chattr [+-=] [ASacdistu] [文件或目录名称]
chattr +i /etc/passwd chattr +i /etc/shadow chattr +i /etc/group chattr +i /etc/gshadow
[root@client ~]# man chattr
chattr - change file attributes on a Linux file system
chattr - 在EXT2文件系统上改变文件属性
chattr [ -RVf ] [ -v version ] [ mode ] files...
chattr changes the file attributes on a Linux file system.
The format of a symbolic mode is +-=[acdeijstuADST].
The operator ‘+’ causes the selected attributes to be added to the existing attributes of the files; ‘-’ causes them to be removed; and ‘=’ causes them to be the only attributes that the files have.
操作符 '+' 表示将选中的属性增加到指定的文件上; '-' 则表示删除该属性;'=' 表示文件仅仅设置指定的属性
The letters ‘acdeijstuADST’ select the new attributes for the files: append only (a), compressed (c), no dump (d), extent format (e), immutable (i), data journalling (j), secure deletion (s), no tail-merging (t), undeletable (u), no atime updates (A), synchronous directory updates (D), synchronous updates (S), and top of directory hierarchy (T).
字母 'acdeijstuADST' 分别表示下面的属性: 仅追加(a), 压缩 (c), 不备份(d),扩展格式(e), 不可更改的(i), 数据日志 (j), 安全删除 (s), 非尾部合并(t), 不可删除 (u), 不更新atime (A), 同步目录更新 (D),同步更新 (S), 和目录层次结构的顶级? (T).
The following attributes are read-only, and may be listed by lsattr(1) but not modified by chattr: huge file (h), compression error (E), indexed directory (I), compression raw access (X), and compressed dirty file (Z).
接下来的属性都是只读的，可以用lsattr查看，不能用chattr进行修改：大文件(h), 压缩错误(E), 索引目录(I), 压缩的原始访问?(X), 和压缩的零碎文件(Z).
-R Recursively change attributes of directories and their contents.
-V Be verbose with chattr’s output and print the program version.
-f Suppress most error messages.
Set the file’s version/generation number.
When a file with the ’A’ attribute set is accessed, its atime record is not modified. This avoids a certain amount of disk I/O for laptop systems.
当访问一个设置了 ‘A' 属性的文件时，atime记录并不修改。这可以在笔记本上避免大量的磁盘I/O操作。
A file with the ‘a’ attribute set can only be open in append mode for writing. Only the superuser or a process possessing the CAP_LINUX_IMMUTABLE capability can set or clear this attribute.
如果文件设置了 ‘a’ 属性，数据只能采用追加模式，仅仅超级用户或者拥有CAP_LINUX_IMMUTABLE能力的进程可以设置和删除该属性。
A file with the ‘c’ attribute set is automatically compressed on the disk by the kernel. A read from this file returns uncompressed data. A write to this file compresses data before storing them on the disk. Note: please make sure to read the bugs and limitations section at the end of this document.
如果文件设置了 ‘c’ 属性, 那么当这个文件在进行写操作时,它将自动被压缩,并且在读的时候, 自动解压.在存储到磁盘时先压缩数据。
When a directory with the ‘D’ attribute set is modified, the changes are written synchronously on the disk; this is equivalent to the ‘dirsync’ mount option applied to a subset of the files.
A file with the ‘d’ attribute set is not candidate for backup when the dump(8) program is run.
如果一个文件设置了 ‘d’ 属性，dump(8)运行时，不会备份它。
The ’E’ attribute is used by the experimental compression patches to indicate that a compressed file has a com- pression error. It may not be set or reset using chattr(1), although it can be displayed by lsattr(1).
The ’e’ attribute indicates that the file is using extents for mapping the blocks on disk. It may not be removed using chattr(1).
The ’I’ attribute is used by the htree code to indicate that a directory is being indexed using hashed trees. It may not be set or reset using chattr(1), although it can be displayed by lsattr(1).
The ’h’ attribute indicates the file is storing its blocks in units of the filesystem blocksize instead of in units of sectors, and means that the file is (or at one time was) larger than 2TB. It may not be set or reset using chattr(1), although it can be displayed by lsattr(1).
A file with the ‘i’ attribute cannot be modified: it cannot be deleted or renamed, no link can be created to this file and no data can be written to the file. Only the superuser or a process possessing the CAP_LINUX_IMMUTABLE capability can set or clear this attribute.
A file with the ‘j’ attribute has all of its data written to the ext3 journal before being written to the file itself, if the filesystem is mounted with the "data=ordered" or "data=writeback" options. When the filesystem is mounted with the "data=journal" option all file data is already journalled and this attribute has no effect. Only the superuser or a process possessing the CAP_SYS_RESOURCE capability can set or clear this attribute.
When a file with the ‘s’ attribute set is deleted, its blocks are zeroed and written back to the disk. Note: please make sure to read the bugs and limitations section at the end of this document.
When a file with the ‘S’ attribute set is modified, the changes are written synchronously on the disk; this is equivalent to the ‘sync’ mount option applied to a subset of the files.
A directory with the ’T’ attribute will be deemed to be the top of directory hierarchies for the purposes of the Orlov block allocator. This is a hint to the block allocator used by ext3 and ext4 that the subdirectories under this directory are not related, and thus should be spread apart for allocation purposes. For example it is a very good idea to set the ’T’ attribute on the /home directory, so that /home/john and /home/mary are placed into separate block groups. For directories where this attribute is not set, the Orlov block allocator will try to group subdirectories closer together where possible.
A file with the ’t’ attribute will not have a partial block fragment at the end of the file merged with other files (for those filesystems which support tail-merging). This is necessary for applications such as LILO which read the filesystem directly, and which don’t understand tail-merged files. Note: As of this writing, the ext2 or ext3 filesystems do not (yet, except in very experimental patches) support tail-merging.
When a file with the ‘u’ attribute set is deleted, its contents are saved. This allows the user to ask for its undeletion. Note: please make sure to read the bugs and limitations section at the end of this document.
The ’X’ attribute is used by the experimental compression patches to indicate that a raw contents of a compressed file can be accessed directly. It currently may not be set or reset using chattr(1), although it can be dis- played by lsattr(1).
The ’Z’ attribute is used by the experimental compression patches to indicate a compressed file is dirty. It may not be set or reset using chattr(1), although it can be displayed by lsattr(1).
chattr was written by Remy Card <Remy.Card@linux.org>. It is currently being maintained by Theodore Ts’o
BUGS AND LIMITATIONS
The ‘c’, ’s’, and ‘u’ attributes are not honored by the ext2 and ext3 filesystems as implemented in the current
mainline Linux kernels. These attributes may be implemented in future versions of the ext2 and ext3 filesys-
The ‘j’ option is only useful if the filesystem is mounted as ext3.
The ‘D’ option is only useful on Linux kernel 2.5.19 and later.
chattr is part of the e2fsprogs package and is available from http://e2fsprogs.sourceforge.net.
E2fsprogs version 1.41.12 May 2010 CHATTR(1)