1、mii-tool 配置网络设备协商方式的工具;

1.1 mii-tool 介绍;

mii-tool - view, manipulate media-independent interface status (mii-tool 是查看,管理介质的网络接口的状态)

有时网卡需要配置协商方式 ,比如10/100/1000M的网卡半双工、全双工、自动协商的配置 。但大多数的网络设备是不用我们来修改协商,因为大多数网络设置接入的时候,都采用自动协商来解决相互通信的问题。不过自动协商也不是万能的,有时也会出 现错误,比如丢包率比较高,这时就要我们来指定网卡的协商方式 。

mii-tool 就是能指定网卡的协商方式。下面我们说一说mii-tool的用法;


1.2 mii-tool 的用法;


mii-tool 在更改网络设备通信协商方式的方法比较简单,用 -v 参数来查看网络接口的状态;看下面的例子;

mii-tool 更改网络接口协商的方法;


[root@localhost ~]# mii-tool --help
usage: mii-tool [-VvRrwl] [-A media,... | -F media] [interface ...]
       -V, --version display version information
       -v, --verbose more verbose output 注:显示网络接口的信息;
       -R, --reset reset MII to poweron state 注:重设MII到开启状态;
       -r, --restart restart autonegotiation 注:重启自动协商模式;
       -w, --watch monitor for link status changes 注:查看网络接口连接的状态变化;
       -l, --log with -w, write EVEnts to syslog 注:写入事件到系统日志;
       -A, --advertise=media,... advertise only specified media 注:指令特定的网络接口;
       -F, --force=media force specified media technology 注:更改网络接口协商方式;
media: 100baseT4, 100baseTx-FD, 100baseTx-HD, 10baseT-FD, 10baseT-HD,
       (to advertise both HD and FD) 100baseTx, 10baseT

* 实例一:查看网络接口的协商状态;

[root@localhost ~]# mii-tool -v eth0
eth0: negotiated 100baseTx-FD, link ok
  product info: vendor 00:00:00, model 0 rev 0
  basic mode:   autonegotiation enabled
  basic status: autonegotiation complete, link ok
  capabilities: 100baseTx-FD 100baseTx-HD 10baseT-FD 10baseT-HD
  advertising:  100baseTx-FD 100baseTx-HD 10baseT-FD 10baseT-HD
  link partner: 100baseTx-FD 100baseTx-HD 10baseT-FD 10baseT-HD flow-control
注:上面的例子,我们可以看得到是自动协商。注意红字的部份;

* 实例二:更改网络接口协商方式;

更改网络接口的协商方式,我们要用到-F选项,后面可以接 100baseT4, 100baseTx-FD, 100baseTx-HD, 10baseT-FD, 10baseT-HD等参数;

如果我们想把网络接口eth0改为 1000Mb/s全双工的模式应该怎么办呢?

[root@localhost ~]# mii-tool -F  100baseTx-FD

[root@localhost ~]#mii-tool -v eth0
eth0: 100 Mbit, full duplex, link ok
  product info: vendor 00:00:00, model 0 rev 0
  basic mode:   100 Mbit, full duplex
  basic status: link ok
  capabilities: 100baseTx-FD 100baseTx-HD 10baseT-FD 10baseT-HD
  advertising:  100baseTx-FD 100baseTx-HD 10baseT-FD 10baseT-HD
注:是不是已经改过来了?当然,我们也一样用ethtool 工具来更改,比如执行下面的命令;


[root@localhost ~]# ethtool -s eth0 speed 100 duplex full


2、ethtool 工具关于网络协商功能介绍;


ethtool - Display or change ethernet card settings(ethtool 是用来显示和更改网卡设置的工具);这个工具比较复杂,功能也特别多。由于洋文比较难懂。所以我们还是把网络设备协商方式的设置方法说一说。


2.1 ethtool 显示网络端口设置功能;


这个功能比较好办。就是ethtool 后面直接接网絽接口就行;比如下面的例子;


[root@localhost ~]# ethtool eth0
Settings for eth0:
        Supported ports: [ TP MII ]
        Supported link modes: 10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full
                                100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full
        Supports auto-negotiation: Yes
        Advertised link modes: 10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full
                                100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full
        Advertised auto-negotiation: No 注:自动协商关闭
        Speed: 100Mb/s 注:速度 100Mb
        Duplex: Full 注:全双工
        Port: MII
        PHYAD: 32
        Transceiver: internal
        Auto-negotiation: off
        Supports Wake-on: pumbg
        Wake-on: d
        Current message lEVEl: 0x00000007 (7)
        Link detected: yes 注:eth0已经激活;


2.2 ethtool 设置网卡的协商模式;


在ethtool的-h帮助中我们查看到有这样的帮助信息;


ethtool -s DEVNAME \
                [ speed 10|100|1000 ] \
                [ duplex half|full ] \
                [ port tp|aui|bnc|mii|fibre ] \
                [ autoneg on|off ] \

* 实例一: 把网卡eth0 速度改为10Mb/s,采用半双工;

[root@cuc03 beinan]# ethtool -s eth1 speed 10 duplex half
[root@cuc03 beinan]# ethtool eth1
Settings for eth1:
        Supported ports: [ TP MII ]
        Supported link modes:   10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full
                                100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full
        Supports auto-negotiation: Yes
        Advertised link modes:  10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full
                                100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full
        Advertised auto-negotiation: No
        Speed: 10Mb/s 注:速度 10M/s
        Duplex: Half  注:半双工
        Port: MII
        PHYAD: 32
        Transceiver: internal
        Auto-negotiation: off
        Supports Wake-on: pumbg
        Wake-on: d
        Current message lEVEl: 0x00000007 (7)
        Link detected: no 注:eth1没有激活;
* 实例二: 把网卡eth0 速度改为100Mb/s,采用全双工;

[root@cuc03 beinan]# ethtool -s eth1 speed 100 duplex full
[root@cuc03 beinan]# ethtool eth1
Settings for eth1:
        Supported ports: [ TP MII ]
        Supported link modes:   10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full
                                100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full
        Supports auto-negotiation: Yes
        Advertised link modes:  10baseT/Half 10baseT/Full
                                100baseT/Half 100baseT/Full
        Advertised auto-negotiation: No
        Speed: 100Mb/s  注:速度 100M/s
        Duplex: Full 注:全双工
        Port: MII
        PHYAD: 32
        Transceiver: internal
        Auto-negotiation: off
        Supports Wake-on: pumbg
        Wake-on: d
        Current message lEVEl: 0x00000007 (7)
        Link detected: no 注:eth1网卡没有激活;


3、关于本文;


本文是限定在改变网络协商方式和改变网络接口的速度为范围而写的,我对网络不熟悉,想把ethtool 详细写一写,可是我的功力不足。还是请高手写一写为好。谢谢;