Nginx介绍

  • Nginx官网(http://nginx.org),最新版1.13,最新稳定版1.12
  • Nginx应用场景:web服务、反向代理、负载均衡
  • Nginx著名分支,淘宝基于Nginx开发的Tengine,使用上和Nginx一致,服务名,配置文件名都一样,和Nginx的最大区别在于Tenging增加了一些定制化模块,在安全限速方面表现突出,另外它支持对js,css合并
  • Nginx核心+lua相关的组件和模块组成了一个支持lua的高性能web容器openresty,参考 http://jinnianshilongnian.iteye.com/blog/2280928

Nginx安装

1. 进入存放源码包目录
[root@gary-tao ~]# cd /usr/local/src/
[root@gary-tao src]# 
2. 下载源码包
[root@gary-tao src]# wget http://nginx.org/download/nginx-1.12.1.tar.gz
3. 解压压缩包
[root@gary-tao src]# tar zxf nginx-1.12.1.tar.gz 
4. 安装nginx
[root@gary-tao src]# cd nginx-1.12.1
[root@gary-tao nginx-1.12.1]# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/nginx
5. 编译nginx
[root@gary-tao nginx-1.12.1]# make
[root@gary-tao nginx-1.12.1]# make install
[root@gary-tao nginx-1.12.1]# ls /usr/local/nginx/ //查看nginx核心配置文件
conf  html  logs  sbin
[root@gary-tao nginx-1.12.1]# ls /usr/local/nginx/conf/
fastcgi.conf          fastcgi_params          koi-utf  mime.types          nginx.conf          scgi_params          uwsgi_params          win-utf
fastcgi.conf.default  fastcgi_params.default  koi-win  mime.types.default  nginx.conf.default  scgi_params.default  uwsgi_params.default
[root@gary-tao nginx-1.12.1]# ls /usr/local/nginx/html/
50x.html  index.html
[root@gary-tao nginx-1.12.1]# ls /usr/local/nginx/logs/
[root@gary-tao nginx-1.12.1]# ls /usr/local/nginx/sbin/
nginx
[root@gary-tao nginx-1.12.1]# ls /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx
/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx
[root@gary-tao nginx-1.12.1]# /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -t
nginx: the configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf syntax is ok
nginx: configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf test is successful
6. 创建nginx配置文件及编辑启动脚本
[root@gary-tao nginx-1.12.1]# vim /etc/init.d/nginx

配置如下内容:

#!/bin/bash
# chkconfig: - 30 21
# description: http service.
# Source Function Library
. /etc/init.d/functions
# Nginx Settings
NGINX_SBIN="/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx"
NGINX_CONF="/usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf"
NGINX_PID="/usr/local/nginx/logs/nginx.pid"
RETVAL=0
prog="Nginx"
start() 
{
    echo -n $"Starting $prog: "
    mkdir -p /dev/shm/nginx_temp
    daemon $NGINX_SBIN -c $NGINX_CONF
    RETVAL=$?
    echo
    return $RETVAL
}
stop() 
{
    echo -n $"Stopping $prog: "
    killproc -p $NGINX_PID $NGINX_SBIN -TERM
    rm -rf /dev/shm/nginx_temp
    RETVAL=$?
    echo
    return $RETVAL
}
reload()
{
    echo -n $"Reloading $prog: "
    killproc -p $NGINX_PID $NGINX_SBIN -HUP
    RETVAL=$?
    echo
    return $RETVAL
}
restart()
{
    stop
    start
}
configtest()
{
    $NGINX_SBIN -c $NGINX_CONF -t
    return 0
}
case "$1" in
  start)
        start
        ;;
  stop)
        stop
        ;;
  reload)
        reload
        ;;
  restart)
        restart
        ;;
  configtest)
        configtest
        ;;
  *)
        echo $"Usage: $0 {start|stop|reload|restart|configtest}"
        RETVAL=1
esac
exit $RETVAL
7.修改启动脚本权限
[root@gary-tao nginx-1.12.1]# chmod 755 /etc/init.d/nginx 
8. 添加nginx服务
[root@gary-tao nginx-1.12.1]# chkconfig --add nginx
9. 设置开机启动
[root@gary-tao nginx-1.12.1]# chkconfig nginx on
10. 配置nginx的配置文件
[root@gary-tao nginx-1.12.1]# cd /usr/local/nginx/conf/
[root@gary-tao conf]# ls
fastcgi.conf          fastcgi_params          koi-utf  mime.types          nginx.conf          scgi_params          uwsgi_params          win-utf
fastcgi.conf.default  fastcgi_params.default  koi-win  mime.types.default  nginx.conf.default  scgi_params.default  uwsgi_params.default
[root@gary-tao conf]# mv nginx.conf nginx.conf.bak
[root@gary-tao conf]# vim nginx.conf

配置如下内容:

user nobody nobody;
worker_processes 2;
error_log /usr/local/nginx/logs/nginx_error.log crit;
pid /usr/local/nginx/logs/nginx.pid;
worker_rlimit_nofile 51200;
events
{
    use epoll;
    worker_connections 6000;
}
http
{
    include mime.types;
    default_type application/octet-stream;
    server_names_hash_bucket_size 3526;
    server_names_hash_max_size 4096;
    log_format combined_realip '$remote_addr $http_x_forwarded_for [$time_local]'
    ' $host "$request_uri" $status'
    ' "$http_referer" "$http_user_agent"';
    sendfile on;
    tcp_nopush on;
    keepalive_timeout 30;
    client_header_timeout 3m;
    client_body_timeout 3m;
    send_timeout 3m;
    connection_pool_size 256;
    client_header_buffer_size 1k;
    large_client_header_buffers 8 4k;
    request_pool_size 4k;
    output_buffers 4 32k;
    postpone_output 1460;
    client_max_body_size 10m;
    client_body_buffer_size 256k;
    client_body_temp_path /usr/local/nginx/client_body_temp;
    proxy_temp_path /usr/local/nginx/proxy_temp;
    fastcgi_temp_path /usr/local/nginx/fastcgi_temp;
    fastcgi_intercept_errors on;
    tcp_nodelay on;
    gzip on;
    gzip_min_length 1k;
    gzip_buffers 4 8k;
    gzip_comp_level 5;
    gzip_http_version 1.1;
    gzip_types text/plain application/x-javascript text/css text/htm 
    application/xml;
    server
    {
        listen 80;
        server_name localhost;
        index index.html index.htm index.php;
        root /usr/local/nginx/html;
        location ~ \.php$ 
        {
            include fastcgi_params;
            fastcgi_pass unix:/tmp/php-fcgi.sock;
            fastcgi_index index.php;
            fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME /usr/local/nginx/html$fastcgi_script_name;
        }    
    }
}
11. 测试配置文件语法
[root@gary-tao conf]# /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -t
nginx: the configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf syntax is ok
nginx: configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf test is successful
12. 开启Nginx
[root@gary-tao conf]# /etc/init.d/nginx start
Starting nginx (via systemctl):  Warning: nginx.service changed on disk. Run 'systemctl daemon-reload' to reload units.
                                                           [  确定  ]
[root@gary-tao conf]# systemctl daemon-reload  //解决上面启动时报错
[root@gary-tao conf]# /etc/init.d/nginx start
Starting nginx (via systemctl):                            [  确定  ]
13. 查询nginx启动界面
[root@gary-tao conf]# ps aux |grep nginx
root      62748  0.0  0.0  20500   624 ?        Ss   18:51   0:00 nginx: master process /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -c /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
nobody    62749  0.0  0.3  22944  3212 ?        S    18:51   0:00 nginx: worker process
nobody    62750  0.0  0.3  22944  3212 ?        S    18:51   0:00 nginx: worker process
root      62835  0.0  0.0 112680   976 pts/1    S+   19:02   0:00 grep --color=auto nginx
[root@gary-tao conf]# curl localhost   //测试下页面
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<title>Welcome to nginx!</title>
<style>
    body {
        width: 35em;
        margin: 0 auto;
        font-family: Tahoma, Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;
    }
</style>
</head>
<body>
<h1>Welcome to nginx!</h1>
<p>If you see this page, the nginx web server is successfully installed and
working. Further configuration is required.</p>

<p>For online documentation and support please refer to
<a href="http://nginx.org/">nginx.org</a>.<br/>
Commercial support is available at
<a href="http://nginx.com/">nginx.com</a>.</p>

<p><em>Thank you for using nginx.</em></p>
</body>
</html>
[root@gary-tao conf]# ls /usr/local/nginx/html/  //页面文件目录
50x.html  index.html
14.测试Nginx解析php
[root@gary-tao conf]# vim /usr/local/nginx/html/1.php 

配置如下内容:

<?php
echo "This is nginx test page.";
?>
使用curl测试
root@gary-tao conf]# curl localhost/1.php
This is nginx test page.[root@gary-tao conf]# 
[root@gary-tao conf]# 

Nginx默认虚拟主机

在Nginx中也有默认虚拟主机,跟httpd类似,第一个被Nginx加载的虚拟主机就是默认主机,但和httpd不相同的地方是,它还有一个配置用来标记默认虚拟主机,也就是说,如果没有这个标记,第一个虚拟主机为默认虚拟主机。

1. 编辑配置文件:
vim /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf 

增加以下内容:

include vhost/*.conf;

如图:

linux的Nginx安装、默认虚拟主机、用户认证、域名重定向配置介绍

2. 创建一个vhost目录
[root@gary-tao conf]#  mkdir /usr/local/nginx/conf/vhost
[root@gary-tao conf]# cd /usr/local/nginx/conf/vhost/
[root@gary-tao vhost]# vim aaa.conf    //进入vhost目录下并创建编辑一个.conf文件

增加如下内容:

server
{
    listen 80 default_server;  // 有这个标记的就是默认虚拟主机
    server_name aaa.com;
    index index.html index.htm index.php;
    root /data/wwwroot/default;
}
3.创建default目录
[root@gary-tao vhost]# mkdir /data/wwwroot/default
[root@gary-tao vhost]# cd /data/wwwroot/default/
[root@gary-tao default]# ls
[root@gary-tao default]# vim index.html

在default目录下的index.html文件中定义如下内容:

This is the default site.
4.测试语法,重新加载配置文件(不需要重启服务)
[root@gary-tao default]# /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -t //测试语法
nginx: the configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf syntax is ok
nginx: configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf test is successful
[root@gary-tao default]# /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -s reload //重新加载配置
5.使用curl测试
[root@gary-tao default]# curl localhost
This is the default site.
[root@gary-tao default]# curl -x127.0.0.1:80 123.com
This is the default site.
[root@gary-tao default]# curl -x127.0.0.1:80 aaaa.com
This is the default site.
[root@gary-tao default]# curl -x127.0.0.1:80 ddd.com
This is the default site.
解释说明:

访问的域名无论是指定的aaa.com还是其它域名,只要解析过来,指向到我们服务器,都能访问到这个站点,这就是默认虚拟主机。

Nginx用户认证

1. 创建一个虚拟主机配置文件
[root@gary-tao conf]# vim /usr/local/nginx/conf/vhost/test.com.conf

增加如下内容:

server
{
    listen 80;
    server_name test.com;
    index index.html index.htm index.php;
    root /data/wwwroot/test.com;

location  /
    {
        auth_basic              "Auth";
        auth_basic_user_file   /usr/local/nginx/conf/htpasswd;
}
}
2.创建密码文件
[root@gary-tao conf]# yum install -y httpd  //如果之前没有安装过Apache的话就安装httpd,是为了可以使用Apache的htpasswd工具创建用户
[root@gary-tao conf]# /usr/local/apache2.4/bin/htpasswd -c /usr/local/nginx/conf/htpasswd aming  
备注:Apache自带命令htpasswd创建密码文件,-c是创建,-m是指定md5加密类型,指定用户为aming(备注:如果再次新增用户,就不需要再加 -c ,因为已经创建过密码文件了,加了会覆盖之前的创建好的用户)
New password: 
Re-type new password: 
Adding password for user aming
[root@gary-tao src]# cat /usr/local/nginx/conf/htpasswd 
aming:$apr1$o3zygnex$U.fWNEyk7.OeiwK.hcsBw/
[root@gary-tao src]# /usr/local/apache2.4/bin/htpasswd  /usr/local/nginx/conf/htpasswd xie
New password: 
Re-type new password: 
Adding password for user xie
[root@gary-tao src]# cat /usr/local/nginx/conf/htpasswd 
aming:$apr1$o3zygnex$U.fWNEyk7.OeiwK.hcsBw/
xie:$apr1$rBHXFLAp$fx9B2QPOtVQzLnz5hIWme1
3.测试语法及重新加载配置
[root@gary-tao src]# /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -t
nginx: the configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf syntax is ok
nginx: configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf test is successful
[root@gary-tao src]# /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -s reload
4.使用curl命令测试用户认证
[root@gary-tao src]# curl -x127.0.0.1:80 test.com
<html>
<head><title>401 Authorization Required</title></head>
<body bgcolor="white">
<center><h1>401 Authorization Required</h1></center>
<hr><center>nginx/1.12.1</center>
</body>
</html>
[root@gary-tao src]# curl -x127.0.0.1:80 test.com -I
HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorized
Server: nginx/1.12.1
Date: Wed, 03 Jan 2018 13:01:05 GMT
Content-Type: text/html
Content-Length: 195
Connection: keep-alive
WWW-Authenticate: Basic realm="Auth"
[root@gary-tao src]# curl -x127.0.0.1:80 -uaming:aming test.com -I  //增加用户访问
HTTP/1.1 404 Not Found
Server: nginx/1.12.1
Date: Wed, 03 Jan 2018 13:01:36 GMT
Content-Type: text/html
Content-Length: 169
Connection: keep-alive
[root@gary-tao src]# mkdir /data/wwwroot/test.com  //创建用户目录
[root@gary-tao src]# echo “test.com”>/data/wwwroot/test.com/index.html  //在test.com目录下编辑index.html
[root@gary-tao src]# curl -x127.0.0.1:80 -uaming:aming test.com
“test.com”

针对目录的用户认证

[root@gary-tao src]# vim /usr/local/nginx/conf/vhost/test.com.conf //进入配置文件,在location后面加上目录名字就可以

如图:

linux的Nginx安装、默认虚拟主机、用户认证、域名重定向配置介绍

使用curl测试:

[root@gary-tao src]# /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -t
nginx: the configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf syntax is ok
nginx: configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf test is successful
[root@gary-tao src]# /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -s reload
[root@gary-tao src]# curl -x127.0.0.1:80 test.com  //访问网站正常
“test.com”
[root@gary-tao src]# curl -x127.0.0.1:80 test.com/admin/ //但是访问admin目录下时就会出现401,需要用户认证 
<html>
<head><title>401 Authorization Required</title></head>
<body bgcolor="white">
<center><h1>401 Authorization Required</h1></center>
<hr><center>nginx/1.12.1</center>
</body>
</html>
[root@gary-tao src]# mkdir /data/wwwroot/test.com/admin //创建目录地址
[root@gary-tao src]# echo "test.com adming dir" > /data/wwwroot/test.com/admin/index.html   
[root@gary-tao src]# curl -x127.0.0.1:80 test.com/admin/
<html>
<head><title>401 Authorization Required</title></head>
<body bgcolor="white">
<center><h1>401 Authorization Required</h1></center>
<hr><center>nginx/1.12.1</center>
</body>
</html>
[root@gary-tao src]# curl -x127.0.0.1:80 -uaming:aming   test.com/admin/  //使用用户密码访问正常
test.com adming dir

针对文件的用户认证

[root@gary-tao src]# vim /usr/local/nginx/conf/vhost/test.com.conf //进入配置文件,在location后面加上匹配文件名字

如图:

linux的Nginx安装、默认虚拟主机、用户认证、域名重定向配置介绍

使用curl测试,访问admin目录时是正常的,访问admin.php就需要用户认证了

[root@gary-tao src]# /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -t
nginx: the configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf syntax is ok
nginx: configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf test is successful
[root@gary-tao src]# /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -s reload
[root@gary-tao src]# curl -x127.0.0.1:80 test.com/admin/
test.com adming dir
[root@gary-tao src]# curl -x127.0.0.1:80 test.com/admin.php
<html>
<head><title>401 Authorization Required</title></head>
<body bgcolor="white">
<center><h1>401 Authorization Required</h1></center>
<hr><center>nginx/1.12.1</center>
</body>
</html>

Nginx域名重定向

1. 更改test.com.conf
[root@gary-tao src]# vim /usr/local/nginx/conf/vhost/test.com.conf

定义如下内容:

server
{
    listen 80;
    server_name test.com test1.com test2.com;
//server_name后面支持写多个域名,这里要和httpd的做一个对比
    index index.html index.htm index.php;
    root /data/wwwroot/test.com;
    if ($host != 'test.com' ) {
        rewrite  ^/(.*)$  http://test.com/$1  permanent;
//permanent为永久重定向,状态码为301,如果写redirect则为302
    }
}

如图:

linux的Nginx安装、默认虚拟主机、用户认证、域名重定向配置介绍

2. 测试语法及重新加载配置,使用curl测试
[root@gary-tao src]# /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -t
nginx: the configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf syntax is ok
nginx: configuration file /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf test is successful
[root@gary-tao src]# /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -s reload
[root@gary-tao src]# curl -x127.0.0.1:80 test2.com/index.html -I   //访问test2.com后会跳转到test.com
HTTP/1.1 301 Moved Permanently
Server: nginx/1.12.1
Date: Wed, 03 Jan 2018 13:30:03 GMT
Content-Type: text/html
Content-Length: 185
Connection: keep-alive
Location: http://test.com/index.html

[root@gary-tao src]# curl -x127.0.0.1:80 test2.com/index.html/adgagadga -I  //访问test2.com后会跳转到test.com
HTTP/1.1 301 Moved Permanently
Server: nginx/1.12.1
Date: Wed, 03 Jan 2018 13:30:21 GMT
Content-Type: text/html
Content-Length: 185
Connection: keep-alive
Location: http://test.com/index.html/adgagadga

[root@gary-tao src]# curl -x127.0.0.1:80 test3.com/index.html/adgagadga -I  //访问test3.com就跳转到默认虚拟主机,报错404
HTTP/1.1 404 Not Found
Server: nginx/1.12.1
Date: Wed, 03 Jan 2018 13:30:38 GMT
Content-Type: text/html
Content-Length: 169
Connection: keep-alive