本文介绍gpdb的master故障及恢复测试以及segment故障恢复测试。

环境介绍:
Gpdb版本:5.5.0 二进制版本
操作系统版本: centos linux 7.0
Master segment: 192.168.1.225/24 hostname: mfsmaster
Stadnby segemnt: 192.168.1.227/24 hostname: server227
Segment 节点1: 192.168.1.227/24 hostname: server227
Segment 节点2: 192.168.1.17/24 hostname: server17
Segment 节点3: 192.168.1.11/24 hostname: server11
每个segment节点上分别运行一个primary segment和一个mirror segment

一、查看原始状态

select * from gp_segment_configuration;

GreenPlum数据库故障恢复测试

$ gpstate -f
20180320:13:50:38:021814 gpstate:mfsmaster:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Starting gpstate with args: -f
20180320:13:50:38:021814 gpstate:mfsmaster:gpadmin-[INFO]:-local Greenplum Version: 'postgres (Greenplum Database) 5.5.0 build commit:67afa18296aa238d53a2dfcc724da60ed2f944f0'
20180320:13:50:38:021814 gpstate:mfsmaster:gpadmin-[INFO]:-master Greenplum Version: 'PostgreSQL 8.3.23 (Greenplum Database 5.5.0 build commit:67afa18296aa238d53a2dfcc724da60ed2f944f0) on x86_64-pc-linux-gnu, compiled by GCC gcc (GCC) 6.2.0, 64-bit compiled on Feb 17 2018 15:23:55'
20180320:13:50:38:021814 gpstate:mfsmaster:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Obtaining Segment details from master...
20180320:13:50:38:021814 gpstate:mfsmaster:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Standby master details
20180320:13:50:38:021814 gpstate:mfsmaster:gpadmin-[INFO]:-----------------------
20180320:13:50:38:021814 gpstate:mfsmaster:gpadmin-[INFO]:-   Standby address          = server227
20180320:13:50:38:021814 gpstate:mfsmaster:gpadmin-[INFO]:-   Standby data directory   = /home/gpadmin/master/gpseg-1
20180320:13:50:38:021814 gpstate:mfsmaster:gpadmin-[INFO]:-   Standby port             = 5432
20180320:13:50:38:021814 gpstate:mfsmaster:gpadmin-[INFO]:-   Standby PID              = 22279
20180320:13:50:38:021814 gpstate:mfsmaster:gpadmin-[INFO]:-   Standby status           = Standby host passive
20180320:13:50:38:021814 gpstate:mfsmaster:gpadmin-[INFO]:--------------------------------------------------------------
20180320:13:50:38:021814 gpstate:mfsmaster:gpadmin-[INFO]:--pg_stat_replication
20180320:13:50:38:021814 gpstate:mfsmaster:gpadmin-[INFO]:--------------------------------------------------------------
20180320:13:50:38:021814 gpstate:mfsmaster:gpadmin-[INFO]:--WAL Sender State: streaming
20180320:13:50:38:021814 gpstate:mfsmaster:gpadmin-[INFO]:--Sync state: sync
20180320:13:50:38:021814 gpstate:mfsmaster:gpadmin-[INFO]:--Sent Location: 0/CF2C470
20180320:13:50:38:021814 gpstate:mfsmaster:gpadmin-[INFO]:--Flush Location: 0/CF2C470
20180320:13:50:38:021814 gpstate:mfsmaster:gpadmin-[INFO]:--Replay Location: 0/CF2C470
20180320:13:50:38:021814 gpstate:mfsmaster:gpadmin-[INFO]:--------------------------------------------------------------

二、master主从切换
1、模拟当前主库宕机,这里直接采用killall gpadmin用户下的所有进程来模拟
GreenPlum数据库故障恢复测试
2、在master standby节点(227服务器上)进行执行切换命令,提升227为master

$ gpactivatestandby -d master/gpseg-1/
20180320:13:53:20:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:------------------------------------------------------
20180320:13:53:20:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Standby data directory    = /home/gpadmin/master/gpseg-1
20180320:13:53:20:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Standby port              = 5432
20180320:13:53:20:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Standby running           = yes
20180320:13:53:20:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Force standby activation  = no
20180320:13:53:20:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:------------------------------------------------------
Do you want to continue with standby master activation? Yy|Nn (default=N):
> y
20180320:13:53:26:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:-found standby postmaster process
20180320:13:53:26:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Updating transaction files filespace flat files...
20180320:13:53:26:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Updating temporary files filespace flat files...
20180320:13:53:26:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Promoting standby...
20180320:13:53:26:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[DEBUG]:-Waiting for connection...
20180320:13:53:27:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Standby master is promoted
20180320:13:53:27:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Reading current configuration...
20180320:13:53:27:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[DEBUG]:-Connecting to dbname='postgres'
20180320:13:53:27:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Writing the gp_dbid file - /home/gpadmin/master/gpseg-1/gp_dbid...
20180320:13:53:27:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:-But found an already existing file.
20180320:13:53:27:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Hence removed that existing file.
20180320:13:53:27:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Creating a new file...
20180320:13:53:27:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Wrote dbid: 1 to the file.
20180320:13:53:27:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Now marking it as read only...
20180320:13:53:27:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Verifying the file...
20180320:13:53:27:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:------------------------------------------------------
20180320:13:53:27:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:-The activation of the standby master has completed successfully.
20180320:13:53:27:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:-server227 is now the new primary master.
20180320:13:53:27:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:-You will need to update your user access mechanism to reflect
20180320:13:53:27:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:-the change of master hostname.
20180320:13:53:27:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Do not re-start the failed master while the fail-over master is
20180320:13:53:27:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:-operational, this could result in database corruption!
20180320:13:53:27:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:-MASTER_DATA_DIRECTORY is now /home/gpadmin/master/gpseg-1 if
20180320:13:53:27:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:-this has changed as a result of the standby master activation, remember
20180320:13:53:27:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:-to change this in any startup scripts etc, that may be configured
20180320:13:53:27:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:-to set this value.
20180320:13:53:27:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:-MASTER_PORT is now 5432, if this has changed, you
20180320:13:53:27:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:-may need to make additional configuration changes to allow access
20180320:13:53:27:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:-to the Greenplum instance.
20180320:13:53:27:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Refer to the Administrator Guide for instructions on how to re-activate
20180320:13:53:27:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:-the master to its previous state once it becomes available.
20180320:13:53:27:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:-Query planner statistics must be updated on all databases
20180320:13:53:27:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:-following standby master activation.
20180320:13:53:27:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:-When convenient, run ANALYZE against all user databases.
20180320:13:53:27:030558 gpactivatestandby:server227:gpadmin-[INFO]:------------------------------------------------------

3、测试提升后的主库是否正常

$ psql -d postgres -c 'ANALYZE'
postgres=# select * from gp_segment_configuration;

GreenPlum数据库故障恢复测试
4、这里可能需要同步配置一下pg_hba.conf文件,才能通过客户端进行远程连接
GreenPlum数据库故障恢复测试
到这里我们已经完成了master节点的故障切换工作。

三、添加新的master standby
1、 在225服务器上执行gpstart -a命令启动gpdb数据库的时候报错”error: Standby active, this node no more can act as master”。当standby 提升为master的时候,原master服务器从故障中恢复过来,需要以standby的角色加入
GreenPlum数据库故障恢复测试
2、在原master服务器225上的数据进行备份

$ cd master/
$ ls
gpseg-1
$ mv gpseg-1/ backup-gpseg-1

3、在当前master服务器227上进行 gpinitstandby添加225为standby

$ gpinitstandby -s mfsmaster
$ gpstate -f

GreenPlum数据库故障恢复测试
四、primary segment和mirror segment切换
1、首先我们来捋一下当前的数据库环境
Master segment: 192.168.1.227/24 hostname: server227
Stadnby segemnt: 192.168.1.225/24 hostname: mfsmaster
Segment 节点1: 192.168.1.227/24 hostname: server227
Segment 节点2: 192.168.1.17/24 hostname: server17
Segment 节点3: 192.168.1.11/24 hostname: server11
每个segment节点上分别运行一个primary segment和一个mirror segment

2、接着我们采用同样的方式把227服务器上gpadmin用户的所有进行杀掉

$ killall -u gpadmin

3、在225服务器上执行切换master命令

$ gpactivatestandby -d master/gpseg-1/

4、完成切换后使用客户端工具连接查看segment状态,可以看到227服务器上的server227
的primary和mirror节点都已经宕机了。
GreenPlum数据库故障恢复测试
5、这里为了方面查看,我们使用greenplum-cc-web工具来查看集群状态

$ gpcmdr --start hbjy

GreenPlum数据库故障恢复测试
需要将pg_hba.conf文件还原回去,因为227上所有的segment已经宕掉,执行gpstop -u命令会有报错
GreenPlum数据库故障恢复测试
在segment status页面中可以看到当前segment的状态是异常的。server11上有两组的primary segment,这很危险,如果不幸server11也宕机了,整个集群的状态就变成不可用了。
GreenPlum数据库故障恢复测试
6、将server227做为master standby重新加入集群

$ cd master/
$ mv gpseg-1/ backupgpseg-1
$ gpinitstandby -s server227

GreenPlum数据库故障恢复测试
7、在master上重启集群

$ gpstop -M immediate
$ gpstart -a

8、在master上恢复集群

$ gprecoverseg 

GreenPlum数据库故障恢复测试
虽然所有的segment均已启动,但server11上有还是有两组的primary segment
GreenPlum数据库故障恢复测试
9、在master上恢复segment节点分布到原始状态

$ gprecoverseg -r

GreenPlum数据库故障恢复测试
参考文档:
http://greenplum.org/docs/520/admin_guide/highavail/topics/g-restoring-master-mirroring-after-a-recovery.html