oracle里常用命令

第一章:日志管理 

1.forcing log switches 
sql> alter system switch logfile; 
2.forcing checkpoints 
sql> alter system checkpoint; 
3.adding online redo log groups 
sql> alter database add logfile [group 4] 
sql> ('/disk3/log4a.rdo','/disk4/log4b.rdo') size 1m; 
4.adding online redo log members 
sql> alter database add logfile member 
sql> '/disk3/log1b.rdo' to group 1, 
sql> '/disk4/log2b.rdo' to group 2; 
5.changes the name of the online redo logfile 
sql> alter database rename file 'c:/oracle/oradata/oradb/redo01.log' 
sql> to 'c:/oracle/oradata/redo01.log'; 
6.drop online redo log groups 
sql> alter database drop logfile group 3; 
7.drop online redo log members 
sql> alter database drop logfile member 'c:/oracle/oradata/redo01.log'; 
8.clearing online redo log files 
sql> alter database clear [unarchived] logfile 'c:/oracle/log2a.rdo'; 
9.using logminer analyzing redo logfiles 
a. in the init.ora specify utl_file_dir = ' ' 
b. sql> execute dbms_logmnr_d.build('oradb.ora','c:\oracle\oradb\log'); 
c. sql> execute dbms_logmnr_add_logfile('c:\oracle\oradata\oradb\redo01.log', 
sql> dbms_logmnr.new); 
d. sql> execute dbms_logmnr.add_logfile('c:\oracle\oradata\oradb\redo02.log', 
sql> dbms_logmnr.addfile); 
e. sql> execute dbms_logmnr.start_logmnr(dictfilename=>'c:\oracle\oradb\log\oradb.ora'); 
f. sql> select * from v$logmnr_contents(v$logmnr_dictionary,v$logmnr_parameters 
sql> v$logmnr_logs); 
g. sql> execute dbms_logmnr.end_logmnr; 

第二章:表空间管理 
1.create tablespaces 
sql> create tablespace tablespace_name datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\file1.dbf' size 100m, 
sql> 'c:\oracle\oradata\file2.dbf' size 100m minimum extent 550k [logging/nologging] 
sql> default storage (initial 500k next 500k maxextents 500 pctinccease 0) 
sql> [online/offline] [permanent/temporary] [extent_management_clause] 
2.locally managed tablespace 
sql> create tablespace user_data datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\user_data01.dbf' 
sql> size 500m extent management local uniform size 10m; 
3.temporary tablespace 
sql> create temporary tablespace temp tempfile 'c:\oracle\oradata\temp01.dbf' 
sql> size 500m extent management local uniform size 10m; 
4.change the storage setting 
sql> alter tablespace app_data minimum extent 2m; 
sql> alter tablespace app_data default storage(initial 2m next 2m maxextents 999); 
5.taking tablespace offline or online 
sql> alter tablespace app_data offline; 
sql> alter tablespace app_data online; 
6.read_only tablespace 
sql> alter tablespace app_data read only|write; 
7.droping tablespace 
sql> drop tablespace app_data including contents; 
8.enableing automatic extension of data files 
sql> alter tablespace app_data add datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\app_data01.dbf' size 200m 
sql> autoextend on next 10m maxsize 500m; 
9.change the size fo data files manually 
sql> alter database datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\app_data.dbf' resize 200m; 
10.Moving data files: alter tablespace 
sql> alter tablespace app_data rename datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\app_data.dbf' 
sql> to 'c:\oracle\app_data.dbf'; 
11.moving data files:alter database 
sql> alter database rename file 'c:\oracle\oradata\app_data.dbf' 
sql> to 'c:\oracle\app_data.dbf'; 

第三章:表 

1.create a table 
sql> create table table_name (column datatype,column datatype]....) 
sql> tablespace tablespace_name [pctfree integer] [pctused integer] 
sql> [initrans integer] [maxtrans integer] 
sql> storage(initial 200k next 200k pctincrease 0 maxextents 50) 
sql> [logging|nologging] [cache|nocache] 
2.copy an existing table 
sql> create table table_name [logging|nologging] as subquery 
3.create temporary table 
sql> create global temporary table xay_temp as select * from xay; 
on commit preserve rows/on commit delete rows 
4.pctfree = (average row size - initial row size) *100 /average row size 
pctused = 100-pctfree- (average row size*100/available data space) 
5.change storage and block utilization parameter 
sql> alter table table_name pctfree=30 pctused=50 storage(next 500k 
sql> minextents 2 maxextents 100); 
6.manually allocating extents 
sql> alter table table_name allocate extent(size 500k datafile 'c:/oracle/data.dbf'); 
7.move tablespace 
sql> alter table employee move tablespace users; 
8.deallocate of unused space 
sql> alter table table_name deallocate unused [keep integer] 
9.truncate a table 
sql> truncate table table_name; 
10.drop a table 
sql> drop table table_name [cascade constraints]; 
11.drop a column 
sql> alter table table_name drop column comments cascade constraints checkpoint 1000; 
alter table table_name drop columns continue; 
12.mark a column as unused 
sql> alter table table_name set unused column comments cascade constraints; 
alter table table_name drop unused columns checkpoint 1000; 
alter table orders drop columns continue checkpoint 1000 
data_dictionary : dba_unused_col_tabs 

第四章:索引 

1.creating function-based indexes 
sql> create index summit.item_quantity on summit.item(quantity-quantity_shipped); 
2.create a B-tree index 
sql> create [unique] index index_name on table_name(column,.. asc/desc) tablespace 
sql> tablespace_name [pctfree integer] [initrans integer] [maxtrans integer] 
sql> [logging | nologging] [nosort] storage(initial 200k next 200k pctincrease 0 
sql> maxextents 50); 
3.pctfree(index)=(maximum number of rows-initial number of rows)*100/maximum number of rows 
4.creating reverse key indexes 
sql> create unique index xay_id on xay(a) reverse pctfree 30 storage(initial 200k 
sql> next 200k pctincrease 0 maxextents 50) tablespace indx; 
5.create bitmap index 
sql> create bitmap index xay_id on xay(a) pctfree 30 storage( initial 200k next 200k 
sql> pctincrease 0 maxextents 50) tablespace indx; 
6.change storage parameter of index 
sql> alter index xay_id storage (next 400k maxextents 100); 
7.allocating index space 
sql> alter index xay_id allocate extent(size 200k datafile 'c:/oracle/index.dbf'); 
8.alter index xay_id deallocate unused; 

第五章:约束 

1.define constraints as immediate or deferred 
sql> alter session set constraint[s] = immediate/deferred/default; 
set constraint[s] constraint_name/all immediate/deferred; 
2. sql> drop table table_name cascade constraints 
sql> drop tablespace tablespace_name including contents cascade constraints 
3. define constraints while create a table 
sql> create table xay(id number(7) constraint xay_id primary key deferrable 
sql> using index storage(initial 100k next 100k) tablespace indx); 
primary key/unique/references table(column)/check 
4.enable constraints 
sql> alter table xay enable novalidate constraint xay_id; 
5.enable constraints 
sql> alter table xay enable validate constraint xay_id; 

第六章:LOAD数据 

1.loading data using direct_load insert 
sql> insert /*+append */ into emp nologging 
sql> select * from emp_old; 
2.parallel direct-load insert 
sql> alter session enable parallel dml; 
sql> insert /*+parallel(emp,2) */ into emp nologging 
sql> select * from emp_old; 
3.using sql*loader 
sql> sqlldr scott/tiger \ 
sql> control = ulcase6.ctl \ 
sql> log = ulcase6.log direct=true 

第七章:reorganizing data 

1.using expoty 
$exp scott/tiger tables(dept,emp) file=c:\emp.dmp log=exp.log compress=n direct=y 
2.using import 
$imp scott/tiger tables(dept,emp) file=emp.dmp log=imp.log ignore=y 
3.transporting a tablespace 
sql>alter tablespace sales_ts read only; 
$exp sys/.. file=xay.dmp transport_tablespace=y tablespace=sales_ts 
triggers=n constraints=n 
$copy datafile 
$imp sys/.. file=xay.dmp transport_tablespace=y datafiles=(/disk1/sles01.dbf,/disk2 
/sles02.dbf) 
sql> alter tablespace sales_ts read write; 
4.checking transport set 
sql> DBMS_tts.transport_set_check(ts_list =>'sales_ts' ..,incl_constraints=>true); 
在表transport_set_violations 中查看 
sql> dbms_tts.isselfcontained 为true 是, 表示自包含 

第八章: managing password security and resources 

1.controlling account lock and password 
sql> alter user juncky identified by oracle account unlock; 
2.user_provided password function 
sql> function_name(userid in varchar2(30),password in varchar2(30), 
old_password in varchar2(30)) return boolean 
3.create a profile : password setting 
sql> create profile grace_5 limit failed_login_attempts 3 
sql> password_lock_time unlimited password_life_time 30 
sql>password_reuse_time 30 password_verify_function verify_function 
sql> password_grace_time 5; 
4.altering a profile 
sql> alter profile default failed_login_attempts 3 
sql> password_life_time 60 password_grace_time 10; 
5.drop a profile 
sql> drop profile grace_5 [cascade]; 
6.create a profile : resource limit 
sql> create profile developer_prof limit sessions_per_user 2 
sql> cpu_per_session 10000 idle_time 60 connect_time 480; 
7. view => resource_cost : alter resource cost 
dba_Users,dba_profiles 
8. enable resource limits 
sql> alter system set resource_limit=true; 

第九章:Managing users 

1.create a user: database authentication 
sql> create user juncky identified by oracle default tablespace users 
sql> temporary tablespace temp quota 10m on data password expire 
sql> [account lock|unlock] [profile profilename|default]; 
2.change user quota on tablespace 
sql> alter user juncky quota 0 on users; 
3.drop a user 
sql> drop user juncky [cascade]; 
4. monitor user 
view: dba_users , dba_ts_quotas 

第十章:managing privileges 

1.system privileges: view => system_privilege_map ,dba_sys_privs,session_privs 
2.grant system privilege 
sql> grant create session,create table to managers; 
sql> grant create session to scott with admin option; 
with admin option can grant or revoke privilege from any user or role; 
3.sysdba and sysoper privileges: 
sysoper: startup,shutdown,alter database open|mount,alter database backup controlfile, 
alter tablespace begin/end backup,recover database 
alter database archivelog,restricted session 
sysdba: sysoper privileges with admin option,create database,recover database until 
4.password file members: view:=> v$pwfile_users 
5.O7_dictionary_accessibility =true restriction access to view or tables in other schema 
6.revoke system privilege 
sql> revoke create table from karen; 
sql> revoke create session from scott; 
7.grant object privilege 
sql> grant execute on dbms_pipe to public; 
sql> grant update(first_name,salary) on employee to karen with grant option; 
8.display object privilege : view => dba_tab_privs, dba_col_privs 
9.revoke object privilege 
sql> revoke execute on dbms_pipe from scott [cascade constraints]; 
10.audit record view :=> sys.aud$ 
11. protecting the audit trail 
sql> audit delete on sys.aud$ by access; 
12.statement auditing 
sql> audit user; 
13.privilege auditing 
sql> audit select any table by summit by access; 
14.schema object auditing 
sql> audit lock on summit.employee by access whenever successful; 
15.view audit option : view=> all_def_audit_opts,dba_stmt_audit_opts,dba_priv_audit_opts,dba_obj_audit_opts 
16.view audit result: view=> dba_audit_trail,dba_audit_exists,dba_audit_object,dba_audit_session,dba_audit_statement 

第十一章: manager role 

1.create roles 
sql> create role sales_clerk; 
sql> create role hr_clerk identified by bonus; 
sql> create role hr_manager identified externally; 
2.modify role 
sql> alter role sales_clerk identified by commission; 
sql> alter role hr_clerk identified externally; 
sql> alter role hr_manager not identified; 
3.assigning roles 
sql> grant sales_clerk to scott; 
sql> grant hr_clerk to hr_manager; 
sql> grant hr_manager to scott with admin option; 
4.establish default role 
sql> alter user scott default role hr_clerk,sales_clerk; 
sql> alter user scott default role all; 
sql> alter user scott default role all except hr_clerk; 
sql> alter user scott default role none; 
5.enable and disable roles 
sql> set role hr_clerk; 
sql> set role sales_clerk identified by commission; 
sql> set role all except sales_clerk; 
sql> set role none; 
6.remove role from user 
sql> revoke sales_clerk from scott; 
sql> revoke hr_manager from public; 
7.remove role 
sql> drop role hr_manager; 
8.display role information 
view: =>dba_roles,dba_role_privs,role_role_privs,dba_sys_privs,role_sys_privs,role_tab_privs,session_roles 

第十二章: BACKUP and RECOVERY 

1. v$sga,v$instance,v$process,v$bgprocess,v$database,v$datafile,v$sgastat 
2. Rman need set dbwr_IO_slaves or backup_tape_IO_slaves and large_pool_size 
3. Monitoring Parallel Rollback 
> v$fast_start_servers , v$fast_start_transactions 
4.perform a closed database backup (noarchivelog) 
> shutdown immediate 
> cp files /backup/ 
> startup 
5.restore to a different location 
> connect system/manager as sysdba 
> startup mount 
> alter database rename file '/disk1/../user.dbf' to '/disk2/../user.dbf'; 
> alter database open; 
6.recover syntax 
--recover a mounted database 
>recover database; 
>recover datafile '/disk1/data/df2.dbf'; 
>alter database recover database; 
--recover an opened database 
>recover tablespace user_data; 
>recover datafile 2; 
>alter database recover datafile 2; 
7.how to apply redo log files automatically 
>set autorecovery on 
>recover automatic datafile 4; 
8.complete recovery: 
--method 1(mounted databae) 
>copy c:\backup\user.dbf c:\oradata\user.dbf 
>startup mount 
>recover datafile 'c:\oradata\user.dbf; 
>alter database open; 
--method 2(opened database,initially opened,not system or rollback datafile) 
>copy c:\backup\user.dbf c:\oradata\user.dbf (alter tablespace offline) 
>recover datafile 'c:\oradata\user.dbf' or 
>recover tablespace user_data; 
>alter database datafile 'c:\oradata\user.dbf' online or 
>alter tablespace user_data online; 
--method 3(opened database,initially closed not system or rollback datafile) 
>startup mount 
>alter database datafile 'c:\oradata\user.dbf' offline; 
>alter database open 
>copy c:\backup\user.dbf d:\oradata\user.dbf 
>alter database rename file 'c:\oradata\user.dbf' to 'd:\oradata\user.dbf' 
>recover datafile 'e:\oradata\user.dbf' or recover tablespace user_data; 
>alter tablespace user_data online; 
--method 4(loss of data file with no backup and have all archive log) 
>alter tablespace user_data offline immediate; 
>alter database create datafile 'd:\oradata\user.dbf' as 'c:\oradata\user.dbf'' 
>recover tablespace user_data; 
>alter tablespace user_data online 
5.perform an open database backup 
> alter tablespace user_data begin backup; 
> copy files /backup/ 
> alter database datafile '/c:/../data.dbf' end backup; 
> alter system switch logfile; 
6.backup a control file 
> alter database backup controlfile to 'control1.bkp'; 
> alter database backup controlfile to trace; 
7.recovery (noarchivelog mode) 
> shutdown abort 
> cp files 
> startup 
8.recovery of file in backup mode 
>alter database datafile 2 end backup; 
9.clearing redo log file 
>alter database clear unarchived logfile group 1; 
>alter database clear unarchived logfile group 1 unrecoverable datafile; 
10.redo log recovery 
>alter database add logfile group 3 'c:\oradata\redo03.log' size 1000k; 
>alter database drop logfile group 1; 
>alter database open; 
or >cp c:\oradata\redo02.log' c:\oradata\redo01.log 
>alter database clear logfile 'c:\oradata\log01.log';
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