Python内置函数：

https://docs.python.org/2.7/

返回数字的绝对值.

def fun(x):

if x < 0:

return -x

return x

print fun(10)

abs()

>>> abs(-100)

100

max()

>>> max('1235',123)

'1235'

min()

>>> min('asdfq3w45')

'3'

len()

>>> len('abcdf')

5

>>> len([1,3,4,5])

4

>>> len((1,3,4,5))

4

>>> len({1:3,2:5})

2

divmod()

>>> help(divmod)

Help on built-in function divmod in module __builtin__:

divmod(...)

divmod(x, y) -> (quotient, remainder)

Return the tuple (x//y, x%y).  Invariant: div*y + mod == x.

>>> divmod(5,2)

(2, 1)

pow()

pow(...)

pow(x, y[, z]) -> number

With two arguments, equivalent to x**y.  With three arguments,

equivalent to (x**y) % z, but may be more efficient (e.g. for longs).

>>> pow(2,3)

8

>>> pow(2,3,3)

2

round()

round(...)

round(number[, ndigits]) -> floating point number

Round a number to a given precision in decimal digits (default 0 digits).

This always returns a floating point number.  Precision may be negative.

>>> round(12.2)

12.0

>>> round(12.23)

12.0

>>> round(12.233,2)

12.23

callable()

>>> a = 123

>>> callable(a)

False

>>> def a():

...     pass

...

>>> callable(a)

True

>>> class A(object):

...     pass

...

>>> callable(A)

True

type()

判断类型

>>> type(a)

<type 'function'>

isinstance()

判断类型,

>>> l =[1,2,3]

>>> isinstance(l,list)

True

>>> isinstance(l,str)

False

>>> isinstance(l,(list,str))

True

判断是不是一个类

>>> A

<class 'A'>

>>> a = A()

>>> a

<A object at 0x0379BE70>

>>> isinstance(a,A)

True

cmp()

>>> cmp(1,2)

-1

>>> cmp(1,0)

1

>>> cmp(1,1)

0

>>> cmp('a','ab')

-1

>>> cmp('a','a')

0

>>> cmp('helloa','hello')

1

range()

>>> a = range(10)

>>> a

xrange()

效率更高，不用时候不在内存中产生值

[0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]

>>> b = xrange(10)

>>> b

xrange(10)

>>> for i in b:print i

...

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

int()

>>> int(123.33)

123

long()

>>> long(200)

200L

float()

>>> float('123')

123.0

>>> float('123.0022')

123.0022

>>> float(123.0034)

123.0034

>>> float(123)

123.0

complex()

转换成复数

>>> complex(123)

(123+0j)

>>> complex(3.1415926)

(3.1415926+0j)

str()

>>> str('123')

'123'

list()

>>> list('123')

['1', '2', '3']

tuple()

>>> tuple('123')

('1', '2', '3')

hex()

变为16进制

>>> hex(10)

'0xa'

>>> hex(10L)

'0xaL'

>>> int(0xaL)

10

eval（）

把字符串当成有效表达式求值。

>>> eval('0xaL')

10L

>>> eval("[1,23,'a']")

[1, 23, 'a']

oct()

10进制转成8进制

>>> oct(10)

'012'

>>> oct(8)

'010'

chr()

>>> chr(97)

'a'

>>> chr(65)

'A'

ord()

>>> ord('A')

65

str.capitalize()

首字母变大写：

capitalize(...)

S.capitalize() -> string

Return a copy of the string S with only its first character

capitalized.

>>> s

'hello'

>>> s.capitalize()

'Hello'

str.replace()

replace(...)

S.replace(old, new[, count]) -> string

Return a copy of string S with all occurrences of substring

old replaced by new.  If the optional argument count is

given, only the first count occurrences are replaced.

>>> s = 'hello,h'

>>> s.replace('h','H')

'Hello,H'

split()

split(...)

S.split([sep [,maxsplit]]) -> list of strings

Return a list of the words in the string S, using sep as the

delimiter string.  If maxsplit is given, at most maxsplit

splits are done. If sep is not specified or is None, any

whitespace string is a separator and empty strings are removed

from the result.

>>> s = 'hello a\tb\nc'

>>> s

'hello a\tb\nc'

>>> s.split()

['hello', 'a', 'b', 'c']

>> s

'hello a\tb\nc'

>>> s.split(' ')

['hello', 'a\tb\nc']

>>> s.split('\t')

['hello a', 'b\nc']

>>> ip = '192.168.1.1'

>>> ip.split('.')

['192', '168', '1', '1']

>>> ip.split('.',1)

['192', '168.1.1']

>>> ip.split('.',2)

['192', '168', '1.1']

join()

>>> range(10)

[0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]

>>> ''.join(str(i) for i in range(10))

'0123456789'

>>> int(''.join(str(i) for i in range(10)))

123456789

string:

import string

string.lower

>>> string.lower('Kfdfa')

'kfdfa'

string.upper

>>> string.upper('Kfdfa')

'KFDFA'

string.capitalize()

string.replace()

>>> string.replace('afkgha','a','A')

'AfkghA'

len()

max()

min()

filter()

filter(...)

filter(function or None, sequence) -> list, tuple, or string

Return those items of sequence for which function(item) is true.  If

function is None, return the items that are true.  If sequence is a tuple

or string, return the same type, else return a list.

>>> filter(None,range(10))

[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]

>>> def f(x):

...     if x % 2 == 0:

...         return True

...

>>> filter(f,range(10))

[0, 2, 4, 6, 8]

>>> filter(lambda x: x%2==0,range(10))

[0, 2, 4, 6, 8]

zip()

zip(...)

zip(seq1 [, seq2 [...]]) -> [(seq1[0], seq2[0] ...), (...)]

Return a list of tuples, where each tuple contains the i-th element

from each of the argument sequences.  The returned list is truncated

in length to the length of the shortest argument sequence.

>>> a1 = [1,3,4]

>>> a2 = ['a','b','c']

>>> zip(a1,a2)

[(1, 'a'), (3, 'b'), (4, 'c')]

>>> dict(zip(a1,a2))

{1: 'a', 3: 'b', 4: 'c'}

>>> dict(zip(a2,a1))

{'a': 1, 'c': 4, 'b': 3}

>>> a3 = ['x','y','z']

>>> zip(a1,a2,a3)

[(1, 'a', 'x'), (3, 'b', 'y'), (4, 'c', 'z')]

>>> zip(a1,a3)

[(1, 'x'), (3, 'y'), (4, 'z')]

>>> a3 = ['x','y']

>>> zip(a1,a3)

[(1, 'x'), (3, 'y')]

>>> zip(a1,a2,a3)

[(1, 'a', 'x'), (3, 'b', 'y')]

map()

map(...)

map(function, sequence[, sequence, ...]) -> list

Return a list of the results of applying the function to the items of

the argument sequence(s).  If more than one sequence is given, the

function is called with an argument list consisting of the corresponding

item of each sequence, substituting None for missing values when not all

sequences have the same length.  If the function is None, return a list of

the items of the sequence (or a list of tuples if more than one sequence).

参数有几个，函数里的参数也应该对应有几个

>>> map(None,a1,a2,a3)

[(1, 'a', 'x'), (3, 'b', 'y'), (4, 'c', None)]

>>> def f(x):

...     return x**2

...

>>> map(f,a1)

[1, 9, 16]

>>> a1

[1, 3, 4]

>>> a1

[1, 3, 4]

>>> a2

[2, 5, 6]

>>> def f(x,y):

...     return x*y

...

>>> map(f,a1,a2)

[2, 15, 24]

>>> map(lambda x,y: x*y ,range(1,10),range(1,10))

[1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81]

reduce()

reduce(...)

reduce(function, sequence[, initial]) -> value

Apply a function of two arguments cumulatively to the items of a sequence,

from left to right, so as to reduce the sequence to a single value.

For example, reduce(lambda x, y: x+y, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]) calculates

((((1+2)+3)+4)+5).  If initial is present, it is placed before the items

of the sequence in the calculation, and serves as a default when the

sequence is empty.

>>> def f(x,y):

...     return x + y

...

>>> reduce(f,range(1,101))

5050

[i*2 for i in range(10)]

>>> [i*2 for i in range(10)]

[0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18]

>>> [i*2+10 for i in range(10)]

[10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28]

[i*2+10 for i in range(10) if i%3 == 0]

>>> [i*2+10 for i in range(10) if i%3 == 0]

[10, 16, 22, 28]