Datapump 是一个服务,基于大容量数据迁移的结构,用来取代旧的 import/export 工具。旧的 import/export 工具仍然可用,但不支持所有的 Oracle 10g 和 11g 的功能。这个新的工具名为 expdp 和 impdp。

本文内容

本文介绍 Oracle 10g 及之后版本导出/入工具的步骤,内容如下:

  • 开始使用 datapump 导出
  • 创建数据库目录
  • 再次尝试导出
  • 导入另一个数据库
  • 网络导入
  • 从 PL/SQL 调用
  • 导出/入说明
  • 更多
  • 参考资料

 

开始用 datapump 导出

$ expdp scott/tiger DIRECTORY=dmpdir DUMPFILE=scott.dmp
 
Export: Release 10.2.0.1.0 - 64bit Production on Friday, 31 March,  2006 11:36:07
Copyright (c) 2003, 2005, Oracle.  All rights reserved.
 
Connected to: Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.2.0.1.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP and Data Mining options
 
ORA-39002: invalid operation
ORA-39070: Unable to open the log file.
ORA-39087: directory name DMPDIR is invalid

说明:

  1. "dmpdir" 为导出目录;
  2. "scott.dmp" 为导出的 datadump 文件;
  3. scott 用户下的表在默认表空间 USERS 和临时表空间 TEMP 下。所以这个命令将 scott 用户把自己的表(对象)导出来;
  4. 因为,Oracle 已经有这两个表空间,所以,直接导入即可。但是,如果是自己创建的表空间,就先要创建这个表空间,然后再导入。

导出失败了!因为,我们需要先创建目录!

 

创建数据库目录

执行如下命令,创建一个数据库导出目录。该目录必须指向一个同一个服务器的有效目录作为数据库:

SQL> CREATE DIRECTORY dmpdir AS '/opt/oracle';
Directory created.
 
SQL> GRANT read, write ON DIRECTORY dmpdir TO scott;
Grant succeeded.

说明:

  1. "dmpdir" 为导出目录,"/opt/oracle" 为数据库路径(也可以操作系统的绝对路径,如"d:\db_backup");
  2. 导出目录授权。让 scott 用户对该目录可读写。这样,scott 用户才能正常访问该目录,将数据库内容和导出的日志文件放在这里。

备注:Oracle 从 Oracle 10g R2 开始,引入了一个称为 "DATA_PUMP_DIR" 的默认目录,如下所示:

SQL> SELECT directory_path FROM dba_directories WHERE directory_name = 'DATA_PUMP_DIR';
 
DIRECTORY_PATH
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
/app/oracle/product/10.2.0/rdbms/log/

 

再次尝试导出

$ expdp scott/tiger DIRECTORY=dmpdir DUMPFILE=scott.dmp
 
Export: Release 10.2.0.1.0 - 64bit Production on Friday, 31 March, 2006 11:41:02
Copyright (c) 2003, 2005, Oracle.  All rights reserved.
 
Connected to: Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.2.0.1.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP and Data Mining options
Starting "SCOTT"."SYS_EXPORT_SCHEMA_01":  scott/********  DIRECTORY=dmpdir DUMPFILE=scott.dmp
Estimate in progress using BLOCKS method...
Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLE_DATA
Total estimation using BLOCKS method: 175.2 MB
Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PRE_SCHEMA/PROCACT_SCHEMA
Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TYPE/TYPE_SPEC
Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLE
Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/INDEX/INDEX
Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/CONSTRAINT/CONSTRAINT
Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/INDEX/STATISTICS/INDEX_STATISTICS
Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/COMMENT
Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PACKAGE/PACKAGE_SPEC
Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PROCEDURE/PROCEDURE
Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PACKAGE/COMPILE_PACKAGE/PACKAGE_SPEC/ALTER_PACKAGE_SPEC
Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PROCEDURE/ALTER_PROCEDURE
Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PACKAGE/PACKAGE_BODY
Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/CONSTRAINT/REF_CONSTRAINT
Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/STATISTICS/TABLE_STATISTICS
Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/JOB
. . exported "SCOTT"."BIGEMP"                            145.2 MB 3670016 rows
. . exported "SCOTT"."DEPT"                              5.656 KB       4 rows
. . exported "SCOTT"."EMP"                               7.820 KB      14 rows
. . exported "SCOTT"."ORD_CHARGE_TAB"                    5.296 KB       2 rows
. . exported "SCOTT"."SALGRADE"                          5.585 KB       5 rows
. . exported "SCOTT"."BONUS"                                 0 KB       0 rows
. . exported "SCOTT"."NEWOBJECT1_T"                          0 KB       0 rows
. . exported "SCOTT"."T1"                                    0 KB       0 rows
Master table "SCOTT"."SYS_EXPORT_SCHEMA_01" successfully loaded/unloaded
******************************************************************************
Dump file set for SCOTT.SYS_EXPORT_SCHEMA_01 is:
  /app/oracle/scott.dmp
Job "SCOTT"."SYS_EXPORT_SCHEMA_01" successfully completed at 11:44:50

 

导入到另一个数据库

$ impdp system/oracle DIRECTORY=dmpdir DUMPFILE=scott.dmp
 
Import: Release 10.2.0.1.0 - 64bit Production on Friday, 31 March, 2006 12:00:59
Copyright (c) 2003, 2005, Oracle.  All rights reserved.
 
Connected to: Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.2.0.1.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP and Data Mining options
Master table "SYSTEM"."SYS_IMPORT_FULL_02" successfully loaded/unloaded
Starting "SYSTEM"."SYS_IMPORT_FULL_02":  system/******** DIRECTORY=dmpdir DUMPFILE=scott.dmp
Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PRE_SCHEMA/PROCACT_SCHEMA
Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TYPE/TYPE_SPEC
Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLE
Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLE_DATA
. . imported "SCOTT"."BIGEMP"                            145.2 MB 3670016 rows
. . imported "SCOTT"."DEPT"                              5.656 KB       4 rows
. . imported "SCOTT"."EMP"                               7.820 KB      14 rows
. . imported "SCOTT"."ORD_CHARGE_TAB"                    5.296 KB       2 rows
. . imported "SCOTT"."SALGRADE"                          5.585 KB       5 rows
. . imported "SCOTT"."BONUS"                                 0 KB       0 rows
. . imported "SCOTT"."NEWOBJECT1_T"                          0 KB       0 rows
. . imported "SCOTT"."T1"                                    0 KB       0 rows
Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/INDEX/INDEX
Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/CONSTRAINT/CONSTRAINT
Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/INDEX/STATISTICS/INDEX_STATISTICS
Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PACKAGE/PACKAGE_SPEC
Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PROCEDURE/PROCEDURE
Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PACKAGE/COMPILE_PACKAGE/PACKAGE_SPEC/ALTER_PACKAGE_SPEC
Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PROCEDURE/ALTER_PROCEDURE
Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PACKAGE/PACKAGE_BODY
Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/CONSTRAINT/REF_CONSTRAINT
Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/STATISTICS/TABLE_STATISTICS
Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/JOB
Job "SYSTEM"."SYS_IMPORT_FULL_02" successfully completed at 12:02:22

 

备注:

  1. expdp 和 impdp 命令都是操作系统下执行;
  2. 而创建导出目录,并为其授权,都是 SQL PLUS 下执行。

 

网络导入

通过网络模式导入,不需要任何中间的 dump 文件。数据,通过一个数据库链接(database link)导出,直接导入到目标数据库。例如:

SQL> create user new_scott identified by tiger;
User created.
 
SQL> grant connect, resource to new_scott;
Grant succeeded.
 
SQL> grant read, write on directory dmpdir to new_scott;
Grant succeeded.
 
SQL> grant create database link to new_scott;
Grant succeeded.

 

SQL> conn new_Scott/tiger
Connected.
 
SQL> create database link old_scott connect to scott identified by tiger  using 'orcl.oracle.com';
Database link created.

 

$ impdp new_scott/tiger DIRECTORY=dmpdir NETWORK_LINK=old_scott remap_schema=scott:new_scott

所有的工作在目标操作系统上完成。唯一一个到源操作系统的引用是通过数据库链接(database link)。

 

从 PL/SQL 调用

可以从 PL/SQL 调用 datapump。这对于每天或每周计划用 DBMS_SCHEDULER 导出很方便。

DECLARE
  hand NUMBER;
BEGIN
  hand := Dbms_DataPump.Open(operation => 'EXPORT',
                              job_mode => 'FULL',
                              job_name => 'FULLEXPJOB',
                               version => 'COMPATIBLE');
  Dbms_DataPump.Add_File(handle => hand,
                       filename => 'expdp_plsql.log',
                      directory => 'DMPDIR',
                       filetype => 3);
  Dbms_DataPump.Add_File(handle => hand,
                       filename => 'expdp_plsql.dmp',
                      directory => 'DMPDIR',
                       filetype => 1);
  -- Dbms_DataPump.Set_Parameter(handle => hand,
  --                               name => 'ESTIMATE',
  --                              value => 'STATISTICS');
  Dbms_DataPump.Start_Job(hand);
END;
/

 

导出/入说明

一般情况下,导出/入不会遇到太多问题,只要注意一下几点就行:

  • 导出目录必须存在,否则导出工具无法写 export.log 导出文件日志,会报 Ora 错误;
  • 导出使用的用户必须对导出目录有读写权限。这个显而易见;
  • 导入时,相应的表空间和用户必须已存在。这个也显而易见。

注意这三点,一般都会成功导出/入。

 

更多

以上例子对于刚开始的你已经足够。更多信息,请参看 Oracle 工具指南。输入下面命令可以列出该命令的所有参数。

$ expdp help=yes
$ impdp help=yes

 

以上是 Oracle FAQ 给出的导入/出工具的示例。

稍后,在我机器给出演示。

 

参考资料