1. 如果在已经处于 ESTABLISHED状态下的socket(一般由端口号和标志符区分)调用
closesocket(一般不会立即关闭而经历TIME_WAIT的过程)后想继续重用该socket:
BOOL bReuseaddr=TRUE;
setsockopt(s,SOL_SOCKET ,SO_REUSEADDR,(const char*)&bReuseaddr,sizeof(BOOL));

2. 如果要已经处于连接状态的soket在调用closesocket后强制关闭,不经历
TIME_WAIT的过程:
BOOL bDontLinger = FALSE;
setsockopt(s,SOL_SOCKET,SO_DONTLINGER,(const char*)&bDontLinger,sizeof(BOOL));

3.在send(),recv()过程中有时由于网络状况等原因,发收不能预期进行,而设置收发时限:
int nNetTimeout=1000;//1秒
//发送时限
setsockopt(socket,SOL_S0CKET,SO_SNDTIMEO,(char *)&nNetTimeout,sizeof(int));
//接收时限
setsockopt(socket,SOL_S0CKET,SO_RCVTIMEO,(char *)&nNetTimeout,sizeof(int));

4.在send()的时候,返回的是实际发送出去的字节(同步)或发送到socket缓冲区的字节
(异步);系统默认的状态发送和接收一次为8688字节(约为8.5K);在实际的过程中发送数据
和接收数据量比较大,可以设置socket缓冲区,而避免了send(),recv()不断的循环收发:
// 接收缓冲区
int nRecvBuf=32*1024;//设置为32K
setsockopt(s,SOL_SOCKET,SO_RCVBUF,(const char*)&nRecvBuf,sizeof(int));
//发送缓冲区
int nSendBuf=32*1024;//设置为32K
setsockopt(s,SOL_SOCKET,SO_SNDBUF,(const char*)&nSendBuf,sizeof(int));

5. 如果在发送数据的时,希望不经历由系统缓冲区到socket缓冲区的拷贝而影响
程序的性能:
int nZero=0;
setsockopt(socket,SOL_S0CKET,SO_SNDBUF,(char *)&nZero,sizeof(nZero));

6.同上在recv()完成上述功能(默认情况是将socket缓冲区的内容拷贝到系统缓冲区):
int nZero=0;
setsockopt(socket,SOL_S0CKET,SO_RCVBUF,(char *)&nZero,sizeof(int));

7.一般在发送UDP数据报的时候,希望该socket发送的数据具有广播特性:
BOOL bBroadcast=TRUE;
setsockopt(s,SOL_SOCKET,SO_BROADCAST,(const char*)&bBroadcast,sizeof(BOOL));

8.在client连接服务器过程中,如果处于非阻塞模式下的socket在connect()的过程中可
以设置connect()延时,直到accpet()被呼叫(本函数设置只有在非阻塞的过程中有显著的
作用,在阻塞的函数调用中作用不大)
BOOL bConditionalAccept=TRUE;
setsockopt(s,SOL_SOCKET,SO_CONDITIONAL_ACCEPT,(const char*)&bConditionalAccept,sizeof(BOOL));

9.如果在发送数据的过程中(send()没有完成,还有数据没发送)而调用了closesocket(),以前我们
一般采取的措施是"从容关闭"shutdown(s,SD_BOTH),但是数据是肯定丢失了,如何设置让程序满足具体
应用的要求(即让没发完的数据发送出去后在关闭socket)?
struct linger {
u_short l_onoff;
u_short l_linger;
};
linger m_sLinger;
m_sLinger.l_onoff=1;//(在closesocket()调用,但是还有数据没发送完毕的时候容许逗留)
// 如果m_sLinger.l_onoff=0;则功能和2.)作用相同;
m_sLinger.l_linger=5;//(容许逗留的时间为5秒)
setsockopt(s,SOL_SOCKET,SO_LINGER,(const char*)&m_sLinger,sizeof(linger));
Note:1.在设置了逗留延时,用于一个非阻塞的socket是作用不大的,最好不用;2.如果想要程序不经历SO_LINGER需要设置SO_DONTLINGER,或者设置l_onoff=0;

10.还一个用的比较少的是在SDI或者是Dialog的程序中,可以记录socket的调试信息:
(前不久做过这个函数的测试,调式信息可以保存,包括socket建立时候的参数,采用的
具体协议,以及出错的代码都可以记录下来)
BOOL bDebug=TRUE;
setsockopt(s,SOL_SOCKET,SO_DEBUG,(const char*)&bDebug,sizeof(BOOL));

11.附加:往往通过setsockopt()设置了缓冲区大小,但还不能满足数据的传输需求,
我的习惯是自己写个处理网络缓冲的类,动态分配内存; 一般的习惯是自己写个处理网络缓冲的类,动态分配内存;下面我将这个类写出,希望对大家有所帮助:  
 
//仿照String    改写而成  
//==============================================================================  
//  二进制数据,主要用于收发网络缓冲区的数据  
//  CNetIOBuffer  以  MFC  类  CString  的源代码作为蓝本改写而成,用法与  CString  类似,  
//  但是  CNetIOBuffer  中存放的是纯粹的二进制数据,'\0'  并不作为它的结束标志。  
//  其数据长度可以通过  GetLength()  获得,缓冲区地址可以通过运算符  LPBYTE  获得。  
 
 
//==============================================================================  
//    Copyright  (c)  All-Vision  Corporation.  All  rights  reserved.  
//    Module:    NetObject  
//    File:        SimpleIOBuffer.h  
//    Author:    gdy119  
//    Email  :    [email]8751webmaster@126.com[/email]              
//    Date:      2004.11.26  
//==============================================================================  
//  NetIOBuffer.h  
#ifndef  _NETIOBUFFER_H  
#define  _NETIOBUFFER_H  
//=============================================================================  
#define    MAX_BUFFER_LENGTH    1024*1024  
//=============================================================================  
//主要用来处理网络缓冲的数据  
class    CNetIOBuffer      
{  
protected:  
           LPBYTE                            m_pbinData;  
           int                                  m_nLength;  
           int                                  m_nTotalLength;  
           CRITICAL_SECTION            m_cs;  
       void    Initvalibers();  
public:  
           CNetIOBuffer();  
           CNetIOBuffer(const  LPBYTE  lbbyte,  int  nLength);  
           CNetIOBuffer(const  CNetIOBuffer&binarySrc);  
           virtual  ~CNetIOBuffer();  
//=============================================================================              
           BOOL            CopyData(const  LPBYTE  lbbyte,  int  nLe  
---------------------------------------------------------------  
 
其实我觉得第5条很应该值得注意  
int  nZero=0;  
setsockopt(socket,SOL_S0CKET,SO_SNDBUF,(char  *)&nZero,sizeof(nZero));  
 
记得以前有些朋友讨论过,socket虽然send成功了,但是其实只是发送到数据缓冲区里面了,而并没有真正的在物理设备上发送出去;而通过这条语句,将发送缓冲区设置为0,即屏蔽掉发送缓冲以后,一旦send返回(当然是就阻塞套结字来说),就可以肯定数据已经在发送的途中了^_^,但是这样做也许会影响系统的性能  
 
---------------------------------------------------------------  
 
setoptsock()这个函数  设置成端口复用的时候,很容易对一些没有进行单独bind模式的程序造成危害。  
比如old的  ping  icmp  door,简单的sniffer后,收到包,然后设置setoptsock  bind  web服务,然后建立个cmd进程  bind再80端口。
 
======================================
Example Code


The following example demonstrates the setsockopt function.



#include <stdio.h>
#include "winsock2.h"

void main() {

//---------------------------------------
// Declare variables
WSADATA wsaData;
SOCKET ListenSocket;
sockaddr_in service;

//---------------------------------------
// Initialize Winsock
int iResult = WSAStartup( MAKEWORD(2,2), &wsaData );
if( iResult != NO_ERROR )
printf("Error at WSAStartup\n");

//---------------------------------------
// Create a listening socket
ListenSocket = socket( AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, IPPROTO_TCP );
if (ListenSocket == INVALID_SOCKET) {
printf("Error at socket()\n");
WSACleanup();
return;
}

//---------------------------------------
// Bind the socket to the local IP address
// and port 27015
hostent* thisHost;
char* ip;
u_short port;
port = 27015;
thisHost = gethostbyname("");
ip = inet_ntoa (*(struct in_addr *)*thisHost->h_addr_list);

service.sin_family = AF_INET;
service.sin_addr.s_addr = inet_addr(ip);
service.sin_port = htons(port);

if ( bind( ListenSocket,(SOCKADDR*) &service, sizeof(service) ) == SOCKET_ERROR ) {
printf("bind failed\n");
closesocket(ListenSocket);
return;
}

//---------------------------------------
// Initialize variables and call setsockopt.
// The SO_KEEPALIVE parameter is a socket option
// that makes the socket send keepalive messages
// on the session. The SO_KEEPALIVE socket option
// requires a boolean value to be passed to the
// setsockopt function. If TRUE, the socket is
// configured to send keepalive messages, if FALSE
// the socket configured to NOT send keepalive messages.
// This section of code tests the setsockopt function
// by checking the status of SO_KEEPALIVE on the socket
// using the getsockopt function.
BOOL bOptVal = TRUE;
int bOptLen = sizeof(BOOL);
int iOptVal;
int iOptLen = sizeof(int);

if (getsockopt(ListenSocket, SOL_SOCKET, SO_KEEPALIVE, (char*)&iOptVal, &iOptLen) != SOCKET_ERROR) {
printf("SO_KEEPALIVE Value: %ld\n", iOptVal);
}

if (setsockopt(ListenSocket, SOL_SOCKET, SO_KEEPALIVE, (char*)&bOptVal, bOptLen) != SOCKET_ERROR) {
printf("Set SO_KEEPALIVE: ON\n");
}

if (getsockopt(ListenSocket, SOL_SOCKET, SO_KEEPALIVE, (char*)&iOptVal, &iOptLen) != SOCKET_ERROR) {
printf("SO_KEEPALIVE Value: %ld\n", iOptVal);
}

WSACleanup();
return;

}




Notes for IrDA Sockets

Keep in mind the following:


The Af_irda.h header file must be explicitly included.
IrDA provides the following settable socket option:
Value Type Meaning
IRLMP_IAS_SET *IAS_SET Sets IAS attributes


The IRLMP_IAS_SET socket option enables the application to set a single attribute of a single class in the local IAS. The application specifies the class to set, the attribute, and attribute type. The application is expected to allocate a buffer of the necessary size for the passed parameters.

IrDA provides an IAS Database that stores IrDA-based information. Limited access to the IAS Database is available through the windows Sockets 2 interface, but such access is not normally used by applications, and exists primarily to support connections to non-windows devices that are not compliant with the windows Sockets 2 IrDA conventions.

The following structure, IAS_SET, is used with the IRLMP_IAS_SET setsockopt option to manage the local IAS Database:


typedef struct _IAS_SET {
char irdaClassName[IAS_MAX_CLASSNAME];
char irdaAttribName[IAS_MAX_ATTRIBNAME];
u_long irdaAttribType;
union
{
LONG irdaAttribInt;
struct
{
u_short Len;
u_char OctetSeq[IAS_MAX_OCTET_STRING];
} irdaAttribOctetSeq;
struct
{
u_char Len;
u_char CharSet;
u_char UsrStr[IAS_MAX_USER_STRING];
} irdaAttribUsrStr;
} irdaAttribute;
} IAS_SET, *PIAS_SET, FAR *LPIAS_SET;

The following structure, IAS_QUERY, is used with the IRLMP_IAS_QUERY setsockopt option to query a peer's IAS Database:


typedef struct _windows_IAS_QUERY {
u_char irdaDeviceID[4];
char irdaClassName[IAS_MAX_CLASSNAME];
char irdaAttribName[IAS_MAX_ATTRIBNAME];
u_long irdaAttribType;
union
{
LONG irdaAttribInt;
struct
{
u_long Len;
u_char OctetSeq[IAS_MAX_OCTET_STRING];
} irdaAttribOctetSeq;
struct
{
u_long Len;
u_long CharSet;
u_char UsrStr[IAS_MAX_USER_STRING];
} irdaAttribUsrStr;
} irdaAttribute;
} IAS_QUERY, *PIAS_QUERY, FAR *LPIAS_QUERY;

Many SO_ level socket options are not meaningful to IrDA. Only SO_LINGER is specifically supported.

Note setsockopt must be called before bind on windows NT 4.0, windows 95, and windows 98 platforms.


Requirements
Client Requires windows XP, windows 2000 Professional, windows NT Workstation, windows Me, windows 98, or windows 95.
Server Requires windows Server 2003, windows 2000 Server, or windows NT Server.
Header Declared in Winsock2.h.

Library Link to Ws2_32.lib.

DLL Requires Ws2_32.dll. 


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