查看 MySql 字符集 
关键字: mysql 
MySQL 乱码的根源是的 MySQL 字符集设置不当的问题,本文汇总了有关查看 MySQL 字符集的命令。包括查看 MySQL 数据库服务器字符集、查看 MySQL 数据库字符集,以及数据表和字段的字符集、当前安装的 MySQL 所支持的字符集等。 

一、查看 MySQL 数据库服务器和数据库字符集。 

mysql> show variables like '%char%'; 
+--------------------------+-------------------------------------+------ 
| Variable_name            | Value                               |...... 
+--------------------------+-------------------------------------+------ 
| character_set_client     | utf8                                |......   -- 客户端字符集 
| character_set_connection | utf8                                |...... 
| character_set_database   | utf8                                |......   -- 数据库字符集 
| character_set_filesystem | binary                              |...... 
| character_set_results    | utf8                                |...... 
| character_set_server     | utf8                                |......   -- 服务器字符集 
| character_set_system     | utf8                                |...... 
| character_sets_dir       | D:\MySQL Server 5.0\share\charsets\ |...... 
+--------------------------+-------------------------------------+------二、查看 MySQL 数据表(table) 的字符集。 

mysql> show table status from sqlstudy_db like '%countries%'; 
+-----------+--------+---------+------------+------+-----------------+------ 
| Name      | Engine | Version | Row_format | Rows | Collation       |...... 
+-----------+--------+---------+------------+------+-----------------+------ 
| countries | InnoDB |      10 | Compact    |   11 | utf8_general_ci |...... 
+-----------+--------+---------+------------+------+-----------------+------三、查看 MySQL 数据列(column)的字符集。 

mysql> show full columns from countries; 
+----------------------+-------------+-----------------+-------- 
| Field                | Type        | Collation       | ....... 
+----------------------+-------------+-----------------+-------- 
| countries_id         | int(11)     | NULL            | ....... 
| countries_name       | varchar(64) | utf8_general_ci | ....... 
| countries_iso_code_2 | char(2)     | utf8_general_ci | ....... 
| countries_iso_code_3 | char(3)     | utf8_general_ci | ....... 
| address_format_id    | int(11)     | NULL            | ....... 
+----------------------+-------------+-----------------+--------四、查看当前安装的 MySQL 所支持的字符集。 

mysql> show charset; 
mysql> show char set; 
+----------+-----------------------------+---------------------+--------+ 
| Charset  | Description                 | Default collation   | Maxlen | 
+----------+-----------------------------+---------------------+--------+ 
| big5     | Big5 Traditional Chinese    | big5_chinese_ci     |      2 | 
| dec8     | DEC West European           | dec8_swedish_ci     |      1 | 
| cp850    | DOS West European           | cp850_general_ci    |      1 | 
| hp8      | HP West European            | hp8_english_ci      |      1 | 
| koi8r    | KOI8-R Relcom Russian       | koi8r_general_ci    |      1 | 
| latin1   | cp1252 West European        | latin1_swedish_ci   |      1 | 
| latin2   | ISO 8859-2 Central European | latin2_general_ci   |      1 | 
| swe7     | 7bit Swedish                | swe7_swedish_ci     |      1 | 
| ascii    | US ASCII                    | ascii_general_ci    |      1 | 
| ujis     | EUC-JP Japanese             | ujis_japanese_ci    |      3 | 
| sjis     | Shift-JIS Japanese          | sjis_japanese_ci    |      2 | 
| hebrew   | ISO 8859-8 Hebrew           | hebrew_general_ci   |      1 | 
| tis620   | TIS620 Thai                 | tis620_thai_ci      |      1 | 
| euckr    | EUC-KR Korean               | euckr_korean_ci     |      2 | 
| koi8u    | KOI8-U Ukrainian            | koi8u_general_ci    |      1 | 
| gb2312   | GB2312 Simplified Chinese   | gb2312_chinese_ci   |      2 | 
| greek    | ISO 8859-7 Greek            | greek_general_ci    |      1 | 
| cp1250   | Windows Central European    | cp1250_general_ci   |      1 | 
| gbk      | GBK Simplified Chinese      | gbk_chinese_ci      |      2 | 
| latin5   | ISO 8859-9 Turkish          | latin5_turkish_ci   |      1 | 
| armscii8 | ARMSCII-8 Armenian          | armscii8_general_ci |      1 | 
| utf8     | UTF-8 Unicode               | utf8_general_ci     |      3 | 
| ucs2     | UCS-2 Unicode               | ucs2_general_ci     |      2 | 
| cp866    | DOS Russian                 | cp866_general_ci    |      1 | 
| keybcs2  | DOS Kamenicky Czech-Slovak  | keybcs2_general_ci  |      1 | 
| macce    | Mac Central European        | macce_general_ci    |      1 | 
| macroman | Mac West European           | macroman_general_ci |      1 | 
| cp852    | DOS Central European        | cp852_general_ci    |      1 | 
| latin7   | ISO 8859-13 Baltic          | latin7_general_ci   |      1 | 
| cp1251   | Windows Cyrillic            | cp1251_general_ci   |      1 | 
| cp1256   | Windows Arabic              | cp1256_general_ci   |      1 | 
| cp1257   | Windows Baltic              | cp1257_general_ci   |      1 | 
| binary   | Binary pseudo charset       | binary              |      1 | 
| geostd8  | GEOSTD8 Georgian            | geostd8_general_ci  |      1 | 
| cp932    | SJIS for Windows Japanese   | cp932_japanese_ci   |      2 | 
| eucjpms  | UJIS for Windows Japanese   | eucjpms_japanese_ci |      3 | 
+----------+-----------------------------+---------------------+--------+以上查看 MySQL 字符集命令,适用于 Windows & Linux。 

四.修改表和字段的字符集 
//修改数据库 
mysql> alter database name character set utf8; 
//修改表 
alter table 表名 convert to character set gbk; 
//修改字段 
alter table 表名 modify column '字段名' varchar(30) character set gbk not null; 
//添加表字段 
alter table 表名 add column '字段名' varchar (20) character set gbk; 
注:执行命令过程中字段名不加引号