1) Dictionaries have a method called get that takes a key and a default value.


  LookupError is a built-in exception used to indicate that a lookup operation failed.

  raise LookupError('value does not appear in the dictionary')

  A dictionary is implemented using a hashtable and that means that the keys have to be     hashable. A hash is a function that takes a value (of any kind) and returns an integer.   Dictionaries use these integers, called hash values, to store and look up key-value     pairs.