)编辑ssh远程服务配置文件,注释掉禁止root秘钥登录

root@ubuntu1804:~# vim /etc/ssh/sshd_config

ubuntu-18.04的环境初始化安装

2)再重新启动sshd服务,即可实现直接以root身份登录虚拟机或root远程登录

root@ubuntu1804:~# systemctl restart sshd