一 应用场景描述

 Zabbix在2016年2月份发布了Zabbix 3.0.0,又是一个LTS长期支持版本。Zabbix官方在4月份发布了Zabbix 3.0.2.线上使用的Zabbix版本是2.4,看了Zabbix官方关于3.0版本的描述决定升级线上版本到3.0.2.Zabbix3.0在以下几个方面作了改进:

重新设计了Zabbix的前端展示页面,如下

 Dashboard is a main screen of Zabbix


 提供Zabbix server,proxy和agent之间的加密和认证功能,基于PSK加密算法。如果对安全性要求高的用户就不再需要第三方工具或者***来实现加密了

 

 增加趋势预估功能  

 可以在特定时间执行一些监控项目

 可以定义报警类别之间的依赖关系

 强制执行housekeeper

 性能得到改进

  减小了poller配置缓存,优化了history缓存和history同步

  通过引入in-memory缓存机制明显改善了action处理过程的性能

  使用哈希机制改善trigger处理性能

  限制数据库请求来提供nodata()函数的计算过程

  之前的版本中,zabbix proxy连接到server端时,proxy相关的信息是直接从数据库获取的,在3.0版本,proxy相关的信息从server端配置的缓存中获取。另一方面,proxy配置更改不会立即生效,它必须等到server端缓存同步到数据库。

 Value缓存得到改善


 其他详细的信息可以参见官方文档



二 升级步骤

Zabbix agent不强制升级到3.0.2,但是官方建议升级。Zabbix server和proxy必须升级到同一个版本。

为了在升级过程中尽量减少宕机时间和数据丢失,建议先停掉并升级Zabbix server,然后再一个接一个地停掉并升级proxy。当所有的proxy升级过后,再启动zabbix server。


Zabbix3.0以后需要PHP5.4以后,PHP5.7暂时不支持

其他相关的依赖软件查看官方文档

rpm -Uvh http://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/epel-release-latest-6.noarch.rpm

rpm -Uvh http://mirror.webtatic.com/yum/el6/latest.rpm

yum  -y install php54w  php54w-gd php54w-bcmath php54w-ctype php54w-libxml php54w-mbstring php54w-gettext php54w-ldap php54w-mysqli 



PHP在配置的时候有几个参数需要改

post_max_size = 128M     最小值是16M

max_execution_time = 600   最小值是300秒

max_input_time = 600     最小值是300秒

date.timezone = Asia/Shanghai   需要设置时区





数据库容量规划

Zabbix数据库大小主要取决于以下几个变量,这几个变量定义了存储的历史数据的总量

 NVPS Number of processed values per second 

 这个值是每秒Zabbix server接收的新值的平均数。例如,如果每隔60秒有3000个监控项目需要监控,那么NVPS就是3000/60=50.意味着每秒有50个新值添加到zabbix数据库


 Housekeeper settings for history

 Zabbix会保留监控数据一段时间,通常是几周或者几个月。每个新的监控数据都需要一些磁盘空间来存储数据和索引。所以,如果我们保留30天的历史数据并且每秒中接收50个新值,监控数值总量就是

 (30*24*3600)*50 = 129600000或者大约130M

 依据使用的数据库引擎,接收值得类型(floats,integers,strings,log files等等),单个值占用的磁盘空间可能是40字节到几百字节。通常一个字符类型监控项目大约是90字节。130M个监控值需要130M*90字节=10.9GB字节磁盘空间

 text和log监控项目的值无法准确预测,可以假定为每个监控值大小为500字节




 Housekeeper settings for trends

 Zabbix在trends表中为每个监控项目保留一个小时的 max/min/avg/count监控值。这些数据用于趋势统计和长期的图表分析。一个小时的间隔时间没法自定义更改。

 每个趋势数据大约为90字节。假设要保留5年的趋势数据,那么3000个监控项目每年需要24*365*3000*90=2.2GB,5年就是11GB。

 


 Housekeeper settings for events

 每个Zabbix event需要大约170字节磁盘空间。很难估计zabbix每天产生的events数量。最坏的情况下,假定zabbix每秒产生一个event

 如果要保留3年的events,就需要3*365*24*3600*170=15GB


ParameterFormula for required disk space (in bytes)
Zabbix configurationFixed size. Normally 10MB or less.
Historydays*(items/refresh rate)*24*3600*bytes
items : number of items
days : number of days to keep history
refresh rate : average refresh rate of items
bytes : number of bytes required to keep single value, depends on database engine, normally ~90 bytes.
Trendsdays*(items/3600)*24*3600*bytes
items : number of items
days : number of days to keep history
bytes : number of bytes required to keep single trend, depends on database engine, normally ~90 bytes.
Eventsdays*events*24*3600*bytes
events : number of event per second. One (1) event per second in worst case scenario.
days : number of days to keep history
bytes : number of bytes required to keep single trend, depends on database engine, normally ~170 bytes.


总共的磁盘空间大小就是:

Configuration + History + Trends + Events



1.停掉Zabbix server

停掉zabbix server不让新的数据插入到数据库

service zabbix-server  stop


2.备份zabbix数据库

mysqldump -uroot -p zabbix > zabbix_backup20160508.sql


3.备份配置文件,PHP文件和zabbix 二进制文件

4.安装新的zabbix server

5.检查zabbix server的配置文件

主要注意几个参数

CacheSize=200M        配置信息的缓存大小,用于存储host,item和trigger数据的共享内存大小。取值范围是128k~8G,默认是8M

CacheUpdateFrequency=60            zabbix执行配置缓存更新的时间间隔,默认是60秒

DebugLevel=3          指定日志级别,默认是3打印警告信息,4是调试信息,5是更加详细的调试信息       

HistoryCacheSize=50M    用于存储历史数据的共享存储大小,默认是16M,可以取值范围是128K~2G

HistoryIndexCacheSize=8M  用于索引历史数据缓存中的历史数据的共享存储大小,缓存一个监控项目大约需要100字节。这个参数从3.0.0开始支持


HousekeepingFrequency=1  设置zabbix执行housekeeping的频率,默认是1小时。housekeeping操作时删除数据库中过期的数据。可以设置HousekeepingFrequency为0关闭自动housekeeping,然后手动执行housekeeper_execute来清理过期数据


MaxHousekeeperDelete=5000 在一个housekeeping任务中删除的过期数据数量不超过这个值


TrendCacheSize=20M       存储trend数据的共享内存大小

ValueCacheSize=10M       缓存监控数据的历史数据的共享内存大小。



6.启动新的zabbix server并注意查看日志



zabbix server会自动升级数据库

23164:20160508:105436.724 using configuration file: /opt/app/zabbix/conf/zabbix_server.conf
 23164:20160508:105436.734 current database version (mandatory/optional): 02040000/02040000
 23164:20160508:105436.734 required mandatory version: 03000000
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 23164:20160508:105440.052 database upgrade fully completed


启动成功后就可以关闭zabbix server了等所有的proxy更新完成再启动,尽量减少数据丢失




7.安装zabbix web


8.停掉proxy

service zabbix-proxy stop

9.备份proxy的配置文件和zabbix proxy二进制文件

10.安装新版本proxy

所有的proxy升级完成以后就可以启动zabbix server了,升级过程中注意查看日志。


zabbix agent不必强制升级,推荐升级到新版本。



三 安装Graphtree插件

Graphtree是由OneOaas开源的zabbix插件,可以根据zabbix分组分主机分应用显示。这点比zatree做得好,同时Grahtree在性能方面比zatree有很大的提升,查看图表快很多,果断抛弃zatree使用Graphtree插件。Zatree在界面显示上很鸡肋,与本身的Zabbix界面没法结合,Graphtree在界面方面就做得很好,和Zabbix自身的界面结合得好。

640?wx_fmt=png&tp=webp&wxfrom=5&wx_lazy=




cd zabbix-3.0.2/frontends/php

wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/OneOaaS/graphtrees/master/graphtree3-0-1.patch

patch -Np0 < graphtree3-0-1.patch 

rsync -avz * /opt/webapps/zabbix/

rsync -avz zabbix.conf.php /opt/webapps/zabbix/conf/

然后重新加载下Nginx或者Apache,登录页面看看。






参考文档:

http://www.zabbix.com/rn3.0.0.php

https://www.zabbix.com/documentation/3.0/manual/installation/upgrade_notes_300

https://www.zabbix.com/documentation/3.0/manual/installation/requirements

http://www.wtoutiao.com/p/13dDrBO.html