K8S从1.8版本开始,CPU、内存等资源的metrics信息可以通过 Metrics API来获取,用户可以直接获取这些metrics信息(例如通过执行kubect top命令),HPA使用这些metics信息来实现动态伸缩。本文介绍K8S集群基于metric server的HPA。在开始之前我们需要了解一下Metrics API和Metrics Server。

Metrics API:
1、通过Metrics API我们可以获取到指定node或者pod的当前资源使用情况,API本身不存储任何信息,所以我们不可能通过API来获取资源的历史使用情况。
2、Metrics API的获取路径位于:/apis/metrics.k8s.io/ 
3、获取Metrics API的前提条件是metrics server要在K8S集群中成功部署
4、更多的metrics资料请参考:https://github.com/kubernetes/metrics

Metrics server:
1、Metrics server是K8S集群资源使用情况的聚合器
2、从1.8版本开始,Metrics server默认可以通过kube-up.sh 脚本以deployment的方式进行部署,也可以通过yaml文件的方式进行部署
3、Metrics server收集所有node节点的metrics信息

一、环境准备

为了避免环境干扰,我们需要删除前文部署好的heapster

# cd yaml/heapster-influxdb/
# kubectl delete -f .

K8S集群基于metrics server的HPA测试

二、生成证书文件

这些证书文件主要用在Metrics API aggregator 上

# cat front-proxy-ca-csr.json 
{
    "CN": "kubernetes",
    "key": {
        "algo": "rsa",
        "size": 2048
    }
}
# cat front-proxy-client-csr.json 
{
    "CN": "front-proxy-client",
    "key": {
        "algo": "rsa",
        "size": 2048
    }
}
# cfssl gencert   -initca front-proxy-ca-csr.json | cfssljson -bare front-proxy-ca
# cfssl gencert   -ca=front-proxy-ca.pem  \
  -ca-key=front-proxy-ca-key.pem \
-config=/etc/kubernetes/ca-config.json   \
-profile=kubernetes   \
front-proxy-client-csr.json | cfssljson -bare front-proxy-client

# mv front-proxy* /etc/ssl/kubernetes
# scp -rp /etc/ssl/kubernetes vm2:/etc/ssl/kubernetes
# scp -rp /etc/ssl/kubernetes vm3:/etc/ssl/kubernetes

三、修改Master配置文件

1、kube-apiserver

# cat /usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-apiserver.service 
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes API Server
Documentation=https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/kubernetes
After=network.target

[Service]
ExecStart=/usr/local/sbin/kube-apiserver \
  --admission-control=NamespaceLifecycle,LimitRanger,ServiceAccount,DefaultStorageClass,ResourceQuota \
  --advertise-address=192.168.115.5 \
  --bind-address=192.168.115.5 \
  --insecure-bind-address=127.0.0.1 \
  --authorization-mode=Node,RBAC \
  --runtime-config=rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1alpha1 \
  --kubelet-https=true \
  --enable-bootstrap-token-auth=true \
  --token-auth-file=/etc/kubernetes/token.csv \
  --service-cluster-ip-range=10.254.0.0/16 \
  --service-node-port-range=8400-9000 \
  --tls-cert-file=/etc/ssl/kubernetes/kubernetes.pem \
  --tls-private-key-file=/etc/ssl/kubernetes/kubernetes-key.pem \
  --client-ca-file=/etc/ssl/etcd/ca.pem \
  --service-account-key-file=/etc/ssl/etcd/ca-key.pem \
  --etcd-cafile=/etc/ssl/etcd/ca.pem \
  --etcd-certfile=/etc/ssl/kubernetes/kubernetes.pem \
  --etcd-keyfile=/etc/ssl/kubernetes/kubernetes-key.pem \
  --etcd-servers=https://192.168.115.5:2379,https://192.168.115.6:2379,https://192.168.115.7:2379 \
  --enable-swagger-ui=true \
  --allow-privileged=true \
  --apiserver-count=3 \
  --audit-log-maxage=30 \
  --audit-log-maxbackup=3 \
  --audit-log-maxsize=100 \
  --audit-log-path=/var/lib/audit.log \
  --event-ttl=1h \
  --requestheader-client-ca-file=/etc/ssl/kubernetes/front-proxy-ca.pem \
  --requestheader-allowed-names=aggregator \
  --requestheader-extra-headers-prefix=X-Remote-Extra- \
  --requestheader-group-headers=X-Remote-Group \
  --requestheader-username-headers=X-Remote-User \
  --proxy-client-cert-file=/etc/ssl/kubernetes/front-proxy-client.pem \
  --proxy-client-key-file=/etc/ssl/kubernetes/front-proxy-client-key.pem \
  --runtime-config=api/all=true \
  --enable-aggregator-routing=true \
  --v=2
Restart=on-failure
RestartSec=5
Type=notify
LimitNOFILE=65536

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

2、kube-control-manager

# cat /usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-controller-manager.service 
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Controller Manager
Documentation=https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/kubernetes

[Service]
ExecStart=/usr/local/sbin/kube-controller-manager \
  --address=127.0.0.1 \
  --master=http://127.0.0.1:8080 \
  --allocate-node-cidrs=true \
  --service-cluster-ip-range=10.254.0.0/16 \
  --cluster-cidr=172.30.0.0/16 \
  --cluster-name=kubernetes \
  --cluster-signing-cert-file=/etc/ssl/etcd/ca.pem \
  --cluster-signing-key-file=/etc/ssl/etcd/ca-key.pem \
  --service-account-private-key-file=/etc/ssl/etcd/ca-key.pem \
  --root-ca-file=/etc/ssl/etcd/ca.pem \
  --leader-elect=true \
  --v=2 \
  --horizontal-pod-autoscaler-use-rest-clients=true
Restart=on-failure
RestartSec=5

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

3、重启服务

# systemctl daemon-reload
# systemctl  restart kube-apiserver.service
# systemctl  restart kube-controller-manager

四、部署metrics-server

1、科学上网方式下载docker镜像,并纳入本地仓库统一管理

# docker pull gcr.io/google_containers/metrics-server-amd64:v0.2.1 
# docker tag gcr.io/google_containers/metrics-server-amd64:v0.2.1  \
registry.59iedu.com/google_containers/metrics-server-amd64:v0.2.1
# docker push registry.59iedu.com/google_containers/metrics-server-amd64:v0.2.1

2、获取yaml文件并修改

# git clone https://github.com/stefanprodan/k8s-prom-hpa
# cd k8s-prom-hpa/
# cat metrics-server/metrics-server-deployment.yaml 
apiVersion: v1
kind: ServiceAccount
metadata:
  name: metrics-server
  namespace: kube-system
---
apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: metrics-server
  namespace: kube-system
  labels:
    k8s-app: metrics-server
spec:
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      k8s-app: metrics-server
  template:
    metadata:
      name: metrics-server
      labels:
        k8s-app: metrics-server
    spec:
      serviceAccountName: metrics-server
      containers:
      - name: metrics-server
        image: registry.59iedu.com/google_containers/metrics-server-amd64:v0.2.1
        imagePullPolicy: Always
        volumeMounts:
        - mountPath: /etc/ssl/kubernetes/
          name: ca-ssl
        command:
        - /metrics-server
        - --source=kubernetes.summary_api:''
        - --requestheader-client-ca-file=/etc/ssl/kubernetes/front-proxy-ca.pem
      volumes:
       - name: ca-ssl
         hostPath:
          path: /etc/ssl/kubernetes
# cat metrics-server/metrics-server-service.yaml 
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: metrics-server
  namespace: kube-system
  labels:
    kubernetes.io/name: "Metrics-server"
spec:
  selector:
    k8s-app: metrics-server
  ports:
  - port: 443
    protocol: TCP
    targetPort: 443
    nodePort: 8499
  type: NodePort

3、通过yaml文件创建对应的资源

# kubectl create -f ./metrics-server
# kubectl get pod,svc -n kube-system

K8S集群基于metrics server的HPA测试
4、获取v1beta1.metrics.k8s.io并验证

# kubectl get apiservice

K8S集群基于metrics server的HPA测试

# kubectl get apiservice v1beta1.metrics.k8s.io -o yaml 

K8S集群基于metrics server的HPA测试
5、通过kubectl工具测试获取metrics数据

# wget http://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/epel-release-latest-7.noarch.rpm
# rpm -ivh epel-release-latest-7.noarch.rpm  
# yum -y install jq
# kubectl get --raw "/apis/metrics.k8s.io/v1beta1/nodes" | jq

K8S集群基于metrics server的HPA测试
6、查看apiserver的日志信息

# journalctl  -u kube-apiserver -f |grep metrics

K8S集群基于metrics server的HPA测试
五、创建HPA与测试
1、通过yaml文件创建hpa
设置tomcat-shopxx deployment的最大最小副本数,HPA对应的pod CPU和内存指标

# kubectl get hpa
# kubectl get pod,svc 
# cd yaml/tomcat/
# cat hpa.yaml 
apiVersion: autoscaling/v2beta1
kind: HorizontalPodAutoscaler
metadata:
  name: tomcat-shopxx-hpa
spec:
  scaleTargetRef:
    apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
    kind: Deployment
    name: tomcat-shopxx
  minReplicas: 1
  maxReplicas: 3
  metrics:
  - type: Resource
    resource:
      name: cpu
      targetAverageUtilization: 80
  - type: Resource
    resource:
      name: memory
      targetAverageValue: 200Mi

# kubectl create -f hpa.yaml

K8S集群基于metrics server的HPA测试
2、获取HPA信息

# kubectl get hpa
# kubectl describe hpa tomcat-shopxx-hpa 

K8S集群基于metrics server的HPA测试
3、观察HPA自动扩展过程中的kube-controller-manager的日志

# journalctl  -u kube-controller-manager -f

K8S集群基于metrics server的HPA测试

# kubectl get hpa
# kubectl get pod,deployment 

K8S集群基于metrics server的HPA测试
下文将介绍基于prometheus实现自定义metrics的hpa,尽情关注!
参考:
https://github.com/kubernetes-incubator/metrics-server
https://kubernetes.io/docs/tasks/debug-application-cluster/core-metrics-pipeline/
https://www.cnblogs.com/fengjian2016/p/8819657.html