一、在linux服务器中,我们通常是通过ssh进行远程操作,偶尔需要有桌面支持或图形化安装相关软件时,则需要远程到服务器桌面或将输出图形调到客户端。

linux下的远程工具通常用到的有xmanager、vnc。以下将简单介绍vnc的应用。

step1:安装vnc并启动vnc

[root@hongwb ~]# rpm -qa |grep vnc  #需安装以下两个包
vnc-4.1.2-14.el5_6.6
vnc-server-4.1.2-14.el5_6.6

[root@hongwb ~]# service vncserver start  #启动vnc服务

Starting VNC server: no displays configured [  OK  ]

 

step2:修改 /etc/sysconfig/vncservers 配置文件,添加tghfly和test用户,设置会话窗口,并使用gnome桌面

[root@hongwb ~]# grep -v "#" /etc/sysconfig/vncservers

VNCSERVERS="1:tghfly 2:test"     #1表示登录会话窗口,tghfly表示登录用户

VNCSERVERARGS[1]="-geometry 1280x768"   #远程桌面窗口大小为1280x768

VNCSERVERARGS[2]="-geometry 1280x768"

 

step3:创建系统用户tghfly和test,并设置密码

[root@hongwb ~]# useradd tghfly

[root@hongwb ~]# passwd tghfly

Changing password for user tghfly.

New UNIX password:

BAD PASSWORD: it is based on a dictionary word

Retype new UNIX password:

passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.

[root@hongwb ~]# useradd test

[root@hongwb ~]# passwd test

Changing password for user test.

New UNIX password:

BAD PASSWORD: it is too short

Retype new UNIX password:

passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.

 

step4:切换到tghfly和test,设置远程登录密码,生成远程认证文件

[root@hongwb ~]# su - tghfly

[tghfly@hongwb ~]$ vncserver #使用vncserver设置当前用户远程登录密码

You will require a password to access your desktops.

Password:

Verify:

xauth:  creating new authority file /home/tghfly/.Xauthority

New 'hongwb.com.cn:1 (tghfly)' desktop is hongwb.com.cn:1

Creating default startup script /home/tghfly/.vnc/xstartup

Starting applications specified in /home/tghfly/.vnc/xstartup

Log file is /home/tghfly/.vnc/hongwb.com.cn:1.log

 

step5:修改当前用户下的.vnc目录下的xstartup文件

[tghfly@hongwb ~]$ vi .vnc/xstartup 

#!/bin/sh

# Uncomment the following two lines for normal desktop:

# unset SESSION_MANAGER

# exec /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc

[ -x /etc/vnc/xstartup ] && exec /etc/vnc/xstartup

[ -r $HOME/.Xresources ] && xrdb $HOME/.Xresources

xsetroot -solid grey

vncconfig -iconic &

#xterm -geometry 80x24+10+10 -ls -title "$VNCDESKTOP Desktop" &     #注释行

#twm & #注释行

gnome-session & #新增行,调用gnome桌面

同理切换到test用户,按tghfly用户一样设置

[tghfly@hongwb ~]$ su - test

Password:

[test@hongwb ~]$ vncserver  #生成认证文件

You will require a password to access your desktops.

Password:

Verify:

xauth:  creating new authority file /home/test/.Xauthority

New 'hongwb.com.cn:2 (test)' desktop is hongwb.com.cn:2

Creating default startup script /home/test/.vnc/xstartup

Starting applications specified in /home/test/.vnc/xstartup

Log file is /home/test/.vnc/hongwb.com.cn:2.log

[test@hongwb ~]$ vi .vnc/xstartup

#!/bin/sh

# Uncomment the following two lines for normal desktop:

# unset SESSION_MANAGER

# exec /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc

[ -x /etc/vnc/xstartup ] && exec /etc/vnc/xstartup

[ -r $HOME/.Xresources ] && xrdb $HOME/.Xresources

xsetroot -solid grey

vncconfig -iconic &

#xterm -geometry 80x24+10+10 -ls -title "$VNCDESKTOP Desktop" &

#twm &

gnome-session &

 

step6:到root用户下,重新启动vnc服务

[root@hongwb ~]# service vncserver restart

Shutting down VNC server: 1:tghfly 2:test [  OK  ]

Starting VNC server: 1:tghfly

New 'hongwb.com.cn:1 (tghfly)' desktop is hongwb.com.cn:1

Starting applications specified in /home/tghfly/.vnc/xstartup

Log file is /home/tghfly/.vnc/hongwb.com.cn:1.log

2:test

New 'hongwb.com.cn:2 (test)' desktop is hongwb.com.cn:2

Starting applications specified in /home/test/.vnc/xstartup

Log file is /home/test/.vnc/hongwb.com.cn:2.log

[  OK  ]

 

step7:使用浏览器或者vncview工具远程登录

wps_clip_image-17319

输入tghfly的远程登录密码tghfly

wps_clip_image-10230

 

step8:当vnc客户端窗口非正常关闭后,就不允许再登录,需要杀死vnc进程

[tghfly@hongwb ~]$ vncserver -kill :1   #:1表示当前用户远程登录会话窗口

Killing Xvnc process ID 589

备注:kill当前用户会话窗口后,要再次远程,需要重启当前用户会话窗口

只要在当用户下输入vncserver,就会重新启动了

[tghfly@hongwb ~]$ vncserver

New 'hongwb.com.cn:1 (tghfly)' desktop is hongwb.com.cn:1

Starting applications specified in /home/tghfly/.vnc/xstartup

Log file is /home/tghfly/.vnc/hongwb.com.cn:1.log

---------------------------------------

在完成上述vnc服务配置后,当客户端连接到vnc服务器后,若要使用服务器上的输入法输入文字时,会发现输入法无法切换,只能用英文,可通过以下步骤解决。

step1:安装scim,并安装中文输入法

[root@tgh ~]# yum -y install scim-*

 

step2:添加中文字体,Centos默认没有zysong.ttf字体,需要另外下载,并保存到以下目录

[root@rac1 ~]#mkdir -p /usr/share/fonts/zh_CN/TrueType/   #创建相关目录

[root@rac1 ~]# mv zysong.ttf /usr/share/fonts/zh_CN/TrueType/zysong.ttf  #将zysong.ttf放到/usr/share/fonts/zh_CN/TrueType/

 

Step3:在vnc用户配置文件中设置自启动scim,并添加相关输入法环境变量

[tgh@tgh ~]$ cat .vnc/xstartup

#!/bin/sh

# Uncomment the following two lines for normal desktop:

# unset SESSION_MANAGER

# exec /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc

unset LC_CTYPE LC_NUMERIC LC_TIME LC_COLLATE LC_MONETARY LC_MESSAGES

unset LC_PAPER LC_NAME LC_ADDRESS LC_TELEPHONE LC_MEASUREMENT

unset LC_IDENTIFICATION LC_ALL LANG LANGUAGE PAGER

LANG=zh_CN.UTF-8

export LC_CTYPE LC_NUMERIC LC_TIME LC_COLLATE LC_MONETARY LC_MESSAGES

export LC_PAPER LC_NAME LC_ADDRESS LC_TELEPHONE LC_MEASUREMENT

export LC_IDENTIFICATION LC_ALL LANG LANGUAGE PAGER

export G_FILENAME_ENCODING=@locale

XMODIFIERS="@im=SCIM"

GTK_IM_MODULE="scim"

export XMODIFIERS GTK_IM_MODULE

if type scim &> /dev/null ; then

scim -d &

fi

[ -x /etc/vnc/xstartup ] && exec /etc/vnc/xstartup

[ -r $HOME/.Xresources ] && xrdb $HOME/.Xresources

xsetroot -solid grey

vncconfig -iconic &

#xterm -geometry 80x24+10+10 -ls -title "$VNCDESKTOP Desktop" &

#twm &

gnome-session &

按以上设置后,在客户端用vnc登录,将允许用户切换输入法!