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活动目录数据库: Ntds.dit - AD数据库文件 Edbxxxxx.log - 事务日志 Edb.chk - 检查点文件 Res1.log and Res2.log - 保留日志文件 日志文件尺寸是固定的(10mb for AD) Domain date(账户信息...) Configuration date(list of domains...) Schema date(definition of all objects...)-->这三种数据是在DC直接被复制的 系统状态数据包括: 系统启动文件(boot files) 本机注册表 COM+类库注册信息 SYSVOL信息 备份时应该考虑的问题: System State,system disk contents,and the SYSVOL folder 活动目录的失效期: 默认60 days 如果使用超过60天的备份来做恢复,是不可能成功的 Backup date from a DC can only be used to restore that DC
如何进行AD的恢复(参考): Determine the type of disaster: Database corruption: Damaged disks DC hardware failure Software failure - server cannot boot Data corruption: Accidentally deleted object from directory
Methods to restore Windows 2003 DC: Re-installation Backup
Exchange的相关信息都保存在那里? 注册表和IIS的metabase: System state backup 活动目录中的用户数据: Users,Groups,and Contacts Replicated to GCs Most Exchange information placed on existing objects are replicated between Global Catalogs 活动目录中的Exchange配置信息: Exchange System Objects Public Folder Directory entries Active Directory Connector (ADC)settings
单一邮件或邮箱的恢复: 如果是Exchange 2000,需要搭建专用的Recovery Server : 在孤立的网络环境中安装Windows 2000 创建一个森林 运行ForestPrep,创建跟之前的环境相同的组织 安装Exchange System 管理工具 使用ESM创建跟之前的环境相同的管理组 安装Exchange 2000和所有的必需补丁(跟之前环境保持一致) 把数据库和存储组改为跟之前环境相同的名称 Dismount数据库,准备进行恢复 从磁带进行恢复 导出邮件
如果是Exchange 2003,可以使用Recovery storage group ->http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;824126
Recovery Storage Group: RSG per Server/Information Store Restore mailbox DBs from same SG Restore SG/DBs from same AG User mailboxes remain disconnected Only MAPI protocol supported Restores default into RSG Active/Passive one restore storage group per EVS ONE recovery storage group per cluster supported
受损数据库的恢复: 常见的数据库损坏症状: 硬件故障 在事件日志中的-1080错误 Three layers of corruption that can occur : Page level ESE level Store level To remove corruption : Restore an uncorrupted backup of the database Repair the database Expunge the corrupted pages from the database Salvage data and generate a new database
Errors 1018 and 1019 ->Error 1018: JET_errReadVerifyFailure: Bad checksum/Wrong page number Hardware/Firmware File system corruption How serious are 1018 Errors? During normal operation (somewhat serious) During startup(likely fatal) During backup (may be minor) Error 1019: JET_errPageNotlnitialized ->What causes Error 1019? Special case of error 1018(page is replaced with zeroes) Bad page links ---->Event ID: 23 Source: EDB Type: Error Category: Database Page Cache Description: MSExchangeIS((455))Direct read found corrupted page error -1018((1:251563)(0-2295758),251563 379225672 381322824).Please restore the database from a previous backup
Errors 1022 and 1216 ->Error 1022:JET_errDiskIO: Disk I/O failure File damage or truncation File locked by another process Anti-virus software Error 1216(Q296843)files in the database's running set are missing or have been replaced : When storage group starts system analyses header information If logs are missing: Restore the database from backup Repair the database by using -->ESEUTIL/P followed by ESEUTIL /D and ISINTEG-fix Q296843 -more details
受损数据库的恢复: 恢复的步骤和注意事项: NTBackup Eseutil /cc Eseutil /p XADM: Offline Backup and Restore Procedures for Exchange 2000 Q296788 XADM: How Log Files Are Replayed During Exchange 2000 Restore Q232922
ESEUtil: ESE level maintenance utility: Dumping information -> /m Offline Degragmentation -> /d Integrity Check -> /g Database Repair -> /p Hard Recovery -> /c Soft Recovery -> /r Checksum -> /k
ESEUTIL /m: Dumping Information --> /mh database_filename: Dump EDB header /ml log_filename: Dump log header /mk checkpoint_filename: Dump checkpoint header /ms database_filename: Dump space usage /m database_filename /pnnn: Dump Page number nnn
ESEUTIL /c: Hard Recovery --> ESEUTIL /cc : Start hard recovery ESEUTIL /cc/t: Start hard recovery and only play logs in temp folder ESEUTIL /cm restore.env: Dump restore .env file
服务器重建: 使用/disasterrecovery模式进行安装 http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;257415 避免把Exchange和DC安装在同一台服务器上
MUST READ -> Disaster Recovery for Microsoft Exchange 2000 Server.pdf Exchange 2000 Disaster