软件安装成服务过程详解:

service httpd restart
由三部分组成service(服务)、httpd(程序名)、restart(相关命令)少一不可
service: 是系统已经定义可的。无需更改。默认会查找/etc/init.d/* 
httpd: 程序名这个是已经确定的。
restart: 相关命令,如start 这个是控制程序走向。
 
那么非常明确的一个服务需要的流程:
1、程序是可执行程序
2、位置需放在/etc/init.d/目录下
3、相关命令,这个由程序本身决定(有没有指定)。
3.1 如果是已经有相关命令的,那么文件直接拷贝到/etc/init.d目录下,并给矛可执行权限。
3.2 如果是没有定义,那我们需要写一个脚本。并定义好相关命令。
 
一、看一个sshd实例,来帮助我们了解整体过程。
# vim /etc/init.d/sshd
----------sshd start------------------
#!/bin/bash
#
# Init file for OpenSSH server daemon
#
# chkconfig: 2345 55 25
# description: OpenSSH server daemon
#
# processname: sshd
# config: /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key
# config: /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.pub
# config: /etc/ssh/ssh_random_seed
# config: /etc/ssh/sshd_config
# pidfile: /var/run/sshd.pid
 
# source function library
. /etc/rc.d/init.d/functions
 
# pull in sysconfig settings
[ -f /etc/sysconfig/sshd ] && . /etc/sysconfig/sshd
 
RETVAL=0
prog="sshd"
 
# Some functions to make the below more readable
KEYGEN=/usr/bin/ssh-keygen
SSHD=/usr/sbin/sshd
RSA1_KEY=/etc/ssh/ssh_host_key
RSA_KEY=/etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key
DSA_KEY=/etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key
PID_FILE=/var/run/sshd.pid
 
runlevel=$(set -- $(runlevel); eval "echo \$$#" )
 
do_rsa1_keygen() {
if [ ! -s $RSA1_KEY ]; then
echo -n $"Generating SSH1 RSA host key: "
if $KEYGEN -q -t rsa1 -f $RSA1_KEY -C '' -N '' >&/dev/null; then
chmod 600 $RSA1_KEY
chmod 644 $RSA1_KEY.pub
if [ -x /sbin/restorecon ]; then
   /sbin/restorecon $RSA1_KEY.pub
fi
success $"RSA1 key generation"
echo
else
failure $"RSA1 key generation"
echo
exit 1
fi
fi
}
 
do_rsa_keygen() {
if [ ! -s $RSA_KEY ]; then
echo -n $"Generating SSH2 RSA host key: "
if $KEYGEN -q -t rsa -f $RSA_KEY -C '' -N '' >&/dev/null; then
chmod 600 $RSA_KEY
chmod 644 $RSA_KEY.pub
if [ -x /sbin/restorecon ]; then
   /sbin/restorecon $RSA_KEY.pub
fi
success $"RSA key generation"
echo
else
failure $"RSA key generation"
echo
exit 1
fi
fi
}
 
do_dsa_keygen() {
if [ ! -s $DSA_KEY ]; then
echo -n $"Generating SSH2 DSA host key: "
if $KEYGEN -q -t dsa -f $DSA_KEY -C '' -N '' >&/dev/null; then
chmod 600 $DSA_KEY
chmod 644 $DSA_KEY.pub
if [ -x /sbin/restorecon ]; then
   /sbin/restorecon $DSA_KEY.pub
fi
success $"DSA key generation"
echo
else
failure $"DSA key generation"
echo
exit 1
fi
fi
}
 
do_restart_sanity_check()
{
$SSHD -t
RETVAL=$?
if [ ! "$RETVAL" = 0 ]; then
failure $"Configuration file or keys are invalid"
echo
fi
}
 
start()
{
# Create keys if necessary
do_rsa1_keygen
do_rsa_keygen
do_dsa_keygen
cp -af /etc/localtime /var/empty/sshd/etc
 
echo -n $"Starting $prog: "
$SSHD $OPTIONS && success || failure
RETVAL=$?
[ "$RETVAL" = 0 ] && touch /var/lock/subsys/sshd
echo
}
 
stop()
{
echo -n $"Stopping $prog: "
if [ -n "`pidfileofproc $SSHD`" ] ; then
   killproc $SSHD
else
   failure $"Stopping $prog"
fi
RETVAL=$?
# if we are in halt or reboot runlevel kill all running sessions
# so the TCP connections are closed cleanly
if [ "x$runlevel" = x0 -o "x$runlevel" = x6 ] ; then
   killall $prog 2>/dev/null
fi
[ "$RETVAL" = 0 ] && rm -f /var/lock/subsys/sshd
echo
}
 
reload()
{
echo -n $"Reloading $prog: "
if [ -n "`pidfileofproc $SSHD`" ] ; then
   killproc $SSHD -HUP
else
   failure $"Reloading $prog"
fi
RETVAL=$?
echo
}
 
case "$1" in
start)
start
;;
stop)
stop
;;
restart)
stop
start
;;
reload)
reload
;;
condrestart)
if [ -f /var/lock/subsys/sshd ] ; then
do_restart_sanity_check
if [ "$RETVAL" = 0 ] ; then
stop
# avoid race
sleep 3
start
fi
fi
;;
status)
status -p $PID_FILE openssh-daemon
RETVAL=$?
;;
*)
echo $"Usage: $0 {start|stop|restart|reload|condrestart|status}"
RETVAL=1
esac
exit $RETVAL
--------------sshd stop---------------------------
煮酒品茶:可以看出来,一些判断语句和一些执行路径。以即最下方的获取相关命令并给予相关执行命令。瞧,一个服务的添加就这么简单。测试吧
过程如下:
 
[root@localhost test]# service test restart
test: unrecognized service
[root@localhost test]# cp test /etc/init.d/
[root@localhost test]# ll /etc/init.d/ |grep test
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root    19 Apr 23 11:37 test
[root@localhost test]# service test restart
hello world
 
#vim /etc/init.d/test
-------------------test start---------------
 
case "$1" in
start)
echo -n "Starting test: "
 ~/test/test
echo -n "start is OK"
  ;;
stop)
echo -n "Shutting stop test: "
killall test
echo -n "stop is OK"
  ;;
esac
exit
-------------stop-------------------
[root@localhost test]# service test start
Starting test: hello world
start is OK[root@localhost test]# service test stop
Shutting stop test: test: no process killed
 
煮酒品茶:很简单的的可以理解,先是放到service能找的着的地方,然后再给它判断命令如果是start就写文件正在启动test中,启动完后给一个启动ok的。同理结束直接kill掉他的进程就好了。其它的自由发挥比如:reload、restart等。